ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EARTH AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES - Table of Contents

TROPICAL METEROLOGY

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

“LET THERE BE LIGHT”: THE EMERGENCE OF STRUCTURE OUT OF THE DARK AGES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

Introduction

Galaxy Formation

Probing the Diffuse Intergalactic Hydrogen

Conclusions

THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH: ROCKS AND MINERALS

Minerals

Rocks

USING THE EARTH TO MEASURE TIME

Strata and Time

The Signs of Age

The Refinement of Geological Time

The Challenge to Evolution

Physics to the Rescue

Epilogue

EARTH AS A PLANET

Earth

The Moon

Earth from Space

THE EVOLUTION OF LANDSCAPE

Landscape Changes in the Fluvial Cycle

Landscape Changes in the Glacial Cycle

Periglacial and Aeolian Processes

Landscape, Energy, Climate, and Other Planets

THE HAZARDOUS EARTH

The Scale of the Threat from Geological Hazards

Geological Hazards

The Future

GEODYNAMICS: RECENT ADVANCES IN QUANTITATIVE MODELING OF COMPRESSIONAL OROGENS

'S-point' dynamics

Effect of crustal rheology

Effect of erosion

Different types of mantle shortening

Comparison with the indenter mode of continental collision

Variations around the S-point

Geological predictions

Application to various orogens

PLATE TECTONICS

The Earths Composition

Age and magnetization of the Earths crust

Plates

Geometric Constraints

Plate Boundaries

Hot Spots

RHEOLOGY OF ROCKS IN NATURAL TECTONIC PROCESSES

Natural Deformation of Rocks

The Mechanical Problem

Constitutive Laws for Rocks

Predicting rock strength under natural conditions: Problems and future directions

GEOCHRONOLOGY

The age equations

Isotope ratios and isochrons

Dating metamorphic rocks

Summary of dating methods

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

Stress and Strain

Geometry

Kinematics

Dynamics

Tectonic Modeling

Outlook

NEOTECTONICS

Neotectonics as an integral part of geosciences

Remote sensing methods

Structural field studies

Geophysical investigations

Morphotectonics and Tectonic Geomorphology

Paleoseismology

Archeoseismology

Geodesy

Numerical modeling

Neotectonic movements and climate patterns

OCCURRENCE, TEXTURE, AND CLASSIFICATION OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

Mode of Occurrence of Igneous Rocks

Texture of Igneous Rocks

Classification and Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks

THE MANTLE AND ITS PRODUCTS

The Layered Earth

Mineralogy and Chemical Composition of the Mantle

Volatiles in the Mantle

Melting in the Mantle

Primary Melts from the Mantle

Mantle Components

Mantle Metasomatism

Noble Gases in the Mantle

Pollution of the Mantle

PROCESSES OF MAGMA EVOLUTION AND MAGMATIC SUITES

Melting in Earths Mantle

Magma Chambers

Magma Differentiation Trends

Development of Thought and Future Avenues

ROLE OF FLUIDS IN IGNEOUS PETROGENESIS

Magmatic Fluids

Remnants of Magmatic Fluids in Igneous Rocks: Melt and Fluid Inclusions in Minerals

Origin of Magmatic Fluids: Earth Degassing and Recycling

Modeling Magmatic Fluids

Influence of Magmatic Fluids on Geological Phenomena

ORIGIN, TEXTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS

Occurrence

Classification

Minerals of Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphic Facies

Tectonic Setting of Metamorphic Facies

Textures

Kinetics

PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, FLUID PRESSURE CONDITIONS OF METAMORPHISM

General Features of Metamorphism

Temperature

Pressure

Variations of Metamorphic Mineral Assemblages in Dependence of Pressure and Temperature

Role of the Fluid Phase During Metamorphism

Trends in Metamorphic Petrology

ULTRAMETAMORPHISM AND CRUSTAL ANATEXIS

Ultrametamorphic Facies: a Brief Summary

Anatexis and Migmatites: Where and When?

Geometry of Partial Melting: Mobility and Fate of Crustal Liquids

Geodynamic Settings: Anatexis Under Compressional and Extensional Regimes

BEHAVIOR OF TRACE ELEMENTS DURING MAGMA GENESIS AND EVOLUTION

Geochemical Modeling using Trace Elements

Trace Elements as Discriminants of Tectonic Settings of Igneous Rocks

Future Perspectives of Trace-Element Studies: In-Situ Microanalysis

APPLICATIONS OF ISOTOPES TO IGNEOUS PETROGENESIS

Radiogenic Isotope Systems

Cosmogenic Nuclides

Stable Isotopes

Applications of Isotopes to Igneous Petrogenesis

Recent Advances and Future Applications of Isotopes to Igneous Petrogenesis

MANTLE DYNAMICS AND PLATE KINEMATICS

Techniques to Sample the Interior of the Earth

Seismic Tomography

Changes in Earth’s Gravity Field and their Implications for Mantle Dynamics

Dynamic Structure of the Mantle and Ice Loss in Antarctica and Greenland

How the Rheology of the Mantle Impacts the Style of Subduction

Plate Kinematics

The Hot Spot Reference Frame and the Westward Drift of the Lithosphere

Plate Boundaries

Plate Kinematics versus Mantle Dynamics

SEDIMENTATION AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Historical Perspective

Classification of Sedimentary Rocks

Environmental Significance of Sedimentary Rocks

STRATIGRAPHY AND RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY

Introduction: Stratigraphy, Sedimentation, and Geologic Time

The Stratigraphic Record and its Significance

Principles of Stratigraphy, Relative Geochronology, and Sedimentary Dynamics

Event and Cyclostratigraphy and Relative Geochronology

GLOBAL SEDIMENTARY GEOLOGY

The Record of Changing Environments

Continental Deposits

Coasts, Barriers, and Shallow Seas

Slopes and Deep Oceans

Economic and Environmental Importance

EVOLUTIONARY PALEONTOLOGY

What is Evolutionary Paleontology?

Historical Perspective

Main Research Topics of Evolutionary Paleontology

Outlook

THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF MINERALS

Symmetry Elements

Periodicity

Crystal Systems and Point groups

Translation Lattices

Translation Groups ( line-, plane- and space groups)

