ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES - Table of Contents

LIFE RESPONSIBILITY VERSUS MECHANICAL REDUCTIONISM: WESTERN WORLD-VIEWS OF NATURE FROM PANTHEISM TO POSITIVISM

The modern Western idea of ‘the natural world’

Other cosmological patterns

The Biblical view of the world

Ancient Greek science and philosophy

The mediaeval world-view

The impact of the ‘mechanistic’ universe of Newtonian science

The distinctiveness of life and some recent developments

THE EMBODIED GOOD LIFE: FROM ARISTOTLE TO LIFE - GROUND ETHICS

The Embodied Good Life

Aristotle: Human Capabilities and Social Hierarchy

Marx: The Socio-economic Grounds of Embodied Freedom

Friedrich Nietzsche: Life as Predation

Herbert Marcuse: The Embodied Foundation of Morality

Theodore Adorno: The Unbearable Hardness of Being

Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum: Human Capabilities and Global Justice

Conclusion

WAYS OF UNIVERSAL LIFE: THE TAO, HUMAN HEARTEDNESS, ZEN AND JESUS

Non-Theist Religions: An Introduction

Ultimate Principles and Understanding the Tao

Challenging All Orthodoxies by the Natural Way

Good and Bad Decoded: Nourishing Function versus Selfish Desires

Testing the Limits of the Tao: The Problems of Evil and Knowledge

The Mandate of Heaven, the Confucian Moral Order, and the Mohist Heresy

Confucianism and the Golden Rule: The Inner Logic of Equality and Inequality

Between the Lines of Orthodoxy: The Unseen Radical Humanism of Mencius

The Universal Life of the Heart That Cannot Bear the Suffering of Others

The Infinite Here and Now: The Silent Zen-Buddhist Revolution and Its Limits

MODES OF REASON

LOGIC, PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE

Logical Foundations

Philosophy of Science

Scientific Significance

Theory and Observation

Discovery and Growth

Explanation

Induction

Probability

Utility

Social Responsibility

Quality of Life

THE PARADIGM WARS: COMPETING MODELS OF UNDERSTANDING

Introduction

The Possibility of Understanding

Naturalism

Opposition to Naturalism

Methodological Debates

Kuhn’s Paradigms

Theory-Methodology Interaction

Social and Political Factors

Social Constructivism

Science and Values

Values and Understanding

THE LOGIC OF NATURAL LANGUAGE

Introduction

What Is "The Logic of Natural Language"?

Logical Norms for Natural Language Arguments

Fallacies and Argument(ation) Schemes

Conclusion: Logic and World Problems

WHY NOT SOCIALISM?

The Camping Trip

The Principles Realised on The Camping Trip

Is the ideal desirable?

Is the Ideal Feasible? Are the Obstacles to it Human Selfishness, or Poor Social Technology?

Market Socialism

Coda

Epilogue

HUMAN NATURE FROM A LIFE-GROUNDED PERSPECTIVE

The Philosophical Development of a Life-Grounded Conception of Human Nature

The Deconstruction of Essentialist Concepts of Human Nature

Human Nature From a Life-Grounded Perspective

LIFE-BLIND LIBERALISM AND LIFE-GROUNDED DEMOCRACY

Conceptual Framework: Value Systems and Grounds of Social Morality

Property Rights versus Needs in the Development of Liberal Capitalism

What Liberal Democracy Leaves Out

The Biocidal Essence of Capitalist Globalization

Life-Grounded Democracy

ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY AND ITS ONTO-ETHICAL PROBLEMS: ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND CONTEMPORARY WORLD-VIEWS

Introduction

Vital Historical Background

Classical Views of Nature and Human Nature: A Hierarchy of Limits

Divine Rationality and Man in Medieval Thought: The Re-Maker Turn

Nominalism and the Transition to a Modern Conception of Nature

Nature and Human Nature in Early Modern Thought

Humanitys Modern, Creative Self-Conception

Nature as Instrument, Knowledge as Power

The Modern, Efficient Conception of Nature

Nature, Human Nature and the Techno-Scientific Enterprise

The Plasticity of Nature and Necessity of Culture: The New Ironic Reality

The Three Dogmas and the Problem of Environmental Reform

Ecological, Biological, Cultural and Social Time

Rethinking the Techno-Scientific Enterprise

HUMAN RIGHTS AND GLOBAL LIFE-SUPPORT SYSTEMS

The Essential Ambiguity of the Idea of ‘Right’

The Development and Ethical Foundations of Human Rights

The Political Economic Foundations of Human Rights

The Antinomies of Rights

Life-Interests and Life-Value

Distinguishing Rights From Universal Life Requirements

WHAT IS THE GOOD? VALUE THEORIES EAST AND WEST

SOCIOLOGY

APPLIED DEMOGRAPHY: ITS BUSINESS AND PUBLIC SECTOR COMPONENTS

Introduction

Business and Public Sector Demography

Examples

Challenges and Opportunities

THE HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGY

The Nature of Archaeology

Writing the History of Archaeology

The Fragmentary Nature of the Archaeological Record

Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry

Foundations of Archaeology in The New World

Archaeological Dating

The New Archaeology

Post-Processual Archaeology

THEORY IN ARCHAEOLOGY

Fifty Years of Theory in Euro-American Archaeology: Historical Background

Archaeology in the Real World

Theory in Twenty-First Century Archaeology

ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELDWORK

Theory

Practice

Theory Revisited: Reproducibility

Future Trends and Perspectives

DATING AND CHRONOLOGY BUILDING

Chronological Frameworks

Chronology in Archaeology

Chronology Building

Chronometric Dating Methods

CLASSIFICATION AND TYPOLOGY

Historical Background

Artifact Classifications and Types

Problems and Controversies: The "Typological Debate"

RECONSTRUCTING ENVIRONMENTS

What is Climate, Weather?

Why Climates Differ

Palaeoclimatolgy

Orbital Driven Climatic Change

Other Cause of Climatic Change

Climate Change and Human Culture

Human-Induced Environmental Change

The Future

THE ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS

Historical Aspects, Foundations, Policy, and Professional Practice

Aims and Approaches of Materials Analysis in Archaeology

Future Trends and Perspectives

TEXT-AIDED ARCHAEOLOGY

Texts and material remains

Texts and historical archaeology

Culture History, Processual, and Postprocessual Archaeology

Examples of Text-Aided Archaeology

Text-Aided Prehistoric/Protohistoric Archaeology

LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY

The Concept of Landscape: Past and Present

Sites and Monuments in the Context of Landscape

The Main Fields Concerned with Understanding Landscape Archetypes

Non-Destructiveness and Future Developments in Landscape Archaeology

UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY

Aims

The Environment

Methodology, Techniques, and Equipment

Sites and Structures

Artifacts

Publications, Organizations, and Conferences

Key Issues

INDUSTRIAL ARCHAEOLOGY

Industrial Associations and Learned Societies

The Practice of IA

IA and the UNESCO World Heritage List

SOCIAL ARCHAEOLOGY

Early Historical Development: Practitioners and Their Concerns

Social Organization: Intangible but Tractable?

The Socio-Politics of Archaeology

Social Agency, Social Reproduction, and the Individual in Society

Future Directions

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF MEANING

Meaning

Topical Concerns

Theory and Method

The Meaningfulness of the Past in the Present

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF FORAGERS

The Rise of Hunting and Gathering

Holocene Foragers

Are Foragers Natural Conservationists?

The Nature of a Foraging Lifeway Today

Does Foraging have a Role in the Twenty-first Century?

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF FARMING SYSTEMS

Origins of Farming

The Archaeological Study of Farming

Prehistoric Farming Systems

The History of Farming Around the World

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS

Defining Civilizations

The Rise of Civilizations

The Collapse of Civilizations

ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE MODERN WORLD

What is the Modern World?

