ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL SCIENCES, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES - Table of Contents

SUSPENSIONS, EMULSIONS AND FOAMS

Suspensions

Emulsions

Foams

RHEOLOGY OF SURFACTANTS: WORMLIKE MICELLES AND LAMELLAR LIQUID CRYSTALLINE PHASES

Introduction

Wormlike Micellar Systems

Surfactant Lamellar Liquid Crystal Phases

Concluding Remarks

NATURAL PRODUCTS AS SOURCES OF SPICES, DYES AND COSMETICS

Spices

Natural Dyes

Natural Sources for Cosmetic Ingredients

Conclusion

CATALYSIS

CHEMISTRY OF NUTRACEUTICS, FLAVORS, DYES AND ADDITIVES

Flavors

Dyes

Additives

Nutraceutics

POLYMER CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY DEGRADABLE POLYMERS

General structure of polymers

Synthesis of polymers

Environmentally degradable polymers

SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPY OF TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES

Synthesis of Transition Metal Complexes

Spectroscopy of Transition Metal Complexes

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

GREENHOUSE GASES AND GLOBAL WARMING

Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse Gases

Radiative Forcing of Climate Change

Non Greenhouse Gas Radiative Forcing

Climate Models

Predictions of Future Climate

CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

Aliphatic Compounds

Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide

Aromatic Carbocyclic Compounds

Aromatic Rings containing Nitrogen, Oxygen or Sulfur

Abiotic Reactions

The Natural Environment

TROPOSPHERIC OZONE POLLUTION

Historical Development of the Ground-Level Ozone Problem

Photochemical Sources and Ozone Sinks

Diurnal Variations of Ozone in Urban Areas

Ozone and Atmospheric Oxidising Capacity

Ozone and Urban Air Pollution: Some General Observations

CHEMISTRY OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION

Formation and Distribution of Stratospheric Ozone

Chemistry of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

Trends of Stratospheric Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation

Expected Development of Stratospheric Ozone

RADIOACTIVITY IN LAND, WATER AND ATMOSPHERE

Radioactivity and Radiation

Biological Effects of Radiation

Natural Radioactivity

Anthropogenic Radioactivity

Behavior of Radioactivity in the Environment

SUSPENDED MATERIAL / AEROSOL

Generation

Fundamentals

Aerosol properties related to environmental effects

Epilogue

OXIDES OF CARBON

Carbon Monoxide

Carbon Dioxide

SULFUR DIOXIDE AND SULFUR CYCLES

Introduction: Atmospheric Sulfur Distributions, Cycles, and Global Material Balances

Sources, Concentrations, and Chemistry of Sulfur Compounds in the Atmosphere

Atmospheric Deposition Processes

Atmospheric Residence Times, Spatial Scales, and Global Models

OXIDIZED AND REDUCED NITROGEN IN THE ATMOSPHERE

Emissions

Chemical Transformations and Transport

Deposition processes

Effects of nitrogen emissions on our environment

Effect of policies to reduce emissions and future perspectives

ACID DEPOSITION

Introduction/The Problem

Emissions

Atmospheric transport and Chemical Conversion

Wet and Dry Deposition

Life Times and Transport of Acidifying Compounds.

Effects of Acid Deposition and Eutrophication

GAS-PHASE (PHOTO) CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE TROPOSPHERE

Tropospheric Chemical and Photochemical Reactions

The Oxidizing Capacity of the Troposphere: Global Change

HYDROCARBONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE

Sources

Fate

Analysis

Concentrations

FORMATION AND EFFECTS OF SMOG

Brief History of Smog

Plant Effects

Health Effects

Materials Effects

Megacity and Regional Impacts

EMISSION PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

Introduction to Combustion-Generated Pollutants

Control of Pollutants from Internal Combustion Engines

Control of Pollutants from Stationary Power-Plants and Industrial Furnaces

ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY OF SOILS

World Distribution of Acidic and Alkaline Soils

Soil pH and pH Buffering Capacity

Soil Properties and Processes Controlling Acidity and Alkalinity

Plant – Soil Systems

The Importance of Scale and Variability in Soil Acidification and Alkalinization Processes

The Future Need for Management of Soil Acidity and Alkalinity

PERSISTENT ORGANIC WASTES

Sources

Effects

Fate and Transport

Treatment

Case Study: PCBs

TRACE ELEMENTS

Sources and occurrence of Trace Elements in Soils

Physico-chemical and biochemical processes in soils

Bioavailability in the Soil-Plant System

Transfer to aquatic systems

Volatilization of trace elements

Bioavailability through human ingestion

SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS AND RADIOISOTOPES

Defining Speciation

Sources of Heavy Metals and Radioisotopes in Soils

Soil Processes and Speciation of Heavy Metals and Radioisotopes

Measurement and Interpretation of Heavy Metal and Radioisotopes Speciation in Soils