Defects, Quasi-periodic and Aperiodic Structures

Crystal Chemistry

The Crystal Structures

MODERN XRD METHODS IN MINERALOGY

The Diffraction of X-rays

The Generation of the Primary Beam

Single Crystal Methods

Powder Diffraction

The Position of a Bragg Reflection

The Intensity of a Bragg Reflection

The Profile of a Bragg Reflection

Crystal Structure Solution

Crystal Structure Refinement

Powder Diffraction in Non-ambient Conditions

Texture, Stress, and Microdiffraction

ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MINERALS

Bulk (Non-Position-Sensitive) Methods

Beam (Position-Sensitive) Methods

THERMODYNAMICS OF MINERALS AND MINERAL REACTIONS

Measurement of Thermodynamic Data

Estimated Thermodynamic Data

Compilation of Thermodynamic Data

Self-Consistent Thermodynamic Data Sets

Derivation of Thermodynamic Data from Natural Assemblages

Thermodynamic Calculation of Univariant Phase Equilibria

Application of Thermodynamic Calculation to Mineral Assemblages

EXPERIMENTAL MINERALOGY AND MINERAL PHYSICS

Experimental Mineralogy

Mineral Physics

ORE MINERALOGY

Introduction to Ore Mineralogy

Characteristic Physical Properties of Ore Minerals

Reflected-Light Microscopy

Ore Minerals

Introduction to Mineral Deposits

APPLIED MINERALOGY AND THE INDUSTRIAL USE OF MINERALS

The Industrial Use of Natural Non-Ore Minerals

Mineralogical Materials Science and Processing

CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERAL DEPOSITS

Mineral Deposits

ECONOMIC MINERALS: A REVIEW OF THEIR CHARACTERISTICS AND OCCURRENCE

Native Elements: Class 1

Sulfides and Related Compounds

Oxides

Halogenides

Carbonates

Nitrates

Borates

Sulfates

Phosphates, Arsenates, and Vanadates

Tungstates

Silicates

IRON AND MANGANESE ORE DEPOSITS: MINERALOGY GEOCHEMISTRY, AND ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

Iron Ore Deposits

Manganese Ore Deposits

Outlook on the Twenty-First Century

CHROMITE-PLATINUM-GROUP ELEMENT MAGMATIC DEPOSITS

Chromium and PGE Geochemistry in Magmatic Systems

Types and Geotectonic Setting of ChromitePGE Magmatic Deposits

Mineral Residence of PGE in Chromitites

PGE Abundance in Chromitites

GEOLOGY OF BASE METAL DEPOSITS

Deposit Types and their Modes of Origin

Major Sources of Base Metals

GOLD DEPOSITS

Mineralogy of Gold

Geochemistry of Gold

Fluids in Gold Deposits

Magmatic Systems

Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems

Alluvial or Placer Gold Deposits

Witwatersrand-Type Deposits

TYPES OF NONMETALLIC ORE- MINERAL RESOURCES

What are Industrial Minerals?

The Geological Development of Industrial Minerals

Industrial Minerals in National Economies

Characteristics of Industrial Minerals

Demand for Industrial Minerals

Value of Industrial Minerals

Future Trends in Industrial Minerals

DIAMONDS, KIMBERLITES AND LAMPROITES

Kimberlites and Lamproites

Distribution of Diamond Deposits and World Production

The Origin of Diamond

Factors of Diamond Potential

Exploration and Exploitation

Industrial Diamonds

MINERAL RESOURCES: NATURE'S MOST VERSATILE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM

Uses of Metals and Minerals

The Scale of World Demand

Distribution of Mineral Resources and Reserves

Mining as a Source of Supply

Alternative Sources of Mineral Raw Materials

Replenishment of Resources

Sustainable Mining

GEOLOGY OF EUROPE

Geological and Geophysical Overview

Laurentian Basement

Fennosarmatia and the East European Platform

Late Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic Orogens

Mesozoic-Tertiary Orogens

Post-Variscan Sedimentary Basins

Cenozoic Intraplate Magmatism

Quaternary Glaciation and Periglacial Deposits

Resources

THE GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF AFRICA

The Archean between 3800-2550 MA: Formation of Cratons

Paleoproterozoic Growth of Archean Cratonic Blocks: the Eburnian

Mesoproterozoic Continental Break-up and Growth

Neoproterozoic Continental Break-up and Growth

The Phanerozoic Evolution of Africa

GEOLOGY OF ASIA

First-order Tectonic Units of Asia

Continental Nuclei

North Tarim Craton

Orogenic Systems

Neotectonics of Asia

Quaternary Geology of Asia

Economic Geology

THE GEOLOGY OF AUSTRALIA

Archaean (>2500 Ma)

Proterozoic

Palaeozoic

Mesozoic (251 to 65 Ma)

Cainozoic (<65 Ma)

Mineral Resources

THE GEOLOGY OF NORTH AMERICA

Archean (>2500 Ma)

Proterozoic

Paleozoic (540 to 251 Ma)

Mesozoic (251 to 65 Ma)

Cenozoic (65 Ma to 1.6 Ma)

Quaternary (>1.6 Ma)

Geology of Mexico, Central America, and Cuba

Mineral Resources

THE GEOLOGY OF SOUTH AMERICA

Cratonic Regions

Neoproterozoic Orogenic Systems

Paleozoic Basement and Marginal Belts in Southwestern South America: Patagonia

The Andes

Sedimentary Basins

THE GEOLOGY OF ANTARCTICA

East Antarctic Shield

Pre-Ross geology and the Ross Orogeny in the Trans Antarctic Mountains Region

Palaeozoic to Mesozoic Sedimentation on the East Antarctic Continent: The Beacon Supergroup and its Correlatives

Mesozoic Continental Flood Basalt Magmatism in East Antarctica: the Ferrar Large Igneous Province (FLIP)

West Antarctica Microplates: Configuration and Evolution

Evolution of the Active Margin of West Antarctica: The Antarctic Peninsula

East Antarctic/West Antarctic Connections: The Ross Sea Rift and Uplift of the TAM

Glacial History: the Icing on the Geocake

PETROLEUM (OIL AND GAS) GEOLOGY AND RESOURCES

Importance of Petroleum

Origin of Petroleum

Formation of Petroleum Accumulations

Unconventional Petroleum Accumulations

Worldwide Occurrence of Petroleum

SummaryOptions for the Future

COAL GEOLOGY AND RESOURCES

Introduction to the Coal Geology and the Stages of Coal Development

Accumulation Phase - Review of Coal-forming Environments

Burial and Preservation

Diagenesis - Coalification

Coal characterization

Resources and Reserves

How Coal is Utilized

COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING GEOLOGY

Objectives of Coal Exploration Programs

Background Studies for Coal Exploration

Surface Geological Studies

Drilling Programs

Evaluation of Coal Exploration Data

Geology in Coal Mining

Open-cut Mining

Underground Mining

METHODS OF EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM RESOURCES

Introduction Background of the Petroleum Industry

The Role of Geoscientists

The Exploration and Production (E&P) Process

Exploratory Drilling Phase

Conventional Exploration Phase

Field Development Phase

Production Phase

Unconventional Reservoirs

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND PLANNING

Conservation, Restoration, and Reclamation of Land

Geological Hazards and Planning

Risk Assessment

Hazard Maps

NATURAL HAZARDS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Volcanic Activity

Earthquakes

Landslides and Slope Movements

River Action and Flooding

Marine Action

Wind Action and Arid Regions

Glacial Hazards

Dissolution of Rocks

Gases

SOILS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Origin of soil

Soil horizons

Soil fertility

Pedological soil types

Properties of soil

Engineering soil classification

Soil erosion

Erosion control and conservation practices

Soil surveys

Problem soils

WATER RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT

The Hydrological Cycle

Reservoirs

Dam Sites

Groundwater

Wells

Safe Yield

Artificial Recharge

Conjunctive Use

Water Quality

Irrigation

MINING AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Subsidence

Surface Mining

Dredge Mining

Waste Materials from Mining

Acid Mine Drainage and Suspended Solids

Heap Leaching

Spontaneous Combustion

Gases

Mineral Dusts

WASTE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Domestic Refuse and Sanitary Landfills