The Strategy of Modern World Archaeology

The Archaeology of Global Migrations in the Modern World

Urban Archaeology

The Archaeology of Industrialism

The Archaeology of Climatic Change in the Modern World

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF EURASIAN NOMADS

The Origin of Eurasian Nomadism

The Earliest Nomads of the Western Eurasian Steppes

The Earliest Nomads and Cattle-breeders of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes

The Earliest Nomadic Empires in Central Asia

The Earliest Nomadic States in the Siberia and Altay

The Earliest Nomadic States in the European Steppes

The Nomads of the European Steppes in the Middle Ages

The Nomads of the Golden Horde

PHYSICAL AND CULTURAL PROPERTIES OF ANCIENT WATER MANAGEMENT

Climate and Geomorphology

Societal Use of the Water Resource

Water Management Techniques

Social Costs of Water Management

A FRAMEWORK FOR ARCHAEOLOGY AND SUSTAINABILITY

The Dilemma of Sustainability

Change, Complexity, and Sustainability

Archaeological Studies in Unsustainability

Summary and Evaluation: The Maya and Cahokia Collapses

Sustainability, Archaeology, and Historical Science

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF AFRICA

Cultural Beginnings

Acheulean Foragers and the dispersal of Homo sp

Middle Stone Age Hunter-gatherers and the Emergence of Modern Humans

Late Pleistocene Specialized Foragers

From Foragers to Food-Producers

African Rock Art

The Advent and Spread of Metallurgy

Pathways to Complexity

ARCHAEOLOGY OF SOUTH AMERICA

Plant and Animal Domestication: the Evolution of Agriculture

Regional Developments

ARCHAEOLOGY OF NORTH AMERICA

The Evolution of Cultivation

Regional Adaptations after 0CE

THE MEDITERRANEAN

Island Colonization

East Mediterranean

Western Mediterranean

Heritage Issues

ARCHAEOLOGY OF EUROPE

The Practice of Archaeology in Europe

The Pre- and Protohistory of Europe

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF EAST ASIA

Earliest Humans in Eastern Asia

Two-culture Theory of the Paleolithic World

Appearance of Homo sapiens and the Late Palaeolithic Tool Kit

End of the Ice Age and Adaptation to the Changing Environment

Sedentary Foragers of the Temperate Forests

Development of Neolithic Societies in China

Rise of Civilizations and States in China

Chiefdoms and Early States of Korea and Japan in the East Asian Interaction Sphere

Social Context of Archaeology and Heritage Protection in East Asia

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF WESTERN ASIA

Earliest Human Movements and Lifeways in Western Asia

The Neolithic in Western Asia

The Bronze Age

The Empires of Anatolia and the Near East

The Empires of Central and South Asia

THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF OCEANIA

History of Research

Melanesia

Micronesia

Polynesia

THE ROLE OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES IN PRESERVING CULTURAL MEMORIALS

Heritage, Nationalism, and the Beginnings of Archaeological Societies

Archaeological Organizations at the Global Level

Recent Changes and Current Objectives

THE ROLE OF MUSEUMS

The Role of Museums

Categories of Archaeological Museum

The Museum’s Place in Preservation Philosophy

The Role of Museums in Preserving Sites in situ

The Role of the Museum in ex situ Preservation

The Role of Archaeological Museums in Public Education and Involvement

The Future

PRESERVATION LAWS AND POLICIES

Introduction: Environmental Assessment, Sustainable Development, and Historic Preservation Laws

Terminology

The Evolution of Historic Preservation Laws

When is it "Appropriate" to Consider Impacts on Historic Properties?

Managing Historic Properties Subject to Effect

High-Profile Site Management and National Laws

International Standards and National Laws

Beyond National Law

Historic Preservation in Sustainable Development: A Basic Approach

RESCUE ARCHAEOLOGY

Definition of the Concept

Prerequisites for Rescue Archaeology

The Development of Rescue Archaeology

Concepts and Values Used in Rescue Archaeology

Rescue Archaeology versus Academic ArchaeologyDifferences and Similarities

The Legal Framework and the Administrative Framework of Rescue ArchaeologySome Examples

The Working Process in Rescue Archaeology

Rescue Archaeology Beyond 2000

PALAEOPATHOLOGY: STUDYING THE ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND FREQUENCY OF DISEASE IN HUMAN REMAINS FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

Palaeopathology: The Discipline and How It Is Studied

Specific Examples of Current Research in the Field

Controversial Areas in Palaeopathology

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: A NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON ORIGINS, CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE, AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

Historical Foundations of Clinical Psychology

Antecedents of Contemporary Clinical Psychology

Contemporary Clinical Psychology: 1975–2000

Clinical Psychology: The Future

HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY: PREVENTION OF DISEASE AND ILLNESS; MAINTENANCE OF HEALTH

The Health–Disease Continuum

Types of Diseases

The Five Pillars of Health and Disease

Emotions, Beliefs, and Behaviors

The Psychological Interplay

Some Regulatory Mechanisms

Stress and Health

The Future of Health Psychology

COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

Memory

High-level Cognitive Activities

Language Processing

COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY: FROM INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Psychology and Sustainable Development

Definitions of Counseling Psychology

Education, Training, Standards and Organizational Structures for Counseling Psychology

Contexts for Counseling Psychology's Global Development

Counseling Psychology's Potential Contributions to Global Sustainability

A Final Note

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

Brief History

Schools of Developmental Psychology

New Developments

The Future of Developmental Psychology

EDUCATIONAL AND SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY: TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN?

School and Educational Psychology

Distance Learning

Fields of Application

Research Trends

Training of Psychologists

WORK AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

Thinking, and Thinking in Order to Believe

Knowing, and Knowing in Order to Operate

Organizing, and Organizing Oneself

Choosing, and Choosing One's Own Life

Planning, and Planning Well-Being

Well-Being, and Well-Being at Work

ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Attitude

Attitude and Behavior

Attitude Change

PSYCHOANALYSIS

History

Main Concepts

ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY

The Psychiatric Phase

The Phase of Archetypes and of Collective Unconscious

The Search for a New Theoretical and Cultural Synthesis

Jung's Model of the Psyche and the Individuation Process

Developments of Jung's Thought

SYSTEMIC PSYCHOLOGY

Family Therapies and Systemic Approaches

The Family as a System

Main Concepts

Clinical Issues and Specific Techniques.

Family Psychotherapy

Evolving Psychotherapeutic Models

PSYCHODYNAMICS OF GROUP RELATIONSHIPS

History

Major Concepts

Relationship to Other Perspectives

PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION AND CULTURE

Religion as (Not Only) a Quest for Meaning

Religion as the Strengthening of Self-Control

Religion as Nostalgia for Unity and for Return to the "Maternal Breast"

Religion as Paternal Protection and as a working out of Parental Relationships

Religion as an Extension of the Altruistic Imperative

Religion and Culture

Perspectives

PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACHES TO ART AND ESTHETICS

The Analysis of Works of Art. The Unconscious and Language

The Analysis of Creative Activity. Psychoanalysis as a Creative Experience

An Epistemological Issue

The Experience of Beauty and Unsettling Estheticism?

The Psychoanalytical Experience as an Esthetic Experience

INTERVIEWING AND OBSERVATION

Observation

Interviewing

EXPERIMENTATION IN PSYCHOLOGY - RATIONALE, CONCEPTS, AND ISSUES

Components of the Experiment

Types of Experiments

The Utilitarian Experiment

The Theory-Corroboration Experiment

Criticisms of Experimental Psychology Revisited

QUASI-EXPERIMENTATION

Experimentation and Quasi-Experimentation

Theory of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs

Statistical Analysis and Quasi-Experimental Design

THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND MEASURES

Psychological Tests and Measures

Do the Items Measure Just One Latent Variable?

How Much of the Observed Variation Is True Variation and How Precisely Do the Items Measure?

Measurement Decisions

Validity Theory with an Eye Toward Measurement Practice

STATISTICS AND ITS ROLE IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Descriptive Statistics

Bridging Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Effect Size and Statistical Power

ETHICAL AND LEGAL MATTERS

Psychology as a Science

Psychology as a Profession

Ethical Codes

Disciplinary Procedures

Ethical Dilemmas

Ethics and the Law

ANIMALS AS MODELS OR ANALOGS

Objections to Research in Non-Human Animals

Animal Research in the Life Sciences

Research Involving Animals Raised in Controlled Conditions

Research Involving Animals in Naturalistic Settings

Utility of the Research

Generality

EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Of Human Successes and Failures

Strengths and Limits of Human Information Processing

ATTENTION, PERCEPTION AND MEMORY

Attention

Perception

Memory

THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING

Defining Human Thinking

Methodological Approaches to Studying Complex Problem Solving

Final Comments

Complex Problem Solving: Historical Roots and Current Situation

EMOTIONS AND HUMAN HEALTH

The Nature of Emotions

Emotions and Roles

Emotional Disorders

Psychosomatic Health

Population Health

NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING

Principles

The Neural Substrate

Methods

Selected Functions

PSYCHOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO TEMPERAMENT

Historical Perspective

The Concept of Individual Differences and Main Categories to Describe Them

Temperament as a Component of Personality

The Functional Significance of Temperament

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION

Nosography of communication disturbances

Problematic aspects of the communication process

Psychological aspects associated with Problems of Communication

Psycho-pathological problems and communication

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHODYNAMICS

The Attachment Relationship and Individual Development of Psychological Awareness

Child Pathogenic Beliefs as "Silent" Risk Factors in Inhibiting Normal Development

Children's Vulnerability versus Invulnerability to Traumatic Life Events

The Influence of Unconscious Mental Operations on Children's Verbalizations and Surface Behavior

PSYCHO-GENETICS AND GENETIC INFLUENCES ON BEHAVIOR

Genetics and Behavior

Genetics and Psychiatric Disorders

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN

Cognitive Development and Caregivers

Brain Development and Cognition

THE DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY OF AGED PERSONS

Definitions

Physical Aspects of Aging

Cognitive Aging

Mental Health and Personality

Adjustment and Coping

Role Transitions

Social Functioning in Late Life

THE IMPACT OF PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS ON DEVELOPMENT

Environment and Genes

Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors

How Can We Promote Healthy Psychological Development?

THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY

A Brief History of the Person-Situation Debate

The Modern Trait Perspective

The Cognitive Perspective

The Motivational Perspective

Future Research Directions

SOCIAL INFLUENCE

The Forms of Social Influence

Social Influence Mechanisms and Techniques

Attitudes and Attitude Change

THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF SMALL GROUPS

Group Formation and Maintenance

The Influence of Groups on Individuals

Group Decision Making

Conflict Within Groups

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GROUPS

Expanding the Field: Types of Groups and Events Defining Relationships between Groups

Grapes of Wrath: Behaviors That Comprise the Relation between Groups

In the Eye of the Beholder: Intergroup Relations and Intergroup Perceptions

Improving the Relationship between Groups

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LARGE GROUPS

What are Large Groups and How Can We Study Them?

A Typology of Large Groups

Historical Approaches to Large Groups

Modern Theoretical Approaches to Large Groups

Imitation and Other Forms of Social Influence

JURIDICAL PSYCHOLOGY

The History of Juridical Psychology (with the collaboration of Antonietta Curci)

Psychological Law

Psychotherapeutic Law

PSYCHOLOGY OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION AND INTERPERSONAL INTERACTION

Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication

Components and Patterns of Nonverbal Communication

Basic Determinants of Nonverbal Communication

Functions of Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal Communication, Goals, and Social Interaction

PSYCHOLOGY OF DIVERSITY

The Concept of Diversity

The Scope of the Psychology of Diversity

Two Examples of the Study of Diversity

CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY

How Do Migrants Adapt to a New Culture?

Individual Differences in Acculturation

Intercultural Sensibility and Competence

ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATION OF CULTURAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS

The Cultural Dimension

The Temporal Dimension

ECOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY

The Psychological Tradition and the Ecological Perspective

Ecological Psychology and Environmental Psychology

POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY

First Studies in Political Psychology

The Relationship between Psychology and Politics

The Institutionalization of Political Psychology

Definitions and Meanings of Political Psychology

Areas of Research in Political Psychology

CYBERPSYCHOLOGY JUST A TESTING GROUND

Cyperpsychology

Cyberculture

The Emergence of the Seventh Continent

Dipoles in Cyberspace

Cyberpsychology: A Fuzzy Domain

Cyberpsychology in Action: A New Field of Expertise

EVOLUTION AND STRUCTURE OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Part One

Part Two: What is Consciousness?

WESTERN PHILOSOPHIES OF LAW: THE CIVIL LAW

Evolution of Civil Law

Form of Government

Organization of the Law

Organization of the Courts

Authority of the Courts

Conduct of Civil Litigation

Conduct of Criminal Prosecutions

WESTERN PHILOSOPHIES OF LAW: THE COMMON LAW

Whether there is a Philosophy of the Common Law

Origins and Growth of the Common Law

Culture of the Common Law: Lex non Scripta

The Role and Discretion of Legal Officials in the Common Law

The Artificial Reason of the Law

Selected Schools of Common Law Jurisprudence

NON-WESTERN PHILOSOPHIES OF LAW

Islamic Law

Hindu Law

Pre-Colonial Legal Traditions in Africa and the Americas

Traditional Influences on Modern Law in East Asia

LEGAL SUPPORT OF FOOD SAFETY

Food Safety

Food and Color Additives

Dietary Supplements

BUSINESS AND TRADE LAW

Formation of Agreements for International Trading of Goods: Documentary Sale and Letter of Credit

Frustrations of Contract: Excuse, Impracticability, Impossibility, Force Majeure

The GATT, Customs Classification and Valuation, Rule of Origin

Transfer of Technology and Licensing

Direct Investment: Risk Assessment, Joint Ventures, and Privatization

Options for the Resolution of International Business Disputes

COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARK AND PATENT LAW: AN OVERVIEW OF THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY FRAMEWORK IN THE UNITED STATES

Patents

Copyrights

Trademarks

CRIMINAL LAW: SUBSTANTIVE CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Substantive Criminal Law

Criminal Procedure

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: THE US MODEL

Sources of US Environmental Law

Major Substantive Areas of Federal Environmental Law and Regulation

Additional Environmental Legal and Regulatory Concerns

FAMILY LAW

Marriage

Children

Family Court

CHILD LAW

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

Definition of Child

Bioethical Issues

Parental Responsibility

Legitimacy

State Intervention

Tutorship / Guardianship

Foster Care

Adoption

Education, Health and Labor

Child’s Right to be Heard

Ombudsman/Commissioner for Children

IMMIGRATION LAW AND POLICY

Nationality

Voluntary Permanent Migration

Voluntary Temporary Migration

Forced Migration

Expulsion

The Undocumented

Current Views

TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAW: THE UNITED STATES MODEL FOR ECONOMIC REGULATION OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROVIDERS

Regulation versus Competition in Telecommunications Markets

Regulating the Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Regulation of Wire Based Telecommunications Common Carriers

TAX LAW

The Purpose of Tax Laws

Types of Taxes

TAX POLICY, ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The Taxation of International Business Profits

The Changing Business Environment under E-Commerce

The Policy Response

THE RULE OF LAW

Seven essential components of the rule of law

Controversies Over the Rule of Law

EQUITY AND THE LAW

Equity in Specific Systems of Law

Law, the Universal, and Fairness

Equity, Legal Education, and Professional Lawyers

PERSPECTIVES ON ETHICS AND JUSTICE

The Demands of Justice

The Nature of Ethics

DEMOCRACY

Introduction: The Term "Democracy" Abused

The Athenian Democracy

Democracy up to the End of the Eighteenth Century

Democracy in the Nineteenth Century

Democracy in the Twentieth Century

CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT

What is Constitutional Government?

Constitutional Features Across the World

State Format and Executive Powers

The Role of Assemblies and the Judiciary

Constitutional Government: Who Rules and Who Benefits?

AUTHORITARIAN SYSTEM

Totalitarian and Authoritarian Political Structures

Authoritarianism and Sovereignty

Force, Power and Authority

The European Experience in Dictatorship

Authoritarianism and the Military in Modern Asia

Authoritarianism and Society

COMMUNIST SYSTEM

Origins and Early Development

The Communist Party

Institutional Framework

The Command Economy

The Roles of Coercion, Consent, and Complicity

The Collapse of Communism

Characterizing the Communist System

MILITARY GOVERNMENT

The Coup d'etat

The Military in Government

The Return to the Barracks

Civilian Control

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GOVERNMENT

Introduction: Economic Development as Interplay of Markets and Government

The Idea of Mercantilism

Adam Smiths Moral Economy and Self-regulating Markets

Socialist Critiques of Capitalism

Governments and Markets in a Polarized Age

Recent Theories of Economic Development

From Economic Growth to Human Development

Political Science on Markets and Government

The Study of Economic Development as Moral and Political Economy

LEGISLATURE

Functions of Legislature

Unicameral and Bicameral Systems

Committee System

Procedure

Legislative-Executive Relations

Decentralization and Supranational Organizations

JUDICIARY

Definition and Variations

The History of the Judiciary and its Justification in Principle

The Separation of Powers

Protections for Judicial Independence

The Limits of the Judicial Function

The Reality of Judicial Power

CABINET AND PRESIDENCY

Conventional Typology of Political Executives

Varieties of Cabinet and Presidency

Transitional Democracies

Governmental System, Leadership, and Performance

FEDERAL SYSTEM

Definition

History

Causes

Features

BUREAUCRACIES

Origin of the Term

Webers Conceptualization

Four Usages of the Term

Hierarchy and Bureaucracy

Interface with Society

International Varieties

Criticism and Recent Developments

GOVERNMENT FINANCE

Government Expenditure

Financing Government Expenditure

The Size of the Fiscal Cake

The Budgetary Process

ELECTION AND VOTING

The functions of elections

The franchise

Electoral systems

Majority or plurality voting

Proportional representation (PR)

Semi-proportional systems

Evaluation of electoral systems

Presidential elections

Use of referenda

Influences upon voters choice

POLITICAL PARTIES

The Emergence of Political Parties in the Modern Era

Conservative and Progressive Parties

Classification of Political Party System

Political Parties in the Political System

Political Party Systems of the World

Democracy, Freedom and Party System into the Twenty-first Century

INTEREST GROUPS

Theory of Interest Groups

Realities of Interest Associations

PUBLIC OPINION AND MASS MEDIA

Historical Overview

Contemporary Public Opinion and Media Studies

Cultural Studies’ Perspective

The Public and Opinion

DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL POLITICS

Local Government and Central–Local Relationship

Local Autonomy System

Local Politics

Decentralization Reform

POWER STRUCTURE

Human Beings, Power, and Structure

Understanding and Perceiving Power

Relational Power Structure

Power Structure, the Constitution, and the Law

Power Structure and Political Ideology

Power Structure and the Media

LIBERALISM

Various Liberalisms

Historical Origins and Development

Liberal Responses to Criticisms against Liberalism

Contemporary Liberals and their Adversaries

Challenges against Liberalism in the Twenty-First Century

NATIONALISM

What is Nationalism?

What is a Nation?

