ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES - Table of Contents

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING AND GEOMECHANICS

STRUCTURAL, GEOTECHNICAL AND EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Earthquake Engineering

NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF FRAME STRUCTURES

General

Material Nonlinearities

Geometric Nonlinearities

MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE POTENTIAL FOR MOMENT FRAME BUILDINGS

General

Modeling for Collapse

Progressive Collapse Resistance of Typical Moment Frames

MODELING FOR GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

Constitutive Models

Numerical Modeling

Intelligent Models

Centrifuge Modeling

BEHAVIOR AND MODELING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES WITH UNREINFORCED MASONRY INFILL WALLS

Observations from Recent Earthquakes

Previous Research on Infill Walls

Multi-Phase Study of RC Frames with URM Infill Walls

Closure

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

BIOMECHANICS

BIOMECHANICS OF MUSCOSKELETAL SOFT TISSUES

Introduction

Muscle

Tendons

Ligaments

Articular Cartilage

Integration

CELL MECHANICS AND MECHANOBIOLOGY

Introduction

Cell mechanics

Cell mechanobiology

Conclusion

TRIBOLOGY AND SURFACE ENGINEERING

SPORT SCIENCE AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION

SOCIOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SPORT

Sociology of Sport

Philosophy of sport

SPARTIAN GAMES - THE GAME MODEL OF INTEGRATION OF SPORT AND ART

What is SpArtian Games?

Special Features and Value Of Spartian Games

AIR POLLUTION IN COLD REGIONS

Arctic Air Pollution

Antarctic Pollution

SHIP – ICE INTERACTION IN SHIP DESIGN: THEORY AND PRACTICE

Ice and Weather Conditions

Ice Operations

Ice Action on Ships

DRIFTING SNOW AND AVALANCHE CONTROL FOR ROADS

Blowing/drifting snow and snowdrift

Snow avalanches

Future Prospects

ICE RIDGE FORMATION

Rafting

Ridging

Discussion

Conclusion

ICE RIDGE CHARACTERISTICS AND ENGINEERING CONCERNS REGARDING ICE RIDGES

Ice ridge characteristics

Engineering concerns regarding ice ridges

MICROPROCESSORS, DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS

Microprocessors

Digital Signal Processors

Microcontrollers and Digital Signal Processors

EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS

EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Introduction

Bone

Soft Tissues

Cell

WELDING ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

MICRO/NANO MATERIAL PROCESSING

Introduction

Micro- and Nanotechnology

Conclusion

COST OF WELDING AND COST OF WELDED STRUCTURES

Cost Elements

Numerical Examples

SHIPS AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA FOR SHIPS AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

Environmental and Operational Demands

THEORY, ANALYSIS, DESIGN METHODOLOGY, RESISTANCE AND PROPULSION OF SHIPS

Conservation Laws

Potential Flow

Boundary Layer

Propeller Flow

Free-Surface Waves

Estimation of Full-Scale Drag

CFD

THEORY, ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR SHIP MANEUVERABILITY

Preface

Principle of Steering

Basic Equation of Ship Steering Motion

Response to Rudder Steering

Navigation and Maneuverability

Safety and Maneuverability

Maneuverability in Ship Design

Closing Remarks

LIFE CYCLE OF SHIPS AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES INSPECTION AND SURVEY OF SHIP STRUCTURES: AN INTRODUCTION

Who

When

Where

What

How Inspections are Carried Out

The Inspection Matrix

LIFE CYCLE OF SHIPS AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES RISK-BASED STRATEGIES FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION PROGRAMS

Risk-Based Approaches

Rationale and Benefits of RBI

Reliability-Centered Maintenance

LIFE CYCLE OF SHIPS AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES HULL INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEM

Stakeholders - Hull Condition

Drivers and Opportunities

Traditional Hull Inspection

Managing Hull Inspections Using Software

Compartment Scoring System

Critical Areas Inspection

Inspection Data Processing

Benefits

Training

LIFE CYCLE OF SHIPS AND OFFSHORE STRUCTURES: DECOMMISSIONING OF FIXED OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

Background

Rigs-to-Reefs

The Decommissioning Process

The Future

OFFSHORE STRUCTURE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Types of Offshore Structures

Functional Requirements

Fundamental Design Requirements

Meteorological and Oceanographical Information

Geotechnical Information

In-Service and Temporary Design Situations

Loading Categories

Loading Combinations

Structural Analysis

Materials and Welding

Topsides Design

Jacket Design

Piling and Foundation Design

Introduction to Corrosion Protection

THE OCEAN ENVIRONMENT AND PHENOMENA

Properties: Fresh Water; Salt Water; Air

Water Waves

SHIP DESIGN AND BUILDING

Types of Ships

Requirement

Ship Design Process

Structure and Layout

Shipbuilding Process

Shipbuilding Methods / Techniques

Production and Manufacturing

Cost Estimation

Shipbuilding Yards

AN INTRODUCTION TO AND OVERVIEW OF FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS

Review of Different Areas of Physics

Economical and Social Implications of physics

Conclusion

EVOLUTION OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS IN THE 20TH CENTURY

Atoms, Nuclei and Radioactivity

Ultraviolet and Atomic Catastrophes

Quantum Mechanics

Quantum Theory of Complex Atoms

Nuclear Structure

Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

The Force Messengers

The Weak Force

The Lepton and Baryon Families

The Quark Model

The Unified Theory

Quantum Chromodynamics

What comes next?

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Historical Notes

General Considerations

Clasical Theory of Elasticity

Fracture

Finite Elasticity

Computational Mechanics

Granular Materials

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Electrostatics

Electrical Conduction

Magnetostatics and Electromagnetism

Electromagnetic Induction

Maxwell Equations

Electromagnetic Waves

Concluding Remarks

Mathematical Tools

Introduction

PRINCIPLES OF OPTICS

Geometrical Optics

Wave Optics

Photon or Quantum Optics

Optical Instruments

Optical Metrology and Interferometry

Holography

Lasers

Applications of Optics

PRINCIPLES OF ACOUSTICS

History

Basic Concepts

The Ear

Applications

HISTORY OF NOBEL LAUREATES IN PHYSICS

Atomic and Particle Physics

Quantum Mechanics

Condensed Matter

Astrophysics

Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Development of Experimental Methods and Technology

SYMMETRY PRINCIPLES AND CONSERVATION LAWS

Symmetries and Conservation Laws; Noether’s Theorem

Internal Symmetries in Physics

Symmetries and Mathematics

Discrete Symmetries: P and C

Isospin and SU(2)

The Group SU(3) and the quark model

Gauge symmetries and fundamental interactions

Symmetry and Observables

SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITY

Relativity in physics

General relativity

Contemporary developments circa 2004

QUANTUM MECHANICAL LAWS

Black Body Radiation: The Lateral Problem Becomes Fundamental

The Discovery of Photons

Compton’s Effect: Collisions Confirm the Existence of Photons

Atoms: The Contradictions of the Planetary Model

The Mystery of the Allowed Energy Levels

Luis de Broglie: Particles or Waves?