Hazardous Wastes

Radioactive Waste

Waste Disposal and Contamination

LAND EVALUATION AND SITE ASSESSMENT

Remote Sensing

Aerial Photographs and Photogeology

Applied Geological Maps

Geographical Information Systems

Terrain Evaluation

Land Capability Studies

Site Investigation

Geophysical Exploration

In Situ Testing

GEOLOGY AND CONSTRUCTION

Open Excavation

Tunnels and Tunneling

Shaft and Raises

Underground Caverns

Highways

Foundations for Buildings

GROUNDWATER: PLANNING AND PROTECTION

The Importance of Groundwater

Basic Concepts in Hydrogeology

Hydrogeological Studies

Hydrogeological Maps

Groundwater Exploitation

Groundwater Contamination

BRANCHES OF GEOPHYSICS

Science, the Earth Sciences, and the Environment

Disciplines in Geophysics

Formal Distinction within International Organizations

Boundary Disciplines

Societal Needs, Science Impact, and Selfconsciousness

GEOPHYSICAL PHENOMENA AND PROCESSES

Physical versus Nonphysical Forcing Factors

Couplings

GEOCHEMISTRY: BRANCHES, PROCESSES, PHENOMENA

Historical Foundations of Geochemistry

Branches of Geochemistry

The Data of Geochemistry

Cosmochemistry: Where Geochemistry Begins

The Periodic Table: a Geochemical Perspective

Isotopes, Reservoirs, and Ages

Geochemical Cycles

The future of Geochemistry

CONTINENTS ON THE MOVE

Earth’s Structure Today

Driving Mechanism

Vertical Movement of the Lithosphere

Continents and Growth of Continents

Lithospheric Circle—Continents’ Motion

Evidence for Continent Motions

TECTONIC PROCESSES

Relative Plate Movements

Intraplate Deformation

Tectonic Forces

TECTONIC AND SURFACE PROCESSES INTERACTION

Fundamental processes

Endogene and exogenetic processes interactions

GEOPHYSICAL PROCESSES AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES

Mining Induced Seismicity

Reservoir induced seismicity

Slope Movements

Technical Seismicity

Seismic hazard

TERRESTRIAL HEAT FLOW

History

Heat Flow

Measurements of Heat Flow

Geothermal Maps

Heat Flow—Age Relationships

Heat Flow and Heat Generation

Global Heat Flow Representation

Mantle Heat Flow

Lithosphere Temperatures

Geothermics and Deep Drilling

Borehole and Climate

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MARINE SHORELINE ECOSYSTEMS

Shoreline Environments

Coastal Depositional Features

Marine Erosional Features

Littoral and Longshore Sediment Transport

Issues

SEISMOLOGY AND VOLCANOLOGY

Seismology

Volcanology

CONTINENTAL CRUST

Methods of Continental Crust Studies

Average Seismic Structure of Continental Crust

Types of Continental Crust

Physical Properties of Continental Crust

Composition of Continental Crust

Crustal Evolution

THE OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE

Background: Mid-Ocean Ridges and the oceanic lithosphere

Methods of study of the oceanic lithosphere

Components of the oceanic lithosphere and their physical properties

Structure of the oceanic lithosphere

Forming the oceanic lithosphere at the ridge axis

The rheology of the oceanic lithosphere

Fluids in the oceanic lithosphere: Electrical conductivity structure

MANTLE AND CORE OF THE EARTH

Seismic Methods

Radial Structure of the Earth

Upper Mantle

Lower Mantle

Core

EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION

Theoretical Basis

Earthquake Ground Motion

EARTHQUAKE MECHANICS

History—Earthquakes and Faults

Description of Faults and Earthquakes

Methods of Studying Earthquakes

Physical Processes of Fault Development and Earthquakes

Seismology and Earthquake Rupture Models

Implications for Seismic Hazard

FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY OF EARTHQUAKES: EARTHQUAKE AND VOLCANIC EVENT PREDICTION

The Earthquake Threat

Earthquake Prediction

The Danger and Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions

VOLCANOLOGY: VOLCANIC ACTIVITIES, CHEMISTRY AND EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT

Volcanic Edifices

Mechanisms of Magma Formation and Transport

Magma Composition and Types of Eruptions

Classification of eruptions

Pre-eruptive phenomena

Eruptive Products and Volcanic Hazard

Eruption Forecast

EARTHS MAGNETIC FIELD

Geomagnetic Field Observations

Characteristics of Earth’s Magnetic Field

Earth’s Magnetic Field as Both a Tool and a Hazard in the Modern World

ELECTRIC FIELD OF THE EARTH

The Electric Field as it Appears in Telluric and Magnetotelluric Studies

Methods for the Determination of the Geoelectric Structure(s) of the Earth

Resistivity of Rocks and Minerals and its Distribution in Earth’s Interior

ROCK MAGNETISM AND PALEOMAGNETISM

Theoretical and Methodological Foundation

Future Developments

MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS OF THE EARTH'S CORE

Precessional forcing

Basic state of the core

Gross thermodynamics of the fluid core

Magnetoconvection Theory

Character of core magnetoconvection

AERONOMIC PHENOMENA

Structure of the Atmosphere

Chemical Composition

Chemistry of the Ionosphere

Long-Term Trends of Aeronomical Parameters

SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE HIGH ATMOSPHERE

Energy and Dynamics of the Domain

Chemistry of the Domain

The Mystery of Water Vapor

Phenomena and Special Features of the Mesopause Region

Main differences Between the Low and High Atmosphere

IONOSPHERE AND UPPER ATMOSPHERE RESEARCH WITH RADARS

Radar Observation Principles

Mesosphere, Lower Thermosphere and Meteor Observations

Studies of the Mesosphere with MST Radars

Vertical Profiling of the Ionosphere with Ionosondes

Ionosphere Modifications

Oblique Incidence Ionospheric Sounding

Coherent Scatter Observations of E- and F-Region Irregularities

Ionospheric Profiling with Incoherent Scatter Radars

Sounding of the Topside Ionosphere and Magnetosphere

MAGNETOSPHERE AND ITS COUPLING TO LOWER LAYERS

An Introduction to the Magnetosphere

Formation of the Magnetosphere

Dynamics of the Magnetosphere

Solar Effects at Earth

Outstanding Issues

EARTH'S GRAVITY FIELD

Pizzetti’s Theory of the Equipotential Ellipsoid

Relation of the Geodetic System of Coordinates to Pizzetti’s System

Determining the System of Coordinates within Earth

GRAVIMETRIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES

Introduction: Gravity Basics

Types of Gravity Meters

Gravity Gradiometry

Gravity Measurement From Space

Future Directions

APPLICATIONS OF GRAVIMETRY AND METHODS OF SURVEY

Gravity Representation of the Deformable Earth and its Models

Gravimetric Surveys Based on Various Space and Terrestrial Observations

GRAVITY ANOMALIES

Free Air and Bouguer Gravity Anomalies

Separation of Gravity Anomalies

Analytical Operations

Isostasy

Interpretation and Modeling

Applications

GEOCHEMICAL ORIGINS OF THE EARTH

Formation of the Solar System

Formation of the Earth

Formation of the Atmosphere and Oceans

Early Crust and the Evolution of the Mantle

Formation of the Core

GASEOUS GEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

Earth’s Atmosphere

Carbon

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Sulfur

SEDIMENTARY GEOCHEMISTRY

Origin of Sedimentary Material

Sedimentation

Transformation

STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

Background

Elements, Nuclides, and Stable Isotopes

The Mass Spectrometer and Isotope Ratio Measurement

Isotope Fractionation