Nationalist Movements

Nationalism and Modernity

Types of Nations and Nationalisms

Problems with Nationalism

Advantages of Nationalism

CONSERVATISM

Introduction: "Conservatism"—A Protean Word

A Brief Historical Retrospect

Common Features of Various Versions of Conservatism

Three Types of Modern Conservative Theory

ANARCHISM

The Etymological Basis of Anarchism

The Epistemological Basis of Anarchism

Anarchical Individualism

Anarchical Communalism

SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM

The Early History of Socialism and Communism

The Role of Karl Marx

The Role of Lenin

The Critique of Capitalism

Methods and Values

The Collapse of Communism

The Future of Socialism

HUMAN RIGHTS

Defining Human Rights

Historical Development of Philosophical Thinking on Human Rights

Twentieth Century Discussions of Rights

Contemporary Challenges

Constitutions and Declarations

The Implementation of Human Rights

Trends in the Discussion and Political Recognition of Rights

ECOLOGISM

The Roots of Ecologism

Ecologism and Environmentalism

The Nature of the Environment

The Casualties of Environmental Problems

Ecologism and Other Political Theories

Ecologism and Sustainability

Green Policies

Green Action

The Future of Ecologism

FEMINISM

Liberal Feminism

Socialist (Marxist) Feminism

Radical Feminism

Psychoanalytic Feminism

Postmodernist Feminism

The Future of Feminism

RELIGION AND POLITICS

The Sociology of Religion

Fundamentalism and Modernity

Fundamentalist Theology

The Social Strata of Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism’s Life Ethic

Fundamentalism and Politics

REALISM

The Pursuit of Power

International Anarchy and States’ Need for Survival

The Twentieth-century Realism: Criticism of Utilitarianism

Individuals and Groups

Human Nature: Egoism and Morality

Autonomy of Politics

REGIONALISM

Transition in the International System

Regionalism, Regionalization and Region

Levels of Regionalism

Approaching Regionalism

New International Political Economy

ACTORS IN WORLD POLITICS

Defining and Identifying Actors in World Politics

The Declining Authority of States and the Rise of Transnational Relations

Different Perspectives and Actors in World Politics

Transnational Relations and Contending Theoretical Approaches

INTERNATIONAL REGIMES

Introduction: Why are Scholars Interested in International Regimes Being?

Defining International Regimes

Changes of International Regimes

Why and By Whom International Regimes are Created?

Does International Regime Theory Give Something New?

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM

Systemic Approach

Analytical Term

Historical Term

Prospects for a New System

BROADENING THE CONCEPT OF PEACE AND SECURITY

The Quest for Peace and Security: Traditional Approach

The Broadening of Ideas of Security

The Broadening of Ideas of Peace

The International Security System Challenged

MAGAZINES

Early History

Types of Publications

Magazine Advertising

MOTION PICTURES

History

Censorship and Government Aid

Cultural Hegemony

Cultural Imperialism

Convergence of Media Technologies and Consolidation of Media Ownership

The Future of Motion Pictures

NEWSLETTERS, NEWSPAPERS, PAMPHLETS

Newsletters

Printing and the Rise of Newspapers and Pamphlets

The Twentieth Century and the Decline of the Newspaper Medium

The Future of Newspapers

THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADIO

Historical Developments of Radios Timeline

Societal Uses of Radio

Future Direction of Radios Development

THE EVOLUTION OF TELEVISION IN THE USA

Early Years of Broadcasting

US Television Programming Since the 1940s

US Broadcast Regulation

Effects of Television on Society

The Future of Television

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATIONS

Books

Newspapers

Magazines

Radio

Television

Newer Media

MOVING SUSTAINABILITY ONTO THE MEDIA AGENDA

Media Coverage of Sustainability

Case Study: Effect of the President’s Council on Sustainable Development

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA NETWORKS

Development of International Communication

Networks Using News Agencies/Wire Services

Non-Alignment Movement Creates Different Networks

Broadcast Networks

Problems Encountered

Future of International Communication

TRADITIONAL AND MODERN MEDIA

Introduction: Traditional, Modern, and Postmodern Media

Storytelling as the Core of Traditional and Modern Media

The Evolution of Puppetry as an Entertainment Medium

Potential for Entertainment Education

Technology Innovations in Traditional and Modern Media

Concern over Technological Developments

Defining Moments in Traditional and Modern Media History

POPULAR CULTURE

Historical Genealogy

Contemporary Issues

IDENTITY FORMATION AND DIFFERENCE IN MASS MEDIA

Facets of Identity Development: Class, Gender and Sexuality, Race and Ethnicity, and Nationhood

Interlocking Identities

CULTURE OF CONSUMPTION

Historical and Theoretical Approaches

Re-signifying Consumption

Components of Contemporary Consumption

The Future

MEDIA GLOBALIZATION AND LOCALIZATION

Can Global Media Support Meaning and Expression in Local Lives?

Situating Contemporary Media in Socio-historical, Political, Economic, and Cultural Contexts

The Origins of Media Globalization

Basic Elements of Communication Media

Think, Act, Communicate—Locally as well as Globally

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION AND WORLD AFFAIRS

Communication and World Order

The Traditional Paradigm

Paradigm Shift

International Communication and Sustainable Development

THE INFORMATION ECONOMY AND THE INTERNET

Transformation from Industrial to Postindustrial to Information Economies

Transformation of the Internet

Information as a Commodity and a Source of Competitive Advantage

Changes, Challenges, and Concerns

Unexpected Benefits of the Information Economy: the Environment and Sustainable Development

The Information Economy in Developing Nations

CULTURE, INSTITUTIONS, AND ORGANIZATIONS ON THE INTERNET

The Internet, Mass Communication, and Culture

Initial Technological and Cultural Aspects of the Internet

The Internet as a New Marketplace of Ideas

The Internet as a Postmodern Cultural Space

The Internet and Social Interaction

Internet Culture and Participation

INTERNET ACCESS, COST AND THE INFORMATION GAP

Hardware and Software: Primary Factors of the "Digital Divide"

Gender and Unequal Access

Contents-Related Aspects of the Information Gap

The Digital Divide: Structural Causes

Being Connected: Potential Benefits and Disadvantages

Bridging the Ravine

GOVERNMENT AND GOVERNANCE IN THE NETWORK AGE: CAN CYBERSPACE REALLY BE REGULATED?

Governments’ Attempts to Regulate the Internet

Internet Regulation in the Middle East

Cybercommunities and the Governance of Cyberspace

The Internet and the Law

THE INTERNET AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Development and Sustainability

Informatization

History of the Internet

Rate of Adoption of the Internet

The Digital Divide

Technopolises as Perspectives on the Future

Globalization

Privatization

Informatization in India

Informatization in Singapore

The Twenty-first Century

INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES

The Diffusion of Interactive Media Technologies

Success and Failure in Development of Interactive Media

Characteristics of Interactive Multimedia and Digital Technologies

The Convergence of Electronics, Computers and Telecommunications

Promoting Sustainable Development in a Global Digital Economy

Defining Moments in Multimedia and Interactive Media History

THE RESTRUCTURING OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS: TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMICS AND POLICY

Characteristics of Telecommunications Networks

Key Policy Issues

MEDIA OLIGARCHY: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INTERNET MEDIA

Background: Deregulation, Mergers, and Acquisitions

Media Oligarchs in Cyberspace

Implications for Entrepreneurship

MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION, COMMUNICATION AND MEDIA RESOURCES

A Changing Environment

Media Management in a New Millennium

Trends and Management Implications

COMMUNICATION IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

Challenges

Opportunities

MASS MEDIA IN SUPPORT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Dominant Paradigm of Modernization

Debate on Sustainable Development

Role of Media in Support of Sustainable Development

TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY

Introduction: the Role of Telecommunications Policy

The History of Telecommunications Policy

Approaches to Studying Telecommunications Policy

Telecommunications and the South

Telecommunications Policy and a Globalized Future

SUSTAINABILITY

What is Sustainability?

Sustainability: A Definition

Barriers to Sustainability

Issues

COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGNS ADVOCATING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Ten-Step Campaign Planning Process

The Importance of Democratic Public Participation

Examples of Communication Campaigns Involving Environmental Sustainability Issues

AN OPERATIONAL MODEL FOR ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

The Natural Step

The Seven Fronts

The Prototypical Model

COMMUNICATING A POLITICS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

What is Sustainable Development?