Schrödinger’s Wave Mechanics: Wave Vibrations Explain the Energy Levels

The Statistical Interpretation

The Schrödinger’s Picture of Quantum Theory

The Uncertainty Principle: Instrumental and Mathematical Aspects

Typical States and Spectra

Unitary Evolution

Canonical Quantization: Scientific or Magic Algorithm?

The Mixed States

Quantum Control: How to Manipulate the Particle?

Measurement Theory and Its Conceptual Consequences

Interpretational Polemics and Paradoxes

Entangled States

Dirac’s Theory of the Electron as the Square Root of The Klein-Gordon Law

Feynman: The Interference of Virtual Histories

The Locality Problems

The Idea of Quantum Computing and Future Perspectives

Open Questions

THERMODYNAMICS, STATISTICAL PHYSICS AND THEIR LAWS

Introduction: On the Nature and Importance of Thermodynamic Laws

Thermodynamic Systems and Their Description

The Thermodynamic Laws

The Thermodynamic Potentials

Statistical Physics - A Briefing

Selected Illustrations

COMPLEX SYSTEMS AND NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

Complex Systems

Non-Linear Dynamics and Chaos

Topics Involved

Concluding Remarks

PLASMAS

Astrophysical plasmas

Geophysical Plasmas

Laboratory plasmas

Conclusions

PARTICLES AND FIELDS

ELEMENTARY AND FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES

Historical, Semantic and Formal Aspects

Elementary Today

Interactions and Fundamental Symmetries

A Bit of Formalism

Final Remarks

TYPES OF INTERACTIONS

Description of Interactions in Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory

Gauge Symmetries and Interactions

The Known Fundamental Interactions of Nature

Unification of Interactions

A Theory of Everything?

MOLECULES, ATOMS AND NUCLEI

Atoms

Molecules

Nuclei

Final Remarks

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Introduction: Physical Reality of the Field

Maxwell’s Equations

The Propagation of Electromagnetic Fields

Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Waves

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electromagnetic Waves in Matter

Standing Waves

Energy and Momentum

Radiation Pressure

Radiation from an Antenna

Black Body Radiation

Cosmic Microwave Background

Polarization

Wave Phenomena: Interference and Diffraction

The Quantum States of Radiation: Photons

Atomic Line Spectra

Energy Levels in Atoms

The Laser

Electromagnetic Communication

STATIONARY STATES IN A POTENTIAL WELL

Introduction

Stationary Orbits in Old Quantum Mechanics

Stationary States in Wave Mechanics

The Infinite Square Well: The Stationary States Most Resembling the Standing Waves on a String

1D Parabolic Well: The Stationary States of the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator

The 3D Coulomb Well: The Stationary States of the Hydrogen Atom

The 3D Parabolic Well: The Stationary States of the Isotropic Harmonic Oscillator

Stationary Bound States in the Continuum

Conclusion

ATOMS AND MOLECULES

Introduction

High Precision Atomic Spectroscopy

Negative Ions

Atomic Collisions

Rydberg Atoms

Parity Nonconservation in Atoms

Exotic Atoms

Atom Optics

Molecules

Gases

Molecules in Solids and Liquids

Basic Molecular Principles

Water Molecules and Some Chemical Reactions

Photosynthesis

QUANTUM-MECHANICAL DESCRIPTION OF SOLIDS

Energy Bands

Bandstructure Calculation Methods

Interface States

Introduction

Conclusions

QUANTUM PHENOMENA IN LOW DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS

Making Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures

Physics in Quantum Systems of Reduced Dimensions

Two-Dimensional Quantum Systems

One-Dimensional Quantum Systems

Zero-Dimensional Quantum Systems

QUANTUM-MECHANICAL DESCRIPTION OF MENDELEEV PERIODIC TABLE

Introduction

Historical Notes

The Atomic Models

The First Quantum Atomic Model

The Standard Schrödinger Quantum Hydrogen Atom

Multielectron Atoms

Quantum Mechanical Construction of the Periodic Table

The Block Structure of the Periodic Table

Extra Labels in the Periodic Table

Conclusions and Perspectives

ORDER AND DISORDER IN NATURE

STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS:CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

The basic principle of atomic structure determination

Crystallography of crystals

Crystallography of glasses and liquids

A note on systems with intermediate order

Concluding Remarks

FLUCTUATIONS

Fluctuations and physical properties

Fluctuations, time correlation functions and transport properties

Quantum Fluctuations

Conclusions

PHASE TRANSITIONS AND SPONTANEOUSLY BROKEN SYMMETRIES

Ferromagnetism

Continuous Global Symmetry: Nambu-Goldstone Bosons

Continuous Local Symmetry: Higgs Bosons

Electroweak Unification

UNIVERSALITY IN CHAOS: EVOLUTION OF TURBULENCE

Introduction

The Universality

The Tools to Characterize Chaos

Time Series Analysis

Turbulence Phenomena

NON-EQUILIBRIUM PROCESSES

Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics

Microscopic Foundations

Concluding Remarks

NUCLEAR MODELS: SHELL STRUCTURE AND THE EXTENSION OF THE PERIODIC SYSTEM

Cold valleys in the potential

Shell structure in the superheavy region

Asymmetric and superasymmetric fission - cluster radioactivity

Fission observed with the gamma-sphere: long living nuclear molecules

Extension of the periodic system into the sections of hyper- and antimatter

Concluding Remarks - Outlook

NATURAL AND HUMAN-PRODUCED RADIOACTIVITY

Half-life

Types of radioactivity

Natural radioactivity

Human-produced radioactivity

Human exposure to radioactivity

Conclusions

NUCLEAR REACTIONS

Cross Section and Collision (S-) Matrix

Compound Nucleus Reactions

The Optical Model

Direct Reactions

Nuclear Reactions with Heavy Ions

INTERACTION OF NUCLEAR RADIATION WITH MATTER

Basic Concepts

Energy loss by heavy charged particles

Energy loss by electrons and positrons

Energy deposition by ?-rays

Interaction of neutrons with matter

Nuclear radiation detection

Dosimetry and biological effects

NUCLEAR SYNTHESIS IN NATURE

The General Concept

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Stellar Nucleosynthesis

Core Collapse Supernovae

Nucleosynthesis in Explosive Binary Systems

Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Rays

Conclusions

NANOSCIENCES AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES

MAGNETISM OF NANOSTRUCTURES

Theory

Results

MICRO-ELECTRO-MECHANICAL-SYSTEMS (MEMS)