Temperature and Fractionation

Stable Isotopes in the Hydrologic Cycle

18O in Minerals and Rocks

13C and Carbon Cycling

15N Cycling in Watersheds

34S and the Sulfur Cycle

Chlorine and Bromine Isotopes

Light Lithophile Elements: d6Li and d11B

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY

Time and Space Scales

Chemical Principles

Geochemical Partitioning

Environmental Contaminants

Environmental Change and Human Impact

COSMOCHEMISTRY

Origin of the Elements

Classification of Chemical Elements

Composition of the Solar System

Processes Recorded in Meteorites

Solar System and Planetary Formation

Origin of Life—a Cosmochemical View

PLANETOLOGY - COMPARATIVE PLANETOLOGY OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS AND ASTROBIOLOGY

Comparative planetology

Astrobiology

Future exploration of Earth-like Planets and Moons

THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Accretion

Dust Condensation

Planetesimals

Planetary Accretion

The Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt

Satellite Formation

Origin of Atmospheres

Origin of Life

Extrasolar Planetary Systems

COMPARATIVE PLANETOLOGY

Planet and Satellite Orbits and Rotation States

Composition and Interior Structure of Planets

Surfaces and Atmospheres

Energy Balance and Evolution

Magnetic Fields and Field Generation

PLANETARY SATELLITES, ASTEROIDS, COMETS AND METEORS

Planetary satellites

Asteroids

Comets

Meteoroids and meteors

SOLAR WIND AND INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD

Basic Concepts

Sun and Heliosphere at Times of Solar Activity Minimum

The "Active" Solar Wind and Transient Phenomena

Slow Variations

CELESTIAL MECHANICS

ORBITAL RESONANCES IN PLANETARY SYSTEMS

Secular Resonances

Mean Motion Resonances

Epilogue

THE OPEN OCEANS

Physical Parameters

Geological Parameters

Biological Parameters

CONTINENTAL MARGINS AND MARGINAL SEAS

Physical Parameters

Biological Parameters

Land-Ocean Interactions

ROLE OF THE OCEANS IN GLOBAL CYCLES OF CARBON AND NUTRIENTS

The Great Conveyor Belt

Carbon and Nutrient Cycles

The Excess CO2 Budget in the Global Oceans

Teleconnections between the Marginal Seas

ROLE OF THE OCEANS IN THE GLOBAL CLIMATE SYSTEM

Spatial Variations

Temporal Variations

Feedback

SEAWATER PROPERTIES, WATER MASSES, AND GLOBAL SCALE CURRENTS

Chemical physics of sea water.

Global scale surface currents and thermohaline circulation.

Smaller scale processes and observable current fields.

AIR-SEA INTERACTIONS

Wind waves

Air-Sea Interactions

WAVES IN THE OCEANS

Basic Equations

Gravity Waves at the Sea Surface

Internal Waves

Inertial Waves

Kelvin Waves

Rossby Waves

Equatorial Waves

SEA - ICE INTERACTIONS

Sea Ice Formation

Distribution of Sea Ice

Growth of Sea Ice

Salt-driven Convection Beneath Growing Sea Ice

Ice Drift Modelling

Ocean Wave - Sea Ice Interaction

Wind-induced Upwelling at an Ice Edge

Processes at the Antarctic Ice Shelves

SYNOPTIC/MESOSCALE PROCESSES

Dynamics

Statistics (spectra, dependence on latitude)

Regional characteristics

Effects

FRONTS AND MIXING PROCESSES

Frontal Zones and Fronts

Persistence and Instability of Fronts

Cross-frontal Water Exchange

Biological Productivity and Frontal Phenomena

COASTAL OCEANOGRAPHY

Some Dynamical Factors

Phenomena

Processes

The Way Ahead

GENERAL CHEMISTRY OF SEAWATER

Physical Parameters

Chemical Composition

Dissolved Gases

Organic Material

Hydrothermal Vents

NUTRIENT CYCLING IN THE OCEANS

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Silicon

Iron

Continental Shelves

CARBONATE CHEMISTRY OF THE OCEANS

Carbon Dioxide and Carbonate System

Carbon Cycle

Carbonate Sedimentation

NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC RADIONUCLIDES

Natural Radionuclides

Anthropogenic Radionuclides

HUMAN PERTURBATIONS

Nutrients

Carbon Dioxide

Continental Margin Studies

NON-RADIOACTIVE OCEAN POLLUTION

Trace Metals

Pesticides and Organic Compounds

Sewage

Temporal Trend

OCEANS AS MAJOR RESERVOIRS OF PROTEIN

Oceanic Primary Production

Capture Fisheries

Marine Aquaculture

Oceans as a Source of High-Quality Protein

MARINE BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: EFFECTS ON CLIMATE AND RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE

Carbon and Carbonate Cycles

Interaction with the Nutrient Cycles

Interactions with Climate and Environmental Changes

MARINE BIODIVERSITY

Four Kinds of Biodiversity on Our Planet

How do we Know About Biodiversity?

Species Biodiversity in the Oceans

High-level Marine Biodiversity

Ecological Marine Biodiversity

Genetic Marine Biodiversity

Marine Biodiversity in Danger

MODELS AND FUNCTIONING OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

Bacteria, their viral parasites, and their protozoan predators

Adding a phytoplankton competitor to the bacteria

Opening the model to export and import

The concept of characteristic time scales and hierarchical dynamic systems

Adding a diatom-copepod food chain

Higher trophic levels

A full ecosystem model?

LITTORAL ZONE

The Extent of the Littoral Zone

Types of Primary Producers in the Littoral Zone

Littoral Ecosystems

The Functions of the Littoral Zone

The Value of the Littoral Zone to Society

Threats to the Littoral Zone

DEEP SEA BENTHOS, CONTRASTING ECOSYSTEMS

Introduction: The Exploration of the Depths

In the Reign of Zoology

New Technologies

Functional Ecology, Trophic Levels and Biology

Communities Based on Chemolithotrophy

Deep-sea Biodiversity

Abyss and the Origin of Life

MORPHOLOGY OF OCEAN FLOOR AND PLATE TECTONICS

Principle Provinces of Sea Floor

Continental Drift, Sea-Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics

Major Morphological Features

SEISMIC IMAGING IN THE OCEANS

Seismic Wave Propagation

Seismic Data Acquisition

Processing of Reflected Data

Processing of Refracted Data

Visualization of 3D Geological Structures

MINING AND OIL EXPLORATION IN THE OCEANS AND SEAS

Occurrence of Hydrocarbons in Oceans and Seas

Exploiting Hydrocarbon Resources in the Oceans and Seas

Occurrence of Minerals in the Oceans and Seas

Mineral Extraction

Future Directions in Hydrocarbon and Mineral Extraction in the Seas

CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW OF THEIR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Reef structure, composition and function

Threats to the chain

BIOLOGICAL DYNAMICS OF CORAL REEFS

Population Dynamics of Branching Corals

Population Dynamics of Foliaceous Corals

Predation on Corals

Phase Shift of Coral Communities in Jamaica

CORAL REEF BIODIVERSITY

Invertebrates

Fishes

Other reef organisms

THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CORALS

Zooxanthellae: The Primary Producers in Corals

Factors influencing the rates of photosynthesis by zooxanthellae

The fate of zooxanthella primary production

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CORAL REEFS

Climate change in tropical regions

Coral reefs as vulnerable ecosystem

Sea temperature and coral bleaching

Calcification rates and the Aragonite Saturation State

Sea level rise

Downstream effects of climate change on coral reef ecosystems

Interactions with other human related stresses (see also, Human Uses of the Oceans)

How will coral reefs respond?