Public Understandings of Sustainable Development

Public Ignorance and Misunderstanding about Sustainable Development

Public Rejection of Sustainable Development

Democracy, Communication and Sustainable Development

INTERNATIONAL COVERAGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Theoretical Framework and Background

Methodology

Results

Discussion

UNITY OF KNOWLEDGE AND TRANSDISCIPLINARITY: CONTEXTS OF DEFINITION, THEORY AND THE NEW DISCOURSE OF PROBLEM SOLVING

Definition

Transdisciplinarity and Sustainability

The Nature of Transdisciplinary Knowledge

The Relational Pluralism of Transdisciplinarity

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND MORAL KNOWLEDGE IN CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY

Technical, Moral, and Scientific Knowledge in Classical Antiquity

The Legitimacy of Technology in Ancient Myth and Philosophy

The Legitimacy of the Use of Nature

The Ancient Critics of Technology

DIFFERENTIATION OF SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINES: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

Unit Divisions of Knowledge: Classificatory and Archival Functions of Disciplines

Disciplines as Production and Communication Systems

The Modern System of Scientific Disciplines

The Future of the Scientific Discipline

HOLISM IN THE SCIENCES

Holism in biology

Holism in physics

Holism in the social sciences

PHILOSOPHICAL HOLISM

Holism in epistemology and semantics

Holism in methodology

Holism in ontology

A philosophical characterization of holism

INTEGRATING KNOWLEDGE IN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

Postacademic Science: A New Mode of Knowledge Production?

An Institutional Perspective on Science and the Societal Application Context

A Conceptional Observation on the Relationship between Science, Technology, and Indus

Scientific Knowledge, Technical-Industrial Innovations, and Uncertainty

Heteronomization of Science: The Reverse Side of the Scientification of Society

An Open Question

TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL COOPERATION: ORIGINS AND PARADIGMS

Science and Society—Dealing with Relevance

Natural and Social Science—Dealing with Complexity

Sustainable Development—A Common Value?

Consequences of Transdisciplinary Research and Future Perspectives

TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA: SOCIAL-ECONOMIC-NATURAL COMPLEX ECOSYSTEM AND ECOPOLIS DEVELOPMENT

Human Ecology Thinking on Sustainability in China

Understanding the Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem

Ecopolis Development: Planning Sustainable Community

Action with Nature: Pilot Studies of Ecopolis Development in China

PROBLEM TRANSFORMATIONS IN TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

The Emergence of Transdisciplinary Research for Sustainability

Process Models for Transdisciplinary Research

Problems: The Fountainhead of Science

Problem Processing in Transdisciplinary Research Processes

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND MODELING IN TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

Systems Analysis

Modeling

METHODS FOR SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT: SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS

Sustainability: Definitions and Implications

Sustainability Theory: The Triple Bottom Line

What Are Sustainability Indicators?

The Political Context and Content of Sustainability Analysis

Aggregated Sustainability Indicators

Visualization and Communication

INCOMMENSURABILITY OF KNOWLEDGE: THEORIES AND VALUES

Incommensurability of Theories

Incommensurability of Values

MANAGEMENT OF TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

Introduction: Relevance of Management Skills in Transdisciplinary Research

Managing How, What, and Who

Analyses of Empirical Examples

Future Perspectives and Challenges

EVALUATION OF TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

Investigating the Significance of Transdisciplinary Research

Evaluation by a Scientific Community

Fact Finding by Meta Scientific Evaluation

Meta Scientific Explanations of Transdisciplinary Research

Evaluation by Politics

Evaluation by Communication with the Public and the Media

Participative Evaluation

Tailoring Evaluation

SCIENCE POLICY FOR TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

Transdisciplinarity

Science Policy

Science Policy for Transdisciplinary Research

TRANSDISCIPLINARITY AND DISCIPLINARITY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF THE FUTURE

Introduction: Universities and the socialization of knowledge production

Disciplines and transdisciplinarity

Theoretical models of the role of universities and disciplines

Evidence of academic transdisciplinarity

The University of the Future

FOUNDATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE

Characteristics of Culture

Material Culture

Intellectual culture

Culture as social organization

The value of culture

CULTURE AS A MANIFESTATION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY

Culture: The Human Way of Life

Origins of Culture

Nature, Human Action, and Culture

Culture and Cultures

SORTING OUT CULTURE BY TYPE OR OTHERWISE - TOWARDS A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE AND INTERCULTURAL RELATIONS

An ontological inventory of culture

The concept of culture and its delimitation

The cosmic influence on civilisation

Identification patterns of culture

To leave a living name behind

Culture building

INTERPRETATION OF SYMBOLS

Philosophy of Symbolic Forms

The Philosophical Analysis of Language and Text: Hermeneutics

Textual Content Analysis

DIVERSITY AND UNITY IN THE CULTURAL HERITAGE OF PEOPLES, STATES AND HUMANITY

Brief history of concept of cultural unity from Herder to Lenin

Historical definitions of cultural diversity

Contemporary definitions of culture

Hybrid cultures

Promoting a culture of mutual respect for cultural difference

Introduction

TRADITIONS, INNOVATIONS AND DISCONTINUATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE

Tradition

Innovation

Discontinuities

PROTECTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AS SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES

Museums

Social Dimensions

Political Dimensions

Economic Dimensions

CULTURE IN CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION

The Role of Custom and Tradition in Contemporary Civilization

High and Popular Culture

Multicultural and multi-ethnic societies

Cultural diversity and globalization

Culture and Identity in Modern Civilization

MODERN AND TRADITIONAL CULTURES

Point of Differences

Do Traditional Cultures Exist?

Opposition between Traditional and Modern Cultures in Western Discourses and Practices

Opposition between Traditional and Modern Cultures in Post-colonial Discourses and Practices

IMPERIALISM, RESISTANCE, AND CULTURE

What is Imperialism?

What is Culture?

Western Imperialism as an Offspring of Culture

Resistance and Defensive Cultures

STRUCTURE OF CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION FORMS

Contingent structures and essentials in the phenomenon of culture

Structures in the concept of culture

Structures of culture in action

Communication forms

KINDS, FORMS AND ATTRIBUTES OF CULTURAL ACTIVITY

Creation and Perception of aesthetic objects

LOCAL CULTURES AND GLOBAL DYNAMICS

The impact of colonialism and globalization on local and national cultures

Dissipative structures in global economic and cultural relationships

The social and cultural costs of globalization

CULTURAL EXCHANGE

Belief systems, Law and Custom

Philosophy, Art and Science

WEST/EAST AND NORTH/SOUTH DIALOGUE OF CULTURES INTERCULTURALITY AND COMMUNICATION

The Concept

The Term

The Development

The Applied Semiotics of Intercultural Communication

GLOBAL INFORMATIONAL FLUXES AND NATIONAL CULTURAL VALUES

The Information Society

Telecommunication Culture and Its Impact on Society

Information Globalization and National Cultures

CULTURAL INTEGRATION AND NATIONAL ORIGINALITY OF CULTURES

Some Basic Issues

Cultural Integration and Differentiation

Culture in the Paradigm of Globalization

CULTURE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Backflash

The development haggle

New Global Ethics

Which culture for whom ?

The status of indigenous cultures within sustainable development

ECOLOGY OF CULTURE

Organism and Environment

Ecological Constraints of Human Cultural Evolution

The Human Impact

Applied Ecology, Culture, and Bioethics

CULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

The challenge

Risk research and communication conflict

Water talk an African field study

Objectives

CULTURAL CHANGE PHENOMENA

Tradition as collective memory

Notions as forces in cultural history

Traditions vs. innovation theories

MEMORISTS

Memorizing the face: Skulls and sculpture

Memorizing the will of the gods

Memorizing the heroes: ballads and epics

Memorizing the kings: praise poems

Memorizing the people: struggle poems

Testimonies of victims of human rights violations

Maps of memory

Dancing a memory

The melody of a memory

Mnemotechnic

The relationship between raconteur and audience

CREATORS

Creation Myth

Imitation (mimesis)

Liberation of arts and artist

Artist as genius and creator

Artist, genius, creator, thinker

VISIONARIES

The behaviour of the visionary

The artist as "insane"