Definition

Main Technology in MEMS

Applications

TELECOMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING AND RADIO SCIENCE

RADIOASTRONOMY

An Invisible Universe

The First Radio Astronomical Observations

Radiotelescopes

Mechanisms of Electromagnetic Emissions

Brief History of Scientific Results in Radioastronomy

Conclusions and the Future

NETWORK AND TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS

Introduction

Network Layer

Transport Layer

Beyond the Traditional Internet: Internet of Things (IoT)

Conclusions

AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICS

Ancient roots

Classical physics

Modern physics

Conclusion

HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

TRANSITIONS FROM FUNCTION-ORIENTED TO EFFECT-ORIENTED TECHNOLOGIES - SOME THOUGHTS ON THE NATURE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

The Technology of Machines T I – Instrumental and Efficient

Instrumental Rationality as the Rationality of Actions

Unspecified Technology and its Consequences

A PANAROMIC VIEW OF THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

LIMITS AND ACCURACY IN MEASUREMENTS

Mathematical formalism

Robust approach

Resolution of digitized signals

MEASUREMENT AND STANDARDS OF SPACE AND MASS

Space, Time, and Mass-Philosophical Categories and Objects of Measurements

The Need for Measurements and Metrology

The History of the Standard of the Meter

Apparatus and Instruments for Dimensional Measurements

Angular Standards

The Role of Angle in Measurements of Distances

Mass Standards

High-precision Mass Comparators

Mass Artifacts and Balances

Accurate Methods for Mass Measurement

MEASUREMENTS AND STANDARDS OF TIME AND FREQUENCY

Time Units and Scales

Clocks and Frequency Standards

Future Prospects

The Knowledge of Time as One of the Bases for Human Life

PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS

Dimension of Physical Quantity and its Value

Units of Physical Quantities: Systems of Quantities and Systems of Units

Equations Between Quantities

Dimensions of Physical Quantities

Le Système International d’Unités (SI)

Systems of Units of Physical Quantities

Natural Systems of Units

MEASUREMENTS AND STANDARDS OF MECHANICAL MOTION QUANTITIES

Quantities to Be MeasuredIntercommunication of Mechanical Motion Quantities

Methods for Construction of Reference Systems

Methods and Units for Measurement of Mechanical Motion Quantities

Metrological Characteristics of Instruments Measuring Mechanical Motion Quantities

Standards in the Field of Measurement of Mechanical Motion Quantities

Devices and Systems Used to Establish Standards

Development of New Trends of Metrology of Mechanical Motion Quantities

TEMPERATURE: TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTATION

The International Temperature Scale

Electrical Resistance Methods

Radiant Methods of Temperature Measurement

Thermoelectric Temperature Measurement

Liquid in Glass Thermometry

Calibration Methods

Common Errors

SOURCES OF PARTICLES AND RADIATION, DETECTORS AND SENSORS

Sources of particles

Sources of high-energy radiation

Detectors

PARTICLE DETECTORS

Gaseous Counters

Semiconductor Detectors

Methods of Neutron Detection

Track-Etch Detectors

(?E,E)-Technique for Identification of Detected Particles

Position-Sensitive Detectors

Time and Amplitude Measurement Techniques

Statistical Character of Nuclear Events

DETECTORS OF RADIATION

Gamma and X-Radiation

Radiation Detectors

Ionization Detectors

Scintillation Detectors

Microcalorimeters

Detector Performance Indicators

OPTICAL SOURCES AND DETECTORS

Spectrum of optical radiation

Optical units, radiometry and photometry

Thermal radiation.

Sources of optical radiation

The Laser

Thermal detectors

Photon detectors

Photoemissive devices

Wave interaction effects

Noise in radiation detectors

Figures of Merit

State of the art of optical detectors

OPTICAL FIBER SENSORS

Radiation Sources and Receivers

Intensity OFS

Frequency Sensors

Phase Sensors

Polarization Sensors

ACOUSTICS AND ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS

Basis of Sound

Effects of Acoustic Waves on the Human Beings

Criteria for Evaluation of Noise

Noise Sources

Instrumentation for Noise Measurement

Noise Control and Sound Quality

SYNCHROTRON RADIATION

The Storage Ring

Beamlines

Experimental Methods

Future Prospects

SOURCES OF NUCLEAR PARTICLES

Cosmic Rays

Natural Radioactive Sources

Accelerators

Neutron Sources

Accelerators in Industry

GRAVIMETRIC MEASURING TECHNIQUES

Absolute instruments.

Differential instruments.

Major sources of perturbations and corrections.

Gravimetric networks and points positioning.

Measurements at sea.

Airborne gravity measurements.