HUMAN USE AND OCEAN CIRCULATION

Marine Living Resources

Marine Non-living Resources

Transportation and Communications

Tourism and Recreation

Reclamation for Economic Development

Waste Disposal

Key Issues of Ocean Use Management

OCEAN REGENERATION

Developing Ocean Regeneration Plans

Restoring Degraded Habitats

Stocking Fingerlings

Establishing Artificial Habitats

Promoting Sustainable Fishing

Enhancing Marine Environment Quality

Facilitating the Co-management of the Marine Environment in the 21st Century

CORAL REEF REGENERATION

The Nature of Coral Reefs

Destruction of Coral Reefs

Coral Reef Regeneration

Miscellaneous Ideas for Restoration of Coral Reefs

Coral Farming

MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR OCEAN CONSERVATION

International Treaties and Initiatives

National Oceans Polices

Legislation and Enforcement

Environmental Impact Statement

Integrated Management Plan

Training and Education

Public-Private Partnership

MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR CORAL REEF CONSERVATION

Importance of Coral Reefs

Coral Reef Degradation

Options for Coral Reef Conservation

FIELD MEASUREMENTS

In situ and Remote Sensing Measurements

Wave Measurements

Current Measurements

Wind Measurements

Remote Sensing Techniques

Field Data and Quality Control

Challenges and Considerations of Field Measurements

MARINE STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS

Definition and Catalog of Marine Structures

Design Criteria and Methods of Marine Structures

The Material for Marine Structures

Trends of Research on Marine Structures

NAVAL ARCHITECTURE

Ship Hull

Propeller

OCEAN ENERGY

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

Tidal Energy

Wave Energy

Current Energy

MARICULTURE ENGINEERING (SEA FARMING SYSTEMS)

Sea Farming Technology Research and Development

Choosing A Location Requires Experience And Technological Knowledge

Sea Farming Technology

A New Design for Favorable Tension Leg Net Pen Developed

UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS

An Acoustical View of Oceanography

The History of Research on Ocean Acoustics

Measurement of Speed of Sound

Other Applications

HARBORS AND NAVIGATION

Maritime Transport and Shipping Vessels

Loading and Unloading in Seaports

Harbor Structures

Wave Protection

NESTED INTERDISCIPLINARY THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS OF THE MARINE SYSTEM

Operant State Variables and Evolution Equations of a 3D Interdisciplinary Ocean Model

The Hydrodynamic Component

Formulation of Flow and Fluxes

Formulation of the Production/Destruction Rates

Mathematical Forecasting and Mathematical Visualization

MATHEMATICAL AND NUMERICAL GEOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELS

Conservation equations

Preparation for numerical resolutions

Spatial discretizations

Temporal discretizations

Staggering

Critical parts for ocean models

Other model ingredients

Discussion

MODELING BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

General Classification of Biogeochemical Models

Models Complexity in terms of Food Web Structure

Physical Factors on Biogeochemical Models

Inverse Approaches in Biogeochemical Modeling

Regional Applications of Coupled Physical-biogeochemical Models

MAIN STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHY

The Predecessors

Middle Ages

Early Modern Times

Founders of Modern Geography

New Directions

The Present

The Future

THEORY AND METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY

Theories

Methods

GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

What is Geographical Education?

How is Geographical Education Relevant to Society and Environment?

Past Trends in Geographical Education

Current Trends in Geographical Education

Current Practices in Geographical Education

Challenges for Geographical Education

Future Directions

GEOMORPHOLOGY

Development of Geomorphology

Main Concepts, Research Lines, and Methods

Structural Geomorphology

Weathering and Soils

Morphoclimatic Zones and Special Landform Associations

Process Domains

Environmental and Global Change

CLIMATE AS LIFE-SUPPORT SYSTEMS: A CLIMATOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

Physical Representation

Impacts of Climate on Systems

Interactions between Climate and Human Activities

HYDROLOGY

Scope of hydrology

The Hydrological cycle

Historical background

Main components of the hydrological cycle

Water quality

Paleohydrology

Extreme hydrological events: floods and drought

Impact of Human Activities And Climate Change on the Hydrological Cycle

BIOGEOGRAPHY

Introduction: defining the indefinable

History of biogeography

The major approaches to biogeography

Towards an applied biogeography

SOIL GEOGRAPHY

Concepts and definitions

Historical background

The soil profile

Soil properties

Factors and processes of soil formation

Climate-soil and vegetation-soil relationships

Soil Classification

Geographical distribution

Environmental issues

COASTAL SYSTEMS

Coasts

Coastal Systems

Case Study: The Coast of Suriname

THE OCEAN SYSTEM

Managing the Ocean Ecosystem

The Ocean Facing Climate Change

Ocean Resource Uses

Ocean Governance

The Sustainable Ocean

Recapitulation

MOUNTAIN GEOECOLOGY. THE EVOLUTION OF INTELLECTUALLY-BASED SCHOLARSHIP INTO A POLITICAL FORCE FOR SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT

Introduction and Definition

Scientific Foundation

Development before 1990

Scientific Progress

Political Engagement

Current Status

Research Priorities

Specific Research Requirements

Indicators, Knowledge Management, and Sustainable Development

NATURAL HAZARDS

Introduction - What is A Natural Hazard?

Vulnerability - The Fundamental Counterpart of Hazard

Risk - The Product of Hazard and Vulnerability

Perception - A Vital Factor in Hazard and Risk Analysis

Natural Hazards and the Classification Problem

Natural Hazard Mitigation

Managing Natural Hazards

Natural Hazards and the Question of Poverty

LAND DEGRADATION AND DESERTIFICATION: HISTORY, NATURE, CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES, AND SOLUTIONS

A Brief Historical Review of Land Degradation

The Forms of Land Degradation

Research into the Causes of Land Degradation

Consequences of Land Degradation

Integrated Solutions and the Delimitation of Planning Regions

POPULATION GEOGRAPHY

Introduction to Population Geography

The current state of the Population Geography

The world population

The agricultural models

The demographic transition

Evolution of the European pattern of growth

The American pattern of growth

The models of quick transition

Perspectives on Population Geography

CULTURAL AND SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY

The Cultural Approach and the New Epistemological Bases of Geography

AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL GEOGRAPHY

Agricultural Change

Changing Geographical Perspectives

Agricultural Geography

Rural Geography

Introduction

Conclusion

GEOGRAPHY OF INDUSTRY AND TRANSPORT

Introduction: A Relational Science

General Concepts and Processes

The Theoretical and Methodological Tradition

A World in Transition

The Local Synthesis

Transport and Territorial Organization

GEOGRAPHY OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Global and Regional Economic Integration

Industrial Districts and Clustering

Geography of Innovation

Knowledge-Based Economy and Services

Sustainable Industrialization

Future Trends and Perspectives

URBAN GEOGRAPHY

Introduction. The Scope of Urban Geography

Changing Approaches in Urban Geography

The City and the Changing Economic Context

The Global Context of Urbanization

Residential Differentiation and Segregation

City Growth and Urban Governance

The Urban Future

MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY

Medical Geography

Health Geography

New Ways of Looking at Old and New Problems

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

First and Second Stages of Development

Third Stage

Fourth Stage

The World Systems Theory

Concepts of the State in Political Geography

Postmodernism and the Construction of Space

Territoriality, Ethnic, and Political Identity

The Problem of Scale, the Concept of Place, and the Contextual Approach

GEOGRAPHY OF TOURISM

Defining Tourism

The Development of the Geography of Tourism

Demand for Tourism

Tourism Supply

Impacts of Tourism

Tourism Planning

Trends for the Twenty-first Century

REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY

Introduction: Regional Geography, the Oldest Type of Geography

How to Define a Region?