The divine origin of visionary art

OUTSIDERS

The position of the artist within society

Typology of the Outsider

Outsider-Organizations

Outsider groups as artistic firebrands

Outsiders by means of scandals

Changing times

NOMADS

Anthropological definition

Philosophical application

Nomadic art in the past

Nomadic art in the present

TYPOLOGY OF AUDIENCES

Audiences

Attributes

Relevance in a redefined global Context

Towards a new Typology of Audiences

INFLUENCES OF AUDIENCES ON THE ARTS

Post-Romantic Conception

Art, Artistic Field and the Role of Audiences

Typololgy of Audiences and Mode of Influence

Influence through Reception

DISTRIBUTORS AND ORGANIZERS

The cultural public and its relationship to the artist

Producers

Distributors

Organizers

Collecting art and making it available

The Internet

EDUCATION

The benefits of the arts

The concept of taste

Imagination

The aesthetic experience

Art education in general

Art as subject of education in schools and colleges

Classifying arts according to their mediums

Music Education

Art Museums

Art Galeries on the Web

The Paul Getty ArtsEdNet

Arts education for our modern world

TONE

The special apparatus to produce speech sounds

The psychology of sound processing in humans

Expressive functions of tone

IMAGE

Image as Sign

Image and Mediation

Image as Artifact

Techno(logical) Image

Image as Idea

Verbal Image

SCRIPT

Types of writing systems

The history of scripts

The uses of script

Ease of learning

Beautiful writing: calligraphy

DIRECT COMMUNICATION

Communication in face to face situations

Body language and ritual communication

Social constraints

Distant communication: Letters

Distant communication: telegraph, telephone, wireless telephony

Distant communication: e-mail and chatting

Privacy of direct communication

Official languages, dominant languages, lingua franca

Visual Communication: Fashion, Implements

Music as communication

MASS COMMUNICATION

From communication "in real life" to communication in mass media

Globalization of communication

Mass communication in religion

Mass communication in politics

Mass communication and the arts

The convergence of media

ART -CENTRES AND TRANSNATIONAL PROCESSES

Hybridity and new internationalism

Movements of informal networks

Geocultural perspectives and new art-centres

THE ARTS AND GLOBALIZATION

Reevaluation of values and reinvention of identity

"World Literature" and Globalization

Global and Local: A Typology of Arts

COMMUNICATION-MEDIA-SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND CATHARSIS OF IDEAS

Ancient Model and Sustainable Development

The Recent Model and its Limitation

The Advent of a "Word ", Collapse of a World

Radio Play- Its scope and Range

Theater – Its Approach and Appeal

News Film and Documentary – Its Sensitivity and Sensibility

Print Media- The Nuances

Conclusion

STRATEGIC BEHAVIOR

Examples of Games

The Strategic Form

Nash Equilibrium

The Tragedy of the Commons

THE ECONOMICS OF BARGAINING

Bargaining Situations and Bargaining

The Nash Bargaining Solution

The Rubinstein Model

Risk of Breakdown

Outside Options

Inside Options

Asymmetric Information

Repeated Bargaining Situations

PUBLIC GOODS

What are Public Goods?

Voluntary Contributions

The Model

Efficient Public Projects

Inefficiency of Competitive Equilibrium

Inefficiency of Benefit Taxation

Groves Mechanisms

Extensions

MACROECONOMICS: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Scope of Macroeconomics

The Keynesian View of Unemployment

Money, Keynes, and the Classics

New Classical Macroeconomics

Other Developments

THE NEW GROWTH THEORY

What is Knowledge?

The Adoption Models

Invention Models

Education and Growth

OVERLAPPING GENERATIONS MODELS

Samuelson’s canonical example of an OLG model

Existence and efficiency of competitive equilibria

Competitive equilibria with fiat money

Intergenerational transfers and trust

Concluding remarks on future research

MONEY: IN TRANSACTIONS AND FINANCE

The Scope of this Article

What is Money?

What Money Does

Efficiency and Exchange

An Economy without Money

Medium of Exchange

Store of Value

Properties of the Monetary Instrument

Banks and Banking: Monetization of Capital

Central Banking

FINANCIAL MARKETS

Pricing and Hedging

Optimal Portfolio-Consumption Choice

Financial Markets Equilibria

Term Structure

DECISION MAKING UNDER UNCERTAINTY

Expected Utility

Sequential Decision Making

Games as Multi-Person Decision Theory

Uses and Extensions

SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

Sustainable Growth: Concepts and Framework

Economic Growth Without Environmental Factors: A Basic Model

Sustainable Growth With Nonrenewable Resources

Sustainable Growth With Environmental Decay

Alternative Criteria for Intertemporal Optimality

ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS AND GLOBAL WARMING

Global Warming

Global Warming and Economic Theory

Global Warming and Intergenerational Equity

The International Fund for Atmospheric Stabilization

Social Overhead Capital

Natural Environment as Social Overhead Capital

Optimum Provisions of Social Overhead Capital

Sustainability and the Agricultural Commons

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FOR DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

Economy—Environment Relationship

Environmental Capital Base and Environmental Crisis

Population and Environment

Economic Growth and Environmental Quality

Development Process and Sustainability of Environmental Resource Base in Developing Economies: Soil, Water, Forestry, and Biodiversity

Exhaustible Resources and Sustainability of Development Process in Developing Economies

Sink Limitation

Trade and the Environment

The Concept of Sustainable Resource Use: Sustainable Accounting and Collective Action

ECONOMICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

A Lake Management Problem

Uncertainty, Values, Political Considerations, Regulatory Costs

RENEWABLE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Four Bioeconomic Models

Special Cases: Fisheries, Forestry, and Groundwater

Impediments to Resource Management

RELIGION, CULTURE, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

ENVIRONMENT AND RELIGION IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: THE ROLE OF SACRIFICE IN THE XANGO OF RECIFE(BRAZIL)

Previous Literature

The Xango and the City

Rituals and Victuals

The Inputs of Reciprocity

Final Remarks

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND NATIONAL GOVERNANCE: THE CHALLENGES AHEAD

Sustainability and National Governance

Principles for National Governance

National Laws and Institutions

SOVEREIGNTY OVER, OWNERSHIP OF, AND ACCESS TO NATURAL RESOURCES

Sovereignty Over Natural Resources

Ownership of Natural Resources

CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND COMMON SPACES

Own Natural Resources

Shared Natural Resources

Common Spaces

BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND ENDANGERED SPECIES PROTECTION

The Decline in Biological Diversity

A Regulatory Framework for Biodiversity Conservation

REGENERATING, RENEWING, REVIVING THE HEART OF HUMAN SOCIETY

Genesis Relived

The wounded heart

Terminating life

ROLE OF GENDER AND FAMILY IDENTITIES IN HUMAN HISTORY

Definitions

The History of Family

The History of Gender

LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY

NON-HUMAN PRIMATES AND COMMUNICATION

Primate Vocal Production Abilities

Social Cognition

Language Precursors in Non-human Primates

Vocal Communication in Great Apes

APE LANGUAGE STUDIES

Early Ape Language Research

Two-way Interspecies Communication

New Methodologies

Criticisms

LANGUAGES IN CONTACT

History of language contact research

The foundations of the theory of languages in contact

Terminology

Contact linguistics

Conflict linguistics

ACQUISITION OF A FIRST LANGUAGE

LANGUAGE SOCIALIZATION

Beginnings of the Paradigm

Theoretical Foundations

Methodology

Insights

Relevance to Social Issues

GESTURE AS CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC PRACTICE

Recent Approaches to Gesture

Gesture: What Is It, and What Is It not?

Forms and Meanings: Universals, Specifics, and Etymologies

Ideologies

LANGUAGE, COGNITION AND THOUGHT

Introduction and Basic Concepts

Issues

Approaches

LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY AND SPATIAL LANGUAGE

The Linguistic Relativity Paradigm: Genesis and Recent History

The Linguistic Relativity Paradigm and Spatial Language

Beyond Linguistic Relativity

Cognition as Theory

LANGUAGE AND GENDER

Gender as a communicative process

Man-made language

Women’s language? Difference vs. dominance

Language reform

LANGUAGE SHIFT AND MAINTENANCE

Structural Functional Tendencies in Language Shift

How Does Language Praxis Emerge?

Language Shift and Linguistic Ideology

Language Maintenance and its Relationship to Shift

On the Advocacy of Language Maintenance: Some Generalizations

Relevance of Language Shift and Maintenance Studies for Theoretical and Human Concerns: Concluding Remarks

APPLIED LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY

MULTILINGUALISM AND LANGUAGE PLANNING

Multilingualism

Language planning in historical perspective

Language planning as a discipline

Terminological difficulties

Language minorities

Language planning research: outlook

LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION

Theorizing Language and Power

Past Trends

Future Trends

DOCUMENTING ENDANGERED LANGUAGES AND MAINTAINING LANGUAGE DIVERSITY

Language Endangerment and Endangered Languages

Language Documentation and Maintenance

LINGUISTICS: NATURE, HISTORY, SCOPE AND BROAD APPLICATIONS

SOCIOLINGUISTICS

SOCIOLINGUISTIC VARIATION AND CHANGE

Sociolinguistics and the Study of Variation and Change

Methods for Studying Variation and Change

Linguistic Constraints on Variation

Social Dimensions of Variation

Directions in the Sociolinguistic Study of Variation and Change

LANGUAGE AND IDENTITY

Introduction

Identity in General

Language and Identity I: the Individual

Language and Identity II: the Community

Case Studies

Conclusions

SIGN LANGUAGES

The visual-gestural nature of sign languages

The grammar of sign languages

The sociolinguistics of sign languages

The acquisition of sign languages

Sign bilingualism

PIDGINS AND CREOLES

Some general properties of pidgins and creoles

Pidgins: Incipient communication

Creoles: Expansion, stabilization and variability

Theoretical models and current trends in PC studies

The (post)creole continuum and decreolization

New trends

Conclusion

CODE-SWITCHING

Definitions and terminology

Various approaches to studying code-switching

Attitudes toward code-switching

Conclusion

LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

Language teaching methodology

Second language acquisition (SLA)

SOCIOLOGY

WORLD CIVILIZATION

NONVIOLENT ALTERNATIVES FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

COUNTERING WITH NONVIOLENCE THE PERVASIVE STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE OF EVERYDAY LIFE- THE CASE OF A SMALL ITALIAN TOWNSHIPS