OPTICAL AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Optical microscopy

Electron microscopy

Hybrid and derived instruments

Current trends and perspectives

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION

Auger Electron Spectroscopy

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Secondary ion mass spectrometry

Scanning probe microscopy

HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY

Wavefront Recording and Reconstruction

Methods of Wavefront Comparison

Fringe Localization

Determination of Wavefront Phase

Measurement of Static and Dynamic Displacements

Flow Measurement

Shape Measurement

Holographic Flaw Detection

MEDICAL AND INDUSTRIAL TOMOGRAPHY

Principles of Reconstructive Tomographic Imaging

Instrumentation

Applications of Computer Tomography

RADIOACTIVATION ANALYSIS AND ISOTOPIC TRACERS

Activation Theory

Quantitative Determination by Radioactivation Analysis

Experimental Modes of Activation

Practical Applications of Radioactivation Analysis

APPLICATIONS OF LASER SPECTROSCOPY IN BIOMEDICINE AND PRESERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE

Tumor Detection and Localization

Atherosclerotic Plaque Identification

Diagnostic Accuracy of Fluorescence Spectroscopy

LIFS and LIBS as an Analysis Tool in Pigment Identification

LIFS and LIBS as a Means of Controlling Laser Cleaning

REMOTE SENSING

Radiolocation

Laser Location, Lidar

The Remote Sensing Earth from Space

Modern Trends in the Development of Remote Sensing Methods

PERMANENT MAGNETS

Magnetic Properties

Magnet Materials

Magnet Processing

Magnet Structures

Magnet Applications

Prospects

MAGNETIC FIELDS

Generation of Magnetic Fields in Laboratories

Measurement of Magnetic Fields

MASS SPECTROMETRY

Mass Spectrometry, Principles and Instrumentation

Main Analytical Instruments and Methods in Mass Spectrometry, and their use

VACUUM TECHNOLOGY

Units and Ranges of Vacuum

Pumping Process

Pumps

Measurement of Pressure

Analysis of Gas Composition

Leaks and Leak Detection

CRYOGENICS AND ULTRA LOW TEMPERATURES

Temperature scales

History

The methods of refrigeration

Physics at lower temperatures.

Applications

HIGH-PRESSURE: GENERATION AND MEASUREMENT

Methods for Studying Physical Properties of Solids under Pressure

Polymorphism and X-raying under pressure

Graphite-to-diamond transformation and new materials

One more Carbon modification—Fullerenes

Behavior of Conduction Electrons Under Pressure

Electron transitions

Superconductivity

Insulator-to-metal transition. Metal hydrogen

RADIATION BIOLOGY

Cell Cycle Growth Control and Damage Repair

Molecular Biology of Radiation Sensitivity in Tumors and Normal Tissue

From Cell Survival Curves to Dose Response Relations for Organized Tissue

Radiation Quality and Radiation Effects

SQUIDS IN NEURO-AND CARDIOMAGNETISM

General comments

Magnetoencephalography and magnetocardiography

SQUIDs

Multichannel instrumentation for MEG

Examples of MEG studies

Cardiomagnetic studies

Comparisons of MEG, MCG, EEG, ECG, PET, and fMRI

PLASMA PROCESSING AND ION IMPLANTATION

Plasma Processing of Surfaces

Ion Implantation

Modification of Materials by Powerful Pulsed Ion Beams

Implantation-Plasma Treatment of Materials

RADIATION PROCESSING

Radiation Processing

Interaction of Radiation with Matter

Industrial Applications of Radiation Processing

LASERS IN TECHNOLOGY

Industrial High-Power Lasers

High-Power Laser Beam Characteristics and Beam Absorption

Laser Cutting

Laser Welding

Laser Drilling

Laser Surface Engineering

Laser Micromachining

Other Laser Material Processing Techniques

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING: NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY

Principle of Neutron Radiography

Neutron Sources

Imaging Techniques

Neutron Radiography Instrumentation

Radiography Investigations in Research and Development

RADIATION THERAPY

Overview of the Radiation Therapy Process

Radiobiological Bases of Radiation Therapy

Radiation Therapy Objectives and Target Definition

Treatment Techniques

Treatment Delivery

Modern Developments of Radiation Therapy

FEMTOLASERS AND HIGH-INTENSITY LASER-MATTER INTERACTIONS

Race for Laser Intensity

High-intensity Laser-matter Interaction

Applications

Relativistic Engineering

FEMTOSECOND NANOPHOTONICS AND MICROSCOPY

Introduction

Femtosecond Nanophotonics

Femtosecond Biophotonics

Femtosecond Microscopy

Ultrafast Structural Dynamics During Reaction

Conclusion

FEMTOCHEMISTRY

Introduction

Experiments Of Physicochemical Processes On Femtosecond-Subpicosecond Time Scale

Femtochemistry Of Elementary Reactions

Coherent Processes And Reactions

Conclusion

FEMTOSECOND MEASUREMENTS COMBINED WITH NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY

Introduction

Experimental Setup Configuration and Issues Of Concern In Ultrafast NSOM

Applications of Ultrafast NSOM

Conclusion

COHERENT CONTROL OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES

Introduction

Coherent Control of Dynamics of Chemical Processes and Product Yield

Specific Features of Experiments on Coherent Control

Processes and Elementary Photoreactions in Gases and Solutions

Coherent Control in Nanosystems

Coherent Control in Biological Systems

Prospects for Coherent Control in Chemistry

Coherent Control of Acoustic Phonons in Bulk Semiconductors

IMAGE NOISE CHARACTERISTICS IN 3D POSITRON TOMOGRAPHY

Introduction

Theory

Noise Properties of PET Images

Conclusion

BONDING IN SOLIDS, STRUCTURAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Atomic Orbitals: their Origin and their Shapes

Forming Bonds between like Atoms: Bonding and Anti-bonding Molecular Orbitals, Sigma and Pi-bonds

Forming Bonds between Unlike Atoms: Polar Covalent and Ionic Bonds, Two Extremes of the Same Process

A Simple Model for an Ionic Solid: A Balance between Coulombic Attraction and Short-range Repulsion

From Hybridization to Conjugation to Band Structures: Why Diamond and Graphite have such Different Properties