From Administrative Regions to Cultural Regions

The Applied Side of Regional Geography

The Renewal of Regional Identities

Regional Science: A New Way of Analyzing Regions and Regional Development

GEODESY AND TOPOGRAPHY

The Figure of Earth

Coordinate Systems

Map Projections

Geodetic Survey

Topographic Survey

Topographic Maps

Topographic Information Systems

MAPPING AND ATLAS PRODUCTION

Maps and Map Types

Map Functions and Map Themes

Base Maps

Mapping

Map Use

Data Quality

Atlas Production

Atlas Information Systems

Outlook

REMOTE SENSING SYSTEMS

Remote Sensing – a Definition

Passive versus Active Remote Sensing Systems

Satellite Remote Sensing Systems

Meteorological Satellites: NOAA, GOES and METEOSAT

Remote Sensing Applications: Monitoring our Environment

An Outlook to the Future

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Geographical Information Systems a Definition

History of GIS

Relevance of Metadata,

GIS Analysis

GIS Applications

Outlook on Technological Developments

MODELING GEOGRAPHICAL SYSTEMS AND PREDICTION

Modeling and the Quantitative Revolution

The State of Modeling

The Art of Modeling

Modeling and Prediction

Modeling in the Twenty-First Century

WEATHER SYSTEM AND WEATHER FORECASTING

AIRMASSES AND FRONTS

Airmasses

Atmospheric fronts

EXTRATROPICAL CYCLONES AND ANTICYCLONES

Typical cyclone evolution

Mesoscale structure of extratropical cyclone

Typical anticyclone evolution

Special cases of cyclone and anticyclone development

General properties of cyclonic activity

Mechanisms of cyclogenesis and cyclonic activity

PRINCIPAL WEATHER SYSTEMS IN SUBTROPICAL AND TROPICAL ZONES

The general circulation: tropics and subtropics

Main perturbation systems in tropical and subtropical zones

PRINCIPAL WEATHER SYSTEMS IN TEMPERATE AND CONTINENTAL ZONES

Weather Systems Typical of Temperate Latitudes

Weather Systems Typical of Continental Zones

PRINCIPAL WEATHER SYSTEMS IN POLAR ZONES

Weather Systems Typical of the Arctic

Weather Systems Typical of the Antarctic

SHORT-TERM WEATHER FORECASTING

Hydrodynamic Modeling of Meteorological Fields and Large-scale Weather-producing Mechanisms

Prediction of local weather patterns

LONG-RANGE WEATHER FORECASTING

Synoptic long -range Weather Forecasting

Statistical Long-range Weather Forecasting

Hydrodynamic Long-range Weather Forecasting

Verification Systems for Long-range Forecasts

SCIENTIFIC WEATHER MODIFICATION

History of the Problem

Physical Basis for Artificial Modification of Clouds and Precipitation

The Enhancement and Redistribution of Precipitation

Hail Suppression

Fog Dispersal

Dispersal of Super cooled Low-level Clouds and Precipitation

Other Weather Modification Experiments

METHODS OF CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION

General structure of methods of climate classification

Approaches to geographical classifications of climates

OBJECTIVE EMPIRIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF EARTH'S CLIMATE

Koeppen’s classification

Thornthwaite’s classification

GENETIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF EARTH'S CLIMATE

Classifications derived from air mass analysis

Classifications based on characteristics of surface energy budget

APPLIED CLASSIFICATIONS OF EARTHS CLIMATE

Agroclimatic classification

Bioclimatic classification

Climatic classifications for technical purposes

Energy-climatic classifications

LOW-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES

Equatorial belt

Subequatorial belt

Tropical belt

MIDDLE-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES

Subtropical belt

Temperate belt

HIGH-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES

Climate types of subarctic and subantarctic belts

Climate types in Arctic and Antarctic Regions

HIGH-ALTITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES

Basic controlling factors of highland climates

Highland climates in different climatic zones

FACTORS CONTROLLING LOCAL CLIMATE

Radiation balance

Turbulent heat flow

Heat flow into the ground

Evaporation

URBAN CLIMATE: THE MOST IMPORTANT MODIFIED

Cities of high and middle latitudes

Low latitudes cities

FOREST CLIMATES

Solar radiation.

Temperature and humidity.

Wind

Precipitation.

ISLAND CLIMATES

Ocean and sea islands

Lake and river islands

HISTORY OF PLANETARY AND GEOLOGICAL FACTORS

Main planetary factors of climatic variations

Main geological factors of climate variations

HISTORY OF ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION

Evolution of the Ancient Atmosphere

Atmospheric Composition during the Phanerozoic Time

History of the Cenozoic Atmosphere

Anthropogenic Changes in the Atmospheric Composition

GLOBAL CLIMATIC CATASTROPHES (VOLCANISM AND IMPACT EVENTS)

Climatic catastrophes in the Earths history

Volcanic explosions and climate

The fall of celestrial bodies and climate

Local climatic catastrophes

CHANGES IN BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

The Global Carbon Cycle

The Nitrogen Cycle

CARBON DIOXIDE

Carbon dioxide sources and sinks

Carbon dioxide content distributions in the atmosphere

Climatic impact of carbon dioxide

METHANE

Methane sources

Methane sinks

Distribution of methane content in the atmosphere

Methane concentration trends

The influence of methane on climate

HALOCARBONS

Halocarbon sources

Halocarbons sinks

The influence of halocarbons on climate

Distribution of halocarbons content in the atmosphere

NITROUS OXIDE

Nitrous oxide sources

Nitrous oxide sinks

Distribution of nitrous oxide content in the atmosphere

The influence of nitrous oxide on climate

TROPOSPHERIC OZONE AND RELATED TRACE GASES

Ozone photochemical sources and sinks

Tropospheric ozone content measurements

Ozone and the environment

Tropospheric ozone forming species

PHYSICS OF AEROSOLS AND THEIR EFFECT ON CLIMATE

Atmospheric aerosol sources and sinks

Physico-chemical properties of aerosols

Aerosol effects on climate

REDUCTION OF THE OZONE LAYER

Photochemistry of stratospheric ozone

Stratospheric ozone: spatial distribution and seasonal variations

Antarctic ozone hole

Ozone in the Northern hemisphere and nonpolar regions

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN BIOGEOGRAPHY AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY

Biogeographic and Landscape Ecological Research Themes

Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems in Biogeography and Landscape Ecology

Future Trends and Directions for Biogeography and Landscape Ecology

LANDFORM AND EARTH SURFACE

Sampling Landform

Ground-based Survey

Remote Sensing of Landform

Existing Sources of DEMs

Quality of DEMs

Application of DEMs

Case Studies

Mapping Landform: Present Trends

Future Developments

LAND HYDROLOGY

Traditional Hydrologic Field Measurement

Spatial Analyses

Geoinformatics and Hydrological Modelling

FIELD GEOLOGY

Geological Surveying

Mapping what you Can’t See: Geophysical Surveying

Mapping Geological Composition: Geochemical and Mineralogical Surveying

Surveying the Flow Characteristics of Rocks in the Field: Geofluids Surveying

REMOTE SENSING AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

Digital Data Processing

PHYSICAL BASIS OF REMOTE SENSING

Overview of Remote Sensing and Common Remote Sensing Systems

Electromagnetic Radiation

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with the Atmosphere

Electromagnetic Radiation from Earth’s Surface

Sensors

FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

Principles of Spectroscopy

The Natural Radiation Environment

Visualisation of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function

Historical Development of Field Spectroscopy

Field Measurement of Reflectance Factors

Applications of Field Spectroscopy

Emerging Technologies for Field Spectroscopy

SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

The Components of a Satellite Remote Sensing Systems

Ground Facilities

Satellite Programs

Applications of Satellite Remote Sensing

Land-Based Applications

Oceanographic Applications

Meteorological Applications

Atmospheric Sounding

Modern and Future Systems

IMAGING SPECTROMETRY

Introduction and Historical Perspective

Physics of Spectroscopy

Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Systems

Airborne Simulators

Spaceborne Imaging Spectrometer Systems

Data Acquisition and Pre-processing of Imaging Spectrometer Data

Thematic Analysis Techniques for Absorption Feature Extraction

Applications of Imaging Spectrometry

RADAR REMOTE SENSING

Basic Properties of Radar Systems

Characteristics of Radar Systems

What a Radar Measures

Radar Sensors and Their Applications

Synthetic Aperture Radar Applications

Future Prospects

NASA EARTH SCIENCE ENTERPRISE: A NEW WINDOW ON OUR WORLD

A Scientific Vision—The Earth as a System

A View From Above—Characterizing the Earth System

Taking It All In—Understanding the Earth System

Getting There From Here—Predicting Earth System Change

SPATIAL DATA HANDLING AND GIS

Geographical Data

Data Models

Measurement and Sampling

Data Entry, Archiving and Retrieval

Data Organization

Analysis

Accuracy assessment

CLASSIFICATION AND FUZZY SETS

Major approaches to classification

Crisp and fuzzy sets

Fuzzy classification

GEOSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DATA

Description of Spatial Patterns

Modeling Spatial Variation

Spatial Prediction

Modeling the Local Uncertainty

Stochastic Simulation

Accounting for Uncertainty in Decision-making

STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF SPATIO-TEMPORAL PHENOMENA IN EARTH SCIENCES

Joint Space - Time Models

Space-time Uncertainty Assessment

Discussion

GLOBAL DATA NETWORKS IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND LIFE SCIENCES

A background to global data networks

World Data Centres

Global Resource Information Database

Global Observing Systems Information Centre

DEVELOPMENTS IN GLOBAL LAND COVER MAPPING

Growing demand for global land cover information

Past experiences

Present trends

CONCEPTUAL MODELING OF GEOGRAPHIC APPLICATIONS

Modeling GIS Applications: The Nature of Spatial Information

Conceptual Modeling Approaches

An Abstract Object-Oriented Architecture to Construct GIS Applications

SPATIAL QUERY LANGUAGES

Interacting with a Spatial Database System

Text-Based Query Languages

Visual Query Languages

Menu-Based Interaction

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION APPLICATIONS OVER THE NET

Web Enabling GIS Processing

System Architecture

GIS Applications

Global Searching

PRECISION FARMING AND GEOGRAPHIC SYSTEMS

Positioning Systems

Mapping Within-Field Spatial Variability of Soil and Plant Properties

Remote Sensing

Future Tendencies

BIODIVERSITY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Naming Living Things

Systematics

Computer Science and Systematics

Who Needs to Access Biodiversity Information?

To Identify: the First Step to Knowing

Database Management Systems

The Nature of the Taxonomic Information

Perspectives

ISSUES IN SPATIO-TEMPORAL DATABASE SYSTEMS: DATA MODELS, LANGUAGES AND MOVING OBJECTS

Characterization of Spatio-Temporal Systems

Data Models and Languages for Spatio-temporal Systems

Representation of Moving Objects in Databases

DETAIL FILTERING IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION VISUALIZATION

Interactive Database Applications

Displaying Maps at Different Levels of Detail

Multirepresentation and Multiresolution of Tessellated Surfaces

Detail Filtering in Entity-Based Models

When Multiresolution Meets Topology

HUMAN-INFORMATION INTERACTION: TECHNOLOGY AND THEORY

Emergence of the Global Information Ecology

The Cost and the Psychological Structure of Gathering and Using Information

Intelligent Interfaces for Interaction with Information

Information Foraging Theory

Future Directions

CARTOGRAPHIC GENERALIZATION: INTERFACE ISSUES

Representation and Presentation

Transformations

Transformations Involving Representations and Presentations

INTERACTION ISSUES AND DECISION SUPPORT IN INTELLIGENT GIS

Connecting GIS to Other Systems

Connecting GIS with Human Users

Decision Support and Intelligent GIS

GIS PROJECT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION

GIS Planning and Implementation Process

GIS Implementation Approaches

Factors in GIS Implementation

Future Directions

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION LEGAL ISSUES

Copyright Law

Freedom of Information

Privacy Law

SPATIAL DATA QUALITY

The Importance of Spatial Data Quality

The Elements of Spatial Data Quality

Error Modeling, Communication, and Management

Current Issues and Future Trends

SPATIAL DATA STANDARDS

A Background to Standards

An Introduction to Spatial Data Standardization

Current Spatial Data Standards

The Future of Spatial Data Standards

GIS AND SOCIETY

Origins of GIS

Application Areas

Benefits and Costs

Data Issues

Future

WEB-BASED SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT: TECHNICAL FOUNDATIONS AND APPLICATIONS

WebGIS Techniques

Specific Requirements for WebSDSS

Sample Applications

INTEGRATIVE DATA STRUCTURES FOR COLLABORATIVE MODELING AND VISUALISATION IN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS

Context

Map Types and Map Use

Integrating Cartography and Locational Analysis in SDSS

Creating Summary Maps

Visual Interactive Locational Analysis

SDSS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF FOREST RESOURCES

GIS and SDSS

SDSS in Forest Resource Management

Issues Addressed Using SDSS

Future Trends

SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT FOR SUBSIDIZED HOUSING LOCATION AND RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY

Traditional Planning Methods for Residential Housing

Quantitative Planning Models for Subsidized Housing Location and Residential Mobility