Introduction

Background of the Project

General Rationale of this Chapter

Methodology

Theoretical Assumptions

Specific Aspects of the Project

Operational Strategies

Neotopia

The Future

Conclusion

PATHS TO SOCIAL CHANGE: CONVENTIONAL POLITICS, VIOLENCE AND NON VIOLENCE

Three Approaches to Social Change

Track Records

Participation in Social Change

Means and Ends

Suffering

Conclusion

COMPARATIVE LITERATURE AND THE PLURAL VISION OF DISCOURSE

Aesthetic Historicism, French Influence Study, and American Parallelism

The Discourse of Triumph and of Crisis

A Global Perspective and Plural Vision

Conclusion

THE NOTION OF COMPARING AND THE MEETING OF THE FRAGMENTS

The One and the Many

The Ages of the Verbal Arts

Unity and Fragmentation

Toward a Semiotics of Number

HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF LITERATURE

The Concept of Literature

Oral Literature

Literature in Ancient Civilizations with Writing

Literature in Classical Literary Cultures I: China

Literature in Classical Literary Cultures II: India, Europe, and Arabic Culture

Changes in European Societies and Literatures Around 1800

Modern Literary Culture: From Around 1800 to the Present

Literature: Its Mode of Operation and Its Value

The Study of Literature

Conclusion

LANGUAGES AND CULTURAL DIALOGUES

Cultures

Languages

Dialogue

Conclusion

HERMENEUTICS NEED AND THE INEVITABILITY OF COMPARING

Understanding and Comparing as Basic to the Human Condition

Brief History of Interpretation

Brief History of Comparative Literature

Reading the World – Connecting Cultures

Globalism: From Disjuncture to Conjuncture

PLASTIC ARTS AND LITERATURE

Introduction

The Iconic Origins of Writing

From the Ideogram to the Alphabet

Figures of the Alphabet

From the Art of Memory to Ekphrasis

From the Era of the Manuscript to that of the Printed Book

The Return to Ideograms

Literature and Painting in China and Japan

RELATIONS BETWEEN LITERATURE AND MUSIC IN THE CONTEXT OF A GENERAL TYPOLOGY OF INTERMEDIALITY

Introduction: The Multiplicity of Musico-Literary Relations as a Typological Challenge

Extra- vs. Intracompositional Intermediality and Scher's Typology of Musico-Literary Relations

Variants of Extracompositional Intermediality and their Relevance to Word and Music Studies

Variants of Intracompositional Intermediality and their Relevance to Word and Music Studies

A General Typology of Intermediality Illustrated with Musico-Literary Examples

Beyond Typology: Perspectives of Musico-Literary Research

LITERATURE AND FILM: MODERNITY – MEDIUM – ADAPTATION

Introduction

Toward a Critical Convergence of Modern Literature and Film

Adaptation in Theory and Practice

Conclusion: No End in Sight

LITERATURE AND THE OTHER ARTS: THE POINT OF VIEW OF SEMIOTICS

Introduction: The Semiotic Framework

Poetry, Language, and Music

Aesthetics of Writing, Visual Form, and Literature

Literature and the Visual Arts

Conclusion

LITERATURE, EXACT AND BIOPHYSICAL SCIENCES

Science and Literature: theoretical debates

Debating the claim to truth: past to present trends

Elective affinities: Literature and the sciences

Conclusion

NARRATIVE IN HISTORY / HISTORY IN NARRATIVE

Introduction: narrative and history in the allied paradigms of historicism and realism

The alliance breaks up

“Postmodern” – and its critics

Conclusion: literature and the present-day aporias

ANTHROPOLOGY, COMPARATIVE LITERATURE, ETHNIC LITERATURE AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY

Introduction

Anthropology as the Study of Man

Myth and Folklore–The Writing of Culture and Cultural Writing

Culture and Counter-Culture

Comparative Literature, Ethnic Literature, and the Canon

The Death of the Author and the Life of the Culture

Text as Native Informant and Anthropologist

LITERATURE AND PSYCHOANALYSIS

Introduction

Freud and Literature

Reading with Freud

Freedom of Allegiance

Final Remarks

LITERARY IMAGINATION: CRITICISM AND RESEARCH

Introduction

The Romantic Movement

Literature, Imagination and Literary Symbol: The Imagination as a Means of Highlighting or Constructing Symbols

Literature, Imagination and Image: How the Imagination is linked to the Representation of the Absent Object

Imagination, Imaginary and Anthropology

The Imaginary and Mythcriticism

Psychoanalysis

Imagination and Critical Power (The Surrealists)

Imagination and Cultural Codes

Imagination and Transgression, Imagination and Reading

LITERATURE AND PHILOSOPHY

Literature under the Tutelage of Philosophy

The Age of Aesthetics

The Split between Literature and Philosophy

What it Means to Think in Literature

EPISTEMOLOGICAL FRONTIER CRISS-CROSSING

The rise of disciplinary knowledge: setting epistemological frontiers

The emergence of Literary Studies: redrawing of frontiers

First challenge: the idea of Comparative Literature

Second challenge: the project of Cultural Studies

The frontier as a shared/sharing condition of identity formation

LITERATURE AND MASS-MEDIA- THE SPECTACLE OF WRITING

At First Sight

The Ubiquity of Literature, or Writing, Lies and Videotapes

On Photography —Off Photography

From Opera to Soap Opera

A Museum of Mimesis: The Popular Archive

A New (Visual) Literacy

THE IMPACT OF MEDIA ON LITERATURE

Current Media Theory and Media Studies

Historical Examples

Conclusion

LITERARY JOURNALS

Ontology and History: The Beginnings of the Literary Journal

The French Avatar: Journal Des Savants

The English Models: Spectator and Tatler

Diffusion and Differentiation

The Evolution of the Literary in the 19th Century

The 20th Century Avant-Garde Finds Its Perfect Form

21st Century Literary Journals: The Brave New World of Print and Digital, or, "The Literary Journal is Dead; Long Live The Literary Journal"

CRITICISM AND MEDIA

Media, Modernism and the Social Conditions of Art: A Diagnosis by Meyer Schapiro

Towards Literary Formalism: Partisan Review

Mass Culture and its Discontents: Clement Greenberg

Critical Theory and Culture Industry

Theories of Pure Art in a Mass Society

The Autonomy of Art

Organicism in Literary Criticism

The Institution of Literary Criticism: F. R. Leavis

The Fetishism of Text: the New Criticism

Functionalism and the fallacy of Gesellschaft

The ‘Other’ American Sociology: The Loss of Individual Autonomy

The Decay of the Aura and Reproduction Technologies: Walter Benjamin

Avant-Garde as an Alternative to Modernism

The Celebration of Mass Culture: Marshall McLuhan

The Decline of Modernism

The "New Sensibility" and the Children of Marx and Coca-Cola

Postmodernism as the Cultural Logic of Advanced Capitalism

The Imperial Pretensions of Culturalism and the Devaluation of Nature

CRITICISM AND EDUCATION

Introduction: The Context of Education Today

Two Meanings of "Global Communication"

Criticism, Responsibility and Dialogue from a Semioethic Perspective

Verbal and Non-Verbal Signs in the Educational Process

Literary Writing

ALTERNATIVE FORMS IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF LITERATURE

Ends and Means: Under the Empire of the Book

Past and Future Alternatives: The Forms of Sensoriality from Oral to Hypertext

The Persistence of Oral Traditions

Alternative and sub-literary: the uses of illiteracy. ‘Special interest’ Literature

‘Alternative’ as Marginal: From Counterculture to Counter-Canon

When the Books are Banned: Samizdats and other Desperate Alternatives

Blogs and the Forthcoming End of the Book Era

COMPARATIVE LITERATURE IN THE AGE OF GLOBAL CHANGE

IMPACTS OF CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENTS ON GENERAL AND COMPARATIVE LITERATURE

The Search for Interdisciplinarity

The Impact of Technology and Literature’s Interdisciplinarity

Conclusions and Challenges

TECHNOLOGIES AND LITERATURES

Which Technologies for a Globalized World

What's Really New?

Which Literatures and Which Technologies for a Sustainable Development?

Which Technologies for a Globalized World

Conclusion

THE RELEVANCE OF DISTINCTIVE KINDS OF SUPPORTING MATERIALS

Socio-Cultural Dimension: Knowledge Preservation and Different Types of Supporting Materials.