More about Bands: Metals, Insulators and Semiconductors

Molecular Solids, van der Waals Solids and Hydrogen Bonding

STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS

Macromolecules and Polymers

Synthesis of Polymers

Structure of Macromolecules

Structure of Polymers

Design of Polymers with Specific Properties

Mechanical Properties of Polymers

Rheology and Viscoelasticity of Polymers

Electric and Optical Properties of Polymers

Additives

Polymer Processing

Polymers and the Environment

Methods of Polymer Characterization

Specialty Polymers

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS

Deformation Behavior of Polymers

Statistical Molecular Theories

Large Deformation Theory

Finite Element Idealization

Experimental Stress-Strain Plots

Dynamic Mechanical Properties

Ultimate Stress and Ultimate Strain of Polymers

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS

Stress-strain Curves

Elastic Deformation

Anelastic Deformation

Viscous Deformation

Geometry and Crystallography of Plastic Deformation

Plastic Deformation of Polycrystals

Work-hardening, Recovery and Recrystallization

Fracture of Metals

Fatigue of Metals

Creep and Creep-rupture

Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Materials

PHASE EQUILIBRIA AND MICROSTRUCTURE

Phase Equilibria

Phase Diagrams

Microstructure

STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS

Structural Materials

Functional Materials

MAGNETIC MATERIALS

The Origin of Magnetism

Magnetic Terminology and Units

Types of Magnetic Materials

Intrinsic Properties of Magnetic Materials

Magnetic Domains

Magnetic Hysteresis

Observation of Magnetic Domains

Hard Magnetic Materials

Applications of Hard Magnetic Materials

Soft Magnetic Materials

Applications of Soft Magnetic Materials

Magnetic Recording

Other Magnetic Materials

MATERIALS FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES

Semiconductor Materials for Electronic Devices

Nonsemiconductor Materials for Electronic Devices

HIGH TEMPERATURE STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

Review of Current High Temperature Structural Materials

Applications

The Future

FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIALS

Electrochemical Characteristics of the Corrosion of Metallic Materials

Anodic Dissolution in the Active State

Passivity of Metallic Materials

Passivity Breakdown

Effects of Alloying Elements

Sulfur-induced Corrosion

BENEFITS OF FIBER AND PARTICULATE REINFORCEMENT

Types of Reinforcement

Mechanical Behavior of Composites

Processing of Composites

Reinforced Polymers

Reinforced Metals

Reinforced Ceramics

PROCESSING FROM THE LIQUID STATE

Liquid State

Fundamentals of Processing from the Liquid State

Processing Methods

POWDER METHODS

Technical Advantages

Example Applications

Industry Structure

Growth and Economic Trends

MECHANICAL WORKING OF MATERIALS

Types of Plastic - Effects on Manufacturing Methods

Manufacturing Methods for Plastic Parts

MANUFACTURING OF POLYMER-MATRIX COMPOSITES

Applications of Polymer-Matrix Composites

Constituent Materials

Composite Properties

Manufacturing Techniques

Outlook

FIBER PRODUCTION

Plant Fibers

Animal Fibers

Manufactured Fibers

Regenerated Cellulosic Fibers

Melt-spun Synthetic Fibers

Solution-spun Synthetic Fibers

High-performance Fibers

RECYCLING OR REUSE OF MATERIALS

Why Reuse or Recycle?

Current Practice

Options for Near Term Improvement

The Ultimate Goal: Recycling in a Steady State Economy

JOINING OF ADVANCED MATERIALS

Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys

Joining of Magnesium Alloys

Supermartensitic Stainless Steels

DEFECTS INTRODUCED INTO METALS DURING FABRICATION AND SERVICE

Primary Production Defects

Defects Introduced During Fabrication

Defects Introduced in Service

The significance of defects entering service

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING AND EVALUATION OF METALS

Defects in Metals

Non-Destructive Testing Methods for Detecting Defects in Metals

Evaluation of Non-Destructive Testing Data

COMPOSITE DEFECTS AND THEIR DETECTION

Types of Defect in Composites

Ultrasonic Inspection Methods

Low-frequency Vibration Methods

Acoustic Emission and Acousto-Ultrasonics

X-Radiography

Optical Methods

Thermal Methods

CORROSION DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS

Inspection Organization

Inspection, Detection and Monitoring Methods

Treatment and Analysis of Inspection Results

From Diagnosis to Determination of Solution(s), Recommendations and Preventive Actions

SMART MATERIALS

Responsive Materials in Engineering

Instrumented Structures: Add-ons for Smart Materials

Conventional Smart Materials

Micromechanics: MEMS

Chemically Triggered Mechanically Responsive Materials

Carbon: Nanotubes and Bucky Balls

MATERIALS FOR CLEAN ENERGY CONVERSION

Comparison between Combustion Processes and Fuel Cells for Energy Conversion

Materials Requirements as Electrochemical Energy Converters

High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Future Trends

AEROSPACE AND SPACE MATERIALS

Aluminum Alloys

Titanium Alloys and Aluminides

Superalloys

Ceramics

Composites

Outlook

ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

Electrostatic Fields

Magnetic Fields

ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES AND MAGNETIC CIRCUITS

Magnetic materials

Magnetic circuit

Energy and co-energy calculation

Electromagnetic devices

DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS

Theory of Electric Circuits

Three-phase systems

The Electric Power System

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission

Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)

Power Quality

NETWORK ANALYSIS

Passive Components

Voltage and Current Sources

Circuits

Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law and Kirchhoff’s Current Law

Node and Mesh Analysis

Network Theorems

Two-Port Networks

Advanced Circuit Analysis techniques

ELECTRIC POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM SYNTHESIS - THEORY AND PRACTICE

Rapid Increase in Electronically Powered Applications

Switched Power Converters

Resonant Converters

Applications

ACTIVE NETWORKS

Types of Electric Networks

Active Filters

Power in Three Phase Systems

Simulation

SIGNAL THEORY

Properties of Signals

Elementary Signals

Linear Time Invariant Systems

Fourier Analysis

Discrete-Time Signals

Random Processes

ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING

Analog Signals and Systems

Linear Time Invariant Systems

Theory of Filters

Analog Signal Processing Circuits and Hardware Implementation

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING - APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINE

Digital Signal Processing of Continuous-Time Signals

Sampling of Continuous-Time Signals

Digital Signal Processing Systems

Transfer Functions and Structures

Discrete Fourier Transform

Random Signal Representation

Implementation of Digital Signal Processing Systems

IMAGE PROCESSING

Some Comments on Vision

What Is An Image?