Multi-Stakeholder Decision Support for Aggregate Planning

Links Between Full-Equilibrium and Partial-Equilibrium Planning Models

Future Prospects

USING ONTOLOGIES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION INTEGRATION

Ontologies and Interoperability

A Conceptual Framework for Geographic Information Integration

Ontology Integration

The Next Generation of Information Systems

GEOSPATIAL INTEROPERABILITY: THE OGC PERSPECTIVE

OGC Process

Interoperability Initiatives

OGC Specifications

NATURAL DISASTERS

The role of hazards in the life of nature and society

Geological disasters

Natural hydrometeorological disasters

Natural hazards in mountains

THE NATURE OF EARTHQUAKES

Distribution of earthquakes on the Earth,

Reasons for earthquakes in the Earth's crust

Types of the Earth's lithosphere and Plate Tectonics

Types of seismic waves

Measurement of the size of an earthquake

The models of earthquake source

Nature of deep (mantle) earthquakes

Earthquake recurrence interval study

Earthquakes as a motor for geodynamic processes

Correspondence of an earthquake with time and weather

EARTHQUAKE PARAMETERS INCLUDING STRONG EARTHQUAKES

Locating an earthquake

Earthquake magnitude and intensity

Data distribution

Seismic moment and moment magnitude

Focal mechanism of earthquake

Design parameters for use in engineering applications

Perspectives

INDUCED SEISMICITY

Seismicity induced by natural processes

Seismicity induced by technogenic impacts

Discussion

SEISMIC ZONING

Earthquake Hazard

Global Seismicity

Models of Earthquake Occurrence Source Zones

Model of Seismic Effect

Probabilistic Seismic Zoning

Global Seismic Hazard

SEISMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND GEODYNAMIC ZONING PREDICTIONS

Historical overview

Current seismological observations

Seismicity of the Earth and geodynamic zones

Perspectives

TSUNAMIS: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES, PREDICTION, AND RESPONSE

Causes of tsunamis.

Consequences of tsunamis and kindred phenomena.

Tsunami prediction and tsunami warning systems around the world.

Tsunami mitigation and steps to reduce potential losses.

VOLCANISM: GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVES

Geographical distribution

Geological relationships: the comparison of continental and oceanic volcanism

Volcanic rocks of the oceanic basins

Volcanism of continental areas

Orogenic volcanism

VOLCANISM: HISTORICAL AND HUMAN PERSPECTIVES

Volcanoes as rebuilders of landscape

Volcanism and biosphere

Catastrophic eruptions

Counteraction to lava flow

Prediction of eruptions

Volcanoes as benefactors

DROUGHTS: CAUSES, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSEQUENCES

What Is Drought?

Criteria of Drought

Causes of Drought

Possibility of Predicting Droughts

Distribution of Droughts

Consequences of Droughts

DRY WINDS, DUST STORMS, AND PREVENTION OF DAMAGE TO AGRICULTURAL LAND

Dry winds

Dust Storms

CYCLONES, HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TORNADOES

Atmospheric whirls of different scales and origin

What are they like?

What should we expect?

NATURAL HAZARDS CAUSED BY SOLID PRECIPITATION

What is solid precipitation?

Rime and Glaze

Hail

Snowstorms and snowdrifts

CLASSIFICATION OF FLOODS

Factors and Conditions of Flood Generation

River Floods

Inundation of Seacoasts

Floods of Inland Seas and Lakes

Human Impact

FLOODS AND SOIL EROSION

Water Erosion

Watershed Erosion

Fluvial Systems

FLOOD CONTROL FOR SPECIFIC TYPES OF FLOODS

Flood Effects

Flood Damage

Flood Control

Floods of Recent Times: Is Flood Protection Effective?

FOREST FIRES AND DYNAMICS OF FOREST COVER

Forest and fire

Global and national statistics on forest fires

The fire rotation in forests

Fire as instrument of forest ecosystem management

What is the impact of fire on forests?

Pyrogenic successions of forest vegetation

Forest fires in boreal forests of North Eurasia

Forest fires and carbon emission

Anti-fire forest protection measures

FIRES IN STEPPES AND SAVANNAS

Grasslands and fire

Fire as a factor of deforestation of grassland ecosystems

Fire as an instrument of regulation of grassland ecosystems dynamics

Pyrogenic fluctuations and succession in grassland ecosystems

Geographical aspects of fires in grasslands

Fire and carbon emissions

SUB-SURFACE PEAT FIRES

Surface fires as a factor of spread of peat fires

The causes of peat fires

What types of bogs are susceptible to underground fires?

The peat fires on tropical wetlands

Underground fires and carbon emissions

LANDS SLIDES AND ROCK FALLS

Slopes and slope processes

Rock stresses and deformations on slopes

Instability of slopes and generation of landslides

Types of landslides

Occurrence of landslides

Landslide control

MUDFLOWS

Conditions of mudflow formation

Mechanism of mudflow formation

Types of mudflow phenomena

Mudflow basins

Mudflow motion

Danger of mudflow for a territory. Prediction of mudflows.

Mudflow control

SNOW AVALANCHES

Formation of avalanches

Classification of avalanches

Avalanche movement

The shock force of avalanche

Avalanche hazard for a territory

Struggle against avalanches

Prediction of avalanches

ICE SLIDES AND GLACIER SURGES

Particular class of glaciers

Spreading of surging glaciers

Causes of glacier surges

Dangerous consequences of the glacier surges

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: EARTH SYSTEM

ATMOSPHERE

COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE

Introduction

Brief history of atmospheric studies: a short overview

Meteorological elements and units of measurement

Composition of the Atmosphere

Structure of the Atmosphere

CHEMISTRY OF THE ATMOSPHERE

Types of atmospheric reactions

Atmospheric catalytic cycles

Residence time and photochemical equilibrium

Groups or “families” of atmospheric compounds

HRYOSPHERE

SNOW COVER

Distribution and Properties of Snow Cover

Wind Transport of Snow (Snow Drifting)

Snow Cover in a Routine Life

Climatic Role of Snow Cover

GENESIS OF SOILS AND FACTORS OF THE SOIL FORMATION

Soil Formation is the Global Natural Process

Factors of the Soil Formation

Stages of the Soil Formation

Processes of the Soil Formation

Genesis of Soils under Different Ecologic Conditions

DIVERSITY AND SYSTEMATIZATION OF SOILS

Introduction: Diversity of Factors is the Diversity of Soil Characteristics (Properties)

Classifications of Soils

World Soil Maps and World Classifications

Classification "WRB for Soil Resources"

Diversity of Soils and Problems of the Biodiversity Preservation

GEOGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE OF THE WORLD SOIL COVER (PEDOSPHERE)

Introduction

Principles and Taxonomic System of Soil-Geographic Zoning

Soil-Geographic Belts And Soil-Bioclimatic Areas Of The World

Detailed Soil-Geographic Zoning

Conclusion

PLANTS AND SOIL MOISTURE

Water in Soil and Plants is the Object of Inter-disciplinary Investigation

Plants and Soils are Thermodynamic Systems

Laws of Water Movement in the Thermodynamic Systems "soil-plants-atmosphere"

Critical Total Soil Moisture Pressure

SOIL BIOTA

Introduction

Biogenecity of Soil

Soil as a Habitat

Soil Biota

Soil Organisms and Transformation of Substances