The Economic Dimension of Text Supporting Materials

The Institutional Dimension: Textual Mass Production and Control

Textual and Global Issues: the Local within the Global

The Environmental Dimension: Preservation of our Natural Capital

Conclusion

INTERACTIVITY AND OPEN-ENDING(LITERARY WORKS)

Definitions

Interactivity and Reading

Narrativity and Open-Ending

Conclusion

VIRTUAL TRIPS

The Epistemology of the Journey: Narrating our Life Stories

Journeys, Representations and Technology

Embodied and Disembodied Communication, Identity and Intercultural Awareness

The Educational Dimension of Virtual Trips and Other Forms of Net Technologies

Conclusion

THE WELTVERKEHR OR WORLD TRAFFIC OF BOOKS: MODERN ANTHOLOGIES OF WORLD POETRY

"Weltliteratur" ("World literature"). Goethe and a Programmatic Concept of Literature

Stimmen der Všlker in Liedern (Voices of the Peoples in Songs). Herder’s Collection of Poetry and Folk Songs

Constructing ‘World Poetry’ in the 20th Century I - Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s Museum (1960, 1979/80)

Constructing ‘World Poetry’ in the 20th Century II - Harald Hartung’s Luftfracht (Air Freight) (1991)

Inventing ‘World Poetry’ in the 20th Century III: Joachim Sartorius’ Atlas (1996)

Constructing ‘World Poetry’ in the 20th Century IV: Raoul Schrott’s Die Erfindung der Poesie (The Invention of Poetry) (1997)

CONTEMPORARY WELTVERKEHR OR WORLD TRAFFIC OF COMPARATIST SCHOLARS: WORLD CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE LITERATURE ASSOSIATION (ICLA)

The Notion of Cross-Cultural Weltverkehr (World Traffic and Communication) and its Meaning for Comparative Literature

Basic Principles of the ICLA / AILC Activities

Medial Aspects of Translatio Studii and the Weltverkehr (World Traffic and Communication) of Books and Scholars: The ICLA / AILC Congress Proceedings

Geographical Aspects of Translatio Studii and the Weltverkehr (World Traffic and Communication) of Scholars: The ICLA Congress Venues

Linguistic Aspects of Translatio Studii and the Weltverkehr (World Traffic and Communication) of Scholars

Personal Aspects of Translatio Studiii and the Weltverkehr (World Traffic and Communication) of Scholars: The Multinational and Transnational Character of ICLA / AILC Members

Theoretical and Thematic Translatio Studii through the ICLA / AILC Congresses

Pedagogical Aspects of Translatio Studii and Cross-Cultural Weltverkehr

Conclusion

AFRICA AND THE WELTVERKEHR / WORLD TRAFFIC OF TONGUES, BOOKS, AND SCHOLARS

Historical Sketch of Intercultural Relations between Africa and the World

Intercultural Mediators from and for Africa

Intertextuality and Comparative Scholarship in African Literatures

The World Traffic of Writers and Scholars:Migration, Exile and Transnational Scholarship

International Recognition of African Literatures: Awards and Prizes

Book-fairs, Publishing and Circulation of African Literatures

Concluding Remarks

Introduction

LITERARY MULTILINGUALISM I: GENERAL OUTLINES AND WESTERN WORLD

Traditional Mono- and Multilingualism

Post/Modern Multilingualism

LITERARY MULTILINGUALISM II: MULTILINGUALISM IN INDIA

Indian Multilingualism

Indian Bilingualism

Bilingual Texts in India

Conclusion

ETHNOLOGY, ETHNOGRAPHY AND CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

NATURE, OBJECTS, AND SCOPE OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

Introduction

What is Cultural Anthropology?

The Objects of Investigation and the Scope of Cultural Anthropology

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY: METHODOLOGICAL POSSIBILITIES

Introduction: Power-Knowledge

Ethics

"The Field"

Fieldwork

Interviewing

The Past: Traces

Transformation

A HISTORY OF THEORY IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY PRIOR TO 1980

Introduction: The Origins of a Discipline

Nineteenth Century: Evolutionist and Diffusionist Perspectives

Early 20th Century: Collectivist Paradigms

Multiple Models in the Post-war Period: 1945 to 1985

Post 1980 Developments

A HISTORY OF RACE IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES

Introduction

The Degeneration Theory of Race from Ancient Times to Darwin

The Pre-Adamite/Polygenic Theory from the Sixteenth Century to Darwin

The Debunking of Lamarck and the beginnings of Eugenics

Eugenics Raises its Ugly Head

The Eugenics Movement in the United States

Antidote to Race and Racism

Conclusions and Perspective

SOCIETY: A KEY CONCEPT IN ANTHROPOLOGY

Introduction: Semantic Ambiguities of the Concept of Anthropology

Pioneers of Social Anthropology: Evolutionism and Society

The Idea of Society in British Anthropology: Functionalism

The French School: Structuralism

From Structuralism to Post-Structuralism and Their Influence on Agency Theory

Against Stability: Dynamic Anthropology

Diffusionism, Historicism and Relativism in Franz Boas: Culture as the Expression of Society in American Anthropology

Beyond seemingly Objective Facts: the Interpretive Anthropology of Clifford Geertz

Postmodern Anthropology: The Advent of Methodological Individualism and the Omission of Society

Conclusion

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF LANGUAGE AND DISCOURSE

Introduction

Language, Discourse, Contexts: Ethnography and Semiotics

Communities and Belonging

Social Exclusions and Linguistic Ideologies

Endangered Languages and Language Rights

Reckoning the Past, Envisioning the Future: Narratives, Memory, and Justice

Conclusion: Language, Discourse, and Globalization

HUMAN PALEONTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY: THE USE OF HOMININ FOSSILS AS BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC MARKERS

Introduction

Systematic Paleontology

Biostratigraphy

Conclusions

GENETICS IN ANTHROPOLOGY

Introduction (Francisca Alves Cardoso and Sandra Assis)

Genetics in Living Population (Amanda Ramos and Cristina Santos

Genetics in Forensic Anthropology (Claudia Lopes Gomes and Eduardo Arroyo Prado)

Genetics in Past Human Populations’ Studies (Cláudia Lopes Gomes, Eduardo Arroyo Prado, Francisca Alves Cardoso, Sandra Assis)

Genetics in Evolutionary Human Biology – Primatology (Tânia Minhós)

Conclusions and Perspectives

THE THEUTH EFFECT- WHAT DOES CULTURE DO TO OUR BRAINS?

Introduction

Culture is Human Nature

The Goal of Cultural Cognitive Valence studies

Concluding Remarks: Why do we think that Cultural Cognitive Valence Studies are Relevant, Timely and Necessary?

APPLIED AND PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY

Introduction

Beginnings

World War II and Its Aftermath

The Great Divide

The Great Divide

Anthropology in Development

The Growth of Practice

The Present Situation

Future Directions and Challenges

Conclusion

ETHNOSCIENCE AND MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Ethnoscience

Medical Anthropology and Ethnomedicine

Taxonomies and Componential Analysis

Prototypes and Schemas

Cultural Models and Explanatory Models

Conclusions

ECOMOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY

Introduction

Classical Theoretical Debates: Substantivism, Formalism and Marxism

Peasants and development

Production

Distribution

Consumption

Globalization and flexibility

Conclusions and Perspectives

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF MUSIC: THE ROLE OF SOUNDS, STORIES, AND SONGS IN HUMAN SOCIAL LIFE

General Introduction

Social Foundations

Structure and Meaning

Poetic Processes in Language and Music

The Place of Music in Human Evolution

Conclusion and Perspectives

PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Contemporary Philosophical Anthropology

Max Scheler: "The Human’s Place in the Cosmos"

Arnold Gehlen: "The Human Project of Nature"

Helmuth Plessner: "The Human’s Eccentricity"

ANTHROPOLOGY INTERROGATING POWER AND POLITICS

Introduction

Studying Power and Politics with Anthropological Tools

Perspectives from Poststructuralisms

The State and Neoliberalism in Globalization

Colonialism, Empires and Imperial Formations

The Enduring Coloniality of Power, Development, and White Privilege

"Power to the People!"

Culture through the Window Power Built

Conclusion

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF LAW

Introduction

Anthropology and Law in the Nineteenth Century

The Early Twentieth Century: The First Ethnographers

The Case Method Approach in the Anthropology of Law

Legal Reasoning and Interpretation

Process in the Anthropology of Law

Language, Power, and Legal Discourse

Law and Colonialism

Law beyond Borders: International Law and Transnational Developments

General Conclusions

GENDER AND SEXUALITY: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH

Introduction

Ethnography: A 20th Century Invention

The Cold War and Second-Wave Feminism

Labor and Love: Marxism in Anthropology of Gender

Coloring Sex: Voices of "difference"

Looking At The Powerful: The Subaltern Voice

Identity Politics and the Emergence of the Queer Movement

Post-structuralism in Anthropology of Science and Feminism (1990’s)

Anthropology of Gender at the Present

A problem of Theory

A Political Problem: Reconstructing Racial Gender

Conclusion

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF WAR AND VIOLENCE

Introduction

Defining War and Violence

The Anthropology of War and Violence: A Brief History

The Evolution of Lethal Violence and War

Theories of War

War and Ecology

War in the Tribal Zone

Rebellion, Ethnic and Civil Wars, Genocide, and Terrorism

Violence and Cultural Meaning

The Anthropology of Peace

Conclusion

THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF FOOD, DIET & NUTRITION: A SELECTIVE OVERVIEW

Introduction

The Beginnings of a New Perspective

The Contradictions of Agriculture

The General Impact of the World Economy

Food Taboos: Anthropological Insights, Limits

Globalizing Systems

Conclusions

THE PLACE AND CHALLENGES OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY IN OUR CONTEMPORARY WORLD

Introduction

Anthropological Engagements in Brazil and Beyond

Assembling Anthropological Knowledge

Some Polemical Concerns

Studying Up and Leveling Hierarchies

Global Cross-Currents, Role Strains, and Inclusion

Summary and Concluding Remarks