The Relationship between Digital And Analogue Images

The Concept of An Image Processing System

The Process of Image Formation

The Image as a Representation

The Image Processing Hierarchy

The Pre-Processing Level

Low Level Image Processing

Medium Level Image Processing

Image Interpretation

Interpolation in Image Processing

The Edge Detection Problem

Applications of Image Processing

Some Image Processing Packages

MODULATION AND DETECTION

Principles of Modulation

Detection and Receiver Structures

Future Development, Economic and Environmental Implications

CONDUCTIVE MATERIALS, WIRES, AND CABLES

Basic concepts of electrical conduction

Electronic band model

Conductive materials

Electrical wires

Wire sizes

Current carrying capacity

Skin effect

Types of electrical wire

Cables components

Cable performance in fire

Environmental issues

Conclusion: Sustainable Use of Metal Resources

DIELECTRIC MATERIALS AND DEVICES

Dielectric Materials

Dielectric Devices

MAGNETIC MATERIALS AND MAGNETIC TECHNIQUES

Basics of Magnetism

Magnetic Behaviour of Materials

Types of Magnetic Materials

Applications of Magnetism

Promising Developments

SUPERCONDUCTING MATERIALS AND DEVICES

Superconducting Properties

LTS Materials

HTS Materials

Devices

FIBER OPTIC DEVICES AND SYSTEMS

Basic Construction of Optical Fibres

Multimode and Single mode Fibres

Types of Non-communication Fibre

Medical Applications of Optical Fibres

GALVANOMETERS, ELECTROMECHANICAL VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS

Measurement Fundamentals

Electromechanical Voltmeters and Ammeters

Thermal-Type Instruments

Potentiometers

ELECTRONIC VOLTMETERS AND AMMETERS

Analog Meters

Digital Meters

Radio-Frequency Microvoltmeters

Vacuum-Tube Voltmeters and Oscilloscopes

HIGH VOLTAGE MEASUREMENTS

Requirements for High-Voltage Measurements

Voltage and Current Transducers

Measurement Techniques and Algorithms

Integrated High-Voltage Measurement Systems

MAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS

Magnetic-Field Fundamentals

Vector Instruments

Scalar Instruments

Characterizing Magnetometer Performance

POWER AND ENERGY MEASUREMENTS

Electric Power Measurements

Power and Energy-Measuring Instruments

DIGITAL INSTRUMENTS

AD and DA Signal Conversions

Theory of Signal Acquisition

Data-Acquisition Systems

Instrument Communication

Examples of Digital Instruments

Virtual Instruments

SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS

Motion Sensors

Velocity Sensors

Force Transducers

Temperature Sensors

Magnetic-Field Sensor

Chemical Sensors

New Research Trends

INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS

Instruments and Instrumentation Systems

Digital Systems, Microprocessors, and Computers

Networks and Communications in Instrumentation Systems

Advanced Systems

Applications of Instrumentation Systems

TELEMETRY

Basic Telemetry Concepts

Modulation Approaches

Telemetry Applications

DIRECT CURRENT MACHINES

Magnetism and Electromagnetic principles

Current Carrying Wires and Coils

Basic Motor Principles

Machine equations and circuits

Types of dc Machine

Stepper Motors

TRANSFORMERS

Basic Operating Principles of a Transformer

Induction Motors

Surges caused by the Vacuum Circuit Breaker

SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Types of Synchronous Machine

Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generators

Synchronous Motors

Excitation System

INDUCTION MOTOR AND SELF-EXCITED INDUCTION GENERATOR

Basic Construction

Principle of Action

Power Relationship and Torque-Slip Characteristics

Motor Starting

Speed Control

Motoring, Generating, and Plug-Braking Modes of Operation

High-Torque Induction Motors

Single-Phase Induction Motors

Self-Excited Induction Generators

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MACHINES

2-D Magnetostatic Model

2-D Complex Eddy-Current Model

Rotating Model

Coupled Model

Representation of Skewed Slots

Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation

3-D Model

SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MACHINES AND PERMANENT MAGNET DC BRUSHLESS MACHINES

Rotationary Switched Reluctance Motor

Rotationary Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Machines

The Linear Permanent Magnet Brushless Synchronous Motor (LPMSM)

The Variable Reluctance Linear Motor

INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF MOTORS

Control Methods for Motors

Sensor and Estimation

Intelligent Motors

The Challenges of Intelligent Control

ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Why Electric Vehicles?

Past, Present and Future of EVs

Present Status

Engineering Philosophy of EV Development

EV and HEV Configurations

Electric Propulsion

Energy Sources

EV Infrastructure

ELECTRIC POWER ASSISTED STEERING SYSTEM FOR AUTOMOBILES

Essential components of an EPAS system

Torque sensors for EPAS

Other sensors

Actuators for electric power steering

Operating Conditions and Specifications

EPAS System controller

From EPAS to Steer by Wire

ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

Energy Storage Systems

Power Electronic Interface

Flexible AC Transmission Systems Devices Most Compatible with Energy Storage Systems

FACTS Plus Energy storage: Utility Application Performance

Energy Storage: Distribution Level Performance

Summary of Performance Consideration

Cost Consideration

PLASMA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Basic Plasma Properties

Plasma Physics

Types of Plasma

Plasma Diagnostics

Plasma Surface Interactions

Biomaterials

Biomicroelectromechanical Systems (bioMEMs)

ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

Introduction

Distribution System Planning

Distribution Lines and Substations

Distribution System Operation

ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, OPERATION AND CONTROL

Introduction

Modeling of Power System Components

Load Flow Analysis

Power System Dynamic Simulations

Automatic Generation Control

Power System Stability and Control

Power Electronics and its Applications to Power System Control

Voltage Control and VAR Management

Sub-synchronous Resonance

State Estimation

POWER SYSTEM TRANSIENTS

MODELLING OF POWER COMPONENTS FOR TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

Introduction

Overhead Lines

Insulated Cables

Transformers

Rotating Machines

Conclusion

TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

Traffic Flow Fundamentals

Transportation Planning

Geometric Design of Highways

Traffic Management

Safety

URBAN AND COMMUNITY PLANNING

Planning System

Urban and Community Systems

Policy Measures

Analysis and Planning Techniques

Institutional Set-Up

Finance

WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING

Wastewater Management

Solid Wastes Management

Concluding Remarks

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

Recent Development in Water Resources Engineering

Real Problems in Human Societies

New paradigm—Water Ethics

Introduction

CONTROL POINT SURVEYING AND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING

Geometric Background

Horizontal Control

Vertical Control

Topographic Mapping

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

Overview of GPS

Relative Positioning by GPS

Surveying with GPS

The future of GPS

PHOTOGRAMMETRY

Orientation

Calibration

Matching

Accuracy in digital photogrammetry

Application examples of digital photogrammetry

Into the 21st century

SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

Principles of Remote Sensing

Overview of Representative Satellite Remote Sensing Systems and Their Characteristics

Fundamentals of Data Processing

Recent Trends of Satellite Remote Sensing

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

Types of data used in GIS

Data acquisition and data base maintenance

Spatial data analysis and output production

GIS applications

Other similar systems

STRUCTURAL TYPES

Definition of Structure

Tension Structure

Arch

Column and Tower

Truss

Beam

Rigid Frame

Plane Structure

Spatial Structure

Selection of Structural Type

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Structural system

Structural modeling.

Linearity of the structural system.

Definition of kinematics

Definitions of statics

Balance of linear momentum

Material constitution

Reduction of 3D constitutive equations for 2D plane problems.

Deduction of Euler-Bernoulli Beams from Solid.

Methods of structural analysis

Discrete modeling of structures

Matrix force method

Matrix displacement method

Trends and perspectives

STRUCTURAL STABILITY AND NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR

Nonlinear Materials and Members

Structural Limit States

Structural Failures

Inelastic Behavior

Earthquake Energy Partitioning

Structural Deterioration

Damage Index

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN

Seismic Coefficient Method

Response Spectrum

Modified Seismic Coefficient Method

Elasto-Plastic Response and Ultimate Strength of Structures

Performance-Based Design

Earthquake Ground Motion for Design

Dynamic Response Analysis

Response Displacement Method

Seismic Diagnosis and Retrofitting

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BASES AND FOUNDATIONS

Ground Failures Other than Soil Liquefaction

Ground Failures Associated with Soil Liquefaction

Ground Motion Characteristics in Soft and Liquefied Soils

Simplified Procedure for Soil Liquefaction Evaluations

Liquefaction Remediations

Simplified Design Method for Pile Foundations

Base Isolation

EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Historical Development

Seismic Actions

Performance Requirements of Buildings

Capacity Design Method

Seismic Isolation and Vibration Control

Retrofitting of Existing Buildings

SAFETY ANALYSIS

Design Principle

Uncertainties for Structural Systems and Acting Loads

Safety Factor and Probability of Failure

Design Practice

Safety Goals and Structural Performance

SOIL MECHANICS

Definition of Property Indices

Compaction of Soils

Seepage of Water through Soils

Consolidation of Clay

Strength of Soil

Earth Pressure

Bearing Capacity of Foundations

Stability Analyses of Slopes

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

Characteristics properties of Minerals

Igneous Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Metamorphic Rocks

Ores, Industrial Minerals and Fossil fuel

The Shape of the land surface

Erosion and Deposition by Gravity and Ice

Geological Maps

The Record in the rocks

The Dynamic Earth

SURFACE MINING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT

Surface Mining Methods

Surface Mining Machinery

UNDERGROUND MINING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT

Underground Mining Methods

Underground Mining Machinery

DRILLING MACHINES

Construction of Drilling Equipment

Mechanical Principles of Percussion Drill

Classification of Rock Drills

Applications of Drilling Equipment

Introduction

OFFSHORE DRILLING AND PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT

Outline of Rotary Drilling Method

Offshore Drilling Structures

Offshore Oil/Gas Production Systems

MINERAL COMMINUTION AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS

Significance of Mineral Beneficiation

Overview of Mineral Processing Systems

Components of Mineral Beneficiation Technology

Comminution System

Gravity Separation

Flotation

Magnetic Separation

Electrostatic Separation

Solid-Liquid Separation and Waste Treatment

Other Methods of Mineral Extraction

Disposal of Solid Wastes and Waste Water Treatment

Conclusion

SURFACE MINING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

Surface Mining

Equipment Used for Surface Mining

Transportation Management System for Surface Mining

UNDERGROUND MINING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

From Surface to Underground/Vice Versa

Underground Transport for Materials and Equipment

Ore/Coal Transport

Personnel Transport

MINING AND EXPLORATION FOR MINERAL RESOURCES

Geologic Prospecting

Geophysical Prospecting

Geochemical Prospecting

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT

Transportation Technology and Innovation

Structure, Behavior, and Performance

Service Providers as Innovators

Innovations within User Systems

Inputs to Service Providers

Transportation and Communication Synergies

TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

US Transportation System Evolution before the Railroad

A New Consensus: The Railroad Era in the US

A Change in Consensus Again

HISTORY OF GOODS TRANSPORTATION

Prehistory of Goods Transportation

The Middle Ages and the Development of Trade Economies in Europe

From 1500 to 1780: The Age of Sail, Worldwide Exploration, and Gains from Trade

The Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Goods Transportation, 1780–1870

Defining the Role of Modern Government: Goods Transportation from 1870 to the Present

HIGHWAYS AND PRIVATE MODES OF TRANSPORTATION

Highways and Paths

Highway Law

Highway Planning

Highway Design

Highway Costs

Highway Funding

Highway Engineering

Drivers

Vehicles

Cars and Trucks

Traffic Behavior

Motorcycles

Bicycles

Pedestrians

URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

Classification of Transit Systems

Bus Transit System

Trolleybus System

Rail Transit Systems

Tramway/Streetcar and Light Rail Transit - LRT

Rapid Transit or Metro

Automated Guided Transit Systems

Regional and Commuter Rail

Special Technology Transit Systems

Transit Line Scheduling

Transit Planning and Selection of Transit Modes

Present and Future Role of Urban Transit

PARATRANSIT SYSTEMS

Description of Paratransit Services

Technology

Paratransit Issues

WATER TRANSPORT SYSTEMS AND PORT DEVELOPMENTS

Alternative Propulsion Systems and Vessel Designs

Cargo-Handling Technologies and Port Development

Other Technologies

How Fast Will New Technologies Be Adopted?

RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION

Railroad Technology

Terminals

Railroad Cost Structure

Decreasing Marginal Costs and Regulation

Operations and Service Planning

NETWORK DEVELOPMENTS IN AVIATION

Deregulation of Aviation Markets

Airline Strategies

Airport Strategies

Slot Allocation

AIRPORT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

Planning for Airport Development

Financing Airport Projects

Economic Impacts and Economics of Airport Development

Impact of Aircraft Characteristics on Airport Design

Airside Design

Terminal Design

Airport Design for Safety, Environmental Protection, and More

Toward Better Concepts for Airport Design and Development

URBAN TRAVEL

Travel Choices in Large Urban Areas

Equilibria of Travel Choices

Mobility and Vitality

INTERNATIONAL AND INTERREGIONAL TRANSPORTATION

Brief History of Interregional/ International Transportation

Role of International/ Interregional Transportation –Current Situation

New Challenges in Interregional Transportation and Future Prospects

SAFETY OF TRANSPORTATION

Transportation Safety Around the World

Transportation in the United States

SOCIAL CHANGE AND DEMAND FOR MOBILITY

Economic Growth and Urbanization

Globalization and Internationalization

Household and Gender Issues

Leisure and Age Distribution

The Telecommunications Revolution

Environmental Awareness

Institutional Change

TRANSPORTATION AND AIR QUALITY

Exhaust Emissions

Air Quality Standards

Historical Trends

Present Trends

Assessment Methods

Reducing Emissions

TRANSPORT AND ENERGY

The Problem

Patterns of Transport Energy Use

Explaining Transport Energy Use Variations

INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

The Technology and Related Services

Benefits

Barriers to Deployment and Related Issues

TELECOMMUICATIONS SUBSTITUTION FOR TRANSPORTATION

Comparing Telecommunication and Transport

Comparing Remoteness and Proximity

How Telecommunication Influences Transportation Demand

The Linkage Between Trip Purposes and Telecommunication Applications

Specific Telecommunication Applications Reduce Travel

Comparing Characteristics and Costs of Travel and Communication

Travel Telesubstitution and Traffic Dynamics

Travel Telesubstitution and Location Dynamics

The Challenge and Opportunity of Telecommunications for Location and Mobility

TRANSPORTATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY: TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION

Transport Innovation Process

Transportation in 2000: Past as Prologue to the Future

Transportation in the Twenty-First Century

SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY

Sustainable Transport: A Policy Challenge

Conceptual Issues

Transport and Environment

Spatial Aspects

Social and Behavioral Aspects

Technological Aspects

Dynamic Aspects

The Role of Policies in Creating Sustainable Transport

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND PUBLIC POLICY

Global Perspectives on Public Policy

Local Perspectives on Public Policy

Barriers to Implementation

INSTITUTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND EVOLUTION

Background

The Sustainability Concept in Institutional Decisions

Trade, Technology, and Institutional Arrangements in International Transportation

Recent Transportation Institutional Evolution in the United States

MECHANICS: STATICS AND DYNAMICS

Introduction

Statics

Dynamics

Conclusions

FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS OF RIGID BODIES

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS AND DAMAGE ASSESSMENT

Damage and Mechanical Behavior of Materials

General Ideas and Definitions

Structures and Bond Types of Solids

A Physical View of Defects

Dislocation Mechanisms of Origin and Growth of Cracks

Fractography of Surfaces of Extending Cracks

Fundamental Definitions of Defect

Methods for Evaluating the Level of Damage

NONLINEAR MODELS AND PLASTICITY

Plasticity

Theory of Slipping

The Deformation Theory

The Yielding Theory. A Regular Plasticity

A Singular Plasticity

An Analytical Plasticity

A Principle of Macrodeterminism

A Behavior of Elastic-plastic Materials with Defects

THE ROLE OF FLUIDS AND HEAT IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

PRESSURE VESSELS AND SHELL STRUCTURES

Areas of Application of Pressure Vessels and Shell Structures

Design of Pressure Vessels

Structural Elements of Pressure Vessels

Shell Structures of Composite Materials

Strength and Analysis of Pressure Vessels and Shell Structures

SYSTEM RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

Reliability Measures for Elements

Statistical Estimation of Reliability Measures

Series Configuration Systems

Parallel Configuration Systems

Complex Systems and Redundancy

Fault Tree Analysis

Event Tree Analysis

Two-Side Estimates for Reliability Measures

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF PHYSICAL RELIABILITY THEORY

Failures in Mechanical Systems

General Concepts of Physical Reliability Theory

Load-Strength Model

Multidimensional Time-independent Models

Cumulative Time-dependent Models

Poisson Models

Failure as the First Excursion of a Random Process

RELIABILITY AGAINST FRACTURE AND FATIGUE

Fracture and Fatigue in Mechanical Engineering

Linear Fracture Mechanics

Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics

Traditional Approach to Fatigue Analysis

Theory of Fatigue Crack Growth

Failure as the Loss of Integrity

FAULT DETECTION AND DIAGNOSTICS OF FAILURES

Basic Concepts

Relationship between Diagnostics and Reliability

Diagnostics aspects at the Design Stage

Diagnostics at the Manufacturing Stage

Diagnostics at the Operational Stage

Diagnostics at the Repair and Storage Stages

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

Classification of NDT Methods

Magnetic NDT Methods

Electric NDT Methods

Eddy Current NDT Methods

Microwave NDT Methods

Infrared NDT Methods

Optical NDT Methods

Radiographic NDT Methods

Ultrasonic NDT Methods

Penetrant NDT Methods

Other NDT Methods

FAULT CORRECTION IN MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

General Information about Faults

Defects in Welds, their Causes and Removal

Methods to Minimize Welding Deformations, Stresses and Shifting

Defects in Metallic Casts and Method to eliminate them

Faults in Bearing Joints and Ways to eliminate them

Faults in Motor Vehicle Units and Assemblies and Methods of Removing them

NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERING APPROACHES IN DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

General Load Conditions for Engineering Structures

Deformation Fracture Criteria under Static and Low Cyclic High Temperatures Loading

Stress-Strain Fracture Criteria under High Cyclic Loading

Stress-Strain Fracture Criteria under Two-Frequency Cyclic Loading

Life Time Prediction in Cycle Loading Condition

Elasto-Plastic Strain at the Crack Initiation in the Notch Affected Area

The Crack Propagation at Low Cycle Loading

The Generalized Effects of Stress and Strain Concentration for Substantiation of Constructions Safety

Engineering Approaches to Design of Structures

INDUSTRIAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

Background

System-Wide Approach

Fundamentals of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Definitions and Key Concepts

Management of Operations

System Models for Management of Manufacturing Operations

Human Factors and Ergonomics in Industrial Engineering

Production and Distribution Systems

Manufacturing

Management in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Quality: a Management Philosophy

New Engineering Processes for the Twenty-First Century

Conclusion

TYPES AND PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS

Classifications of Pumps

Pumps Basic Principles

Pumps Operation

Compressors

INDUSTRIAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING

HIERARCHY, COMPLEXITY AND AGENT-BASED MODELS

PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING SYSTEMS

STRESS CLASSIFICATION IN PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING

Introduction

Primary Stress

Secondary Stress

WIRELESS TERRESTRIAL COMMUNICATIONS: NON-TELEPHONY-ORIENTED TECHNOLOGIES

Technical Challenges in Wireless Communications

Overview of Current Wireless Systems and Beyond