Predicting Speciation by Modeling

Future Challenges

BIOREMEDIATION FOR SOIL RECLAMATION

Principles of Biodegradation

Site Assessment

Bioremediation Technology Selection and Design

Common Bioremediation Technologies

Monitoring Bioremediation Performance

Bioremediation Costs

Future Trends in Bioremediation

AQUATIC CHEMISTRY

WATER QUALITY

Water Resources

Categories of Water Use

Microbiological Quality Parameters

Physico-Chemical Quality Parameters

Toxicity Testing

Priorities and Trends in Water Quality and Management

INFLUENCE OF COLLOIDS AND SEDIMENTS ON WATER QUALITY

Overview of Significance

Sources and Characteristics of Particulate Material

Colloid and Sediment Dynamics in Surface Water Systems

Colloid Dynamics in Groundwater Systems

Contaminant Sources

Trace Elements Fate and Transport

Fate and Transport of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

Theory

Measurement

Typical values for waters and wastewaters

Alternatives

Applications

EUTROPHICATION AND ALGAL BLOOMS

Eutrophication

Algal Blooms

Consequences of Eutrophication

Control and Remediation of Eutrophication

CHEMISTRY OF WASTEWATER

Wastewater Analysis

Wastewater Composition

Wastewater Quantities

OIL POLLUTION AND MICROBIAL REGULATION

Measuring the Amount of Oil

Oil Pollution of the Sea

Hydrocarbon Contamination of Coastal and Estuarine Waters and Sediments

Petroleum Contamination of Soil, Freshwater and Groundwater

Physical Processes of Oil Degradation

Microbial Degradation

Toxicity and Environmental Effects

Effects on Different Organisms

Depuration and Metabolism

Clean-up and Bioremediation

Future Trends

THERMAL POLLUTION IN WATER

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Modeling Methods

Empirical Models

Numerical Models

Integral Models

Visual Plumes (VP)

Heat Loss Calculations

Restrictions and Accuracy

REMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

Adsorption and Ion Exchange Processes

Reactive Sorption in In Situ Treatment Walls

Precipitation

Reverse Osmosis

Stripping of Volatiles

Typical Radionuclides in Contaminated Groundwater and Treatment Methods

PATHWAYS OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION IN ECOSYSTEMS

Sources and input of organic pollutants to the environment

Transport pathways within ecosystems

Degradation pathways

Spatial scales of pollutant transport pathways

Use of geochemical tracers to track contaminant pathways through ecosystems

Future directions

ECOTOXICITY, GENOTOXICITY, AND CYTOTOXICITY OF PESTICIDES AND THEIR DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

Pesticide Usage and Distribution

General Factors of Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology of Pesticides

Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Pesticides

Mechanisms of Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity

Importance and Implications of Genetic and Cytotoxic Damage

AIR POLLUTION DAMAGE TO VEGETATION

Historical Development of Interest

The Mechanisms of Pollutant Damage to Vegetation

Experimental Methods for Investigating Air Pollutant Effects on Vegetation

Examples of the Impacts of Air Pollutants on Vegetation

The United Nations Efforts to Reduce the Impacts of Pollutants on Vegetation

Future Perspectives

ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY OF FOREST PEST CONTROL

Introduction and Historical Pesticide Use

Forest Pests

Chemical Pest Control Methods

Detailed Case Study

ASSESSMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS

Risk Assessment

Risk Management

ORGANIC POLLUTION FROM AGROCHEMICALS

Use of Pesticides

Contamination of the Environment

Ecotoxicological and Toxicological Effects

Alternatives for Higher Efficiency in Agriculture

MULTIMEDIA FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

Mass Balance Models

Persistence and Long-Range Transport Potential

Assessment of Models

Strengths and Limitations of Multimedia Models

WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND REUSE FOR IRRIGATION

Worldwide Sanitation Perspective

Wastewater Composition and Characteristics

Wastewater Treatment

Advanced Treatment of Effluents

Land Irrigation

Public Health and Environmental Aspects

STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION

Stratospheric Ozone

Destruction of Ozone by CFCs

The Antarctic Ozone Hole

Ultraviolet Radiation and Ozone Depletion

Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation

Human Health Effects

International Agreements Related to Ozone Depletion

CHEMICALLY-BASED COMMODITIES INTO THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

Responsible Care

Landfill versus Incineration and the Introduction of "Externalities"

Mineral Mining as an Essential and Future Commodity

Food Commodities: Tanzania

Land Mines

How Biotechnology Contributes to Sustainable development

HISTORY AND FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMISTRY

A HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY

The Birth of Chemistry as a Science

Definition of the Building Blocks of Chemistry

The Elements

Thermodynamics

Chemical Dynamics

The States of Matter

Valence Theory

Spectroscopic Analysis

Stereochemistry

Electrochemistry

Organic Chemistry

Discoveries of New Products and Less Expensive Processes

CHEMICAL MATTER: ELEMENTS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION THROUGH THE PERIODIC SYSTEM

Introduction to the Electronic Structure of Atoms

The Building Up of the Periodic Table

The Periodical Trends of Some Physical Properties

Some Periodical Trends of the Chemical Behavior

THE CONTRIBUTION OF NOBEL LAUREATES TO CHEMISTRY

The Discovery of New Elements

The Properties of Atoms

The Properties of Molecules

The Dynamics of Chemical Reactions

New Synthetic Routes for Useful Products

The Understanding of Natural Processes

The Identification of Chemical Entities

The Expansion of Thermodynamics

CHEMICAL EXPERIMENTATION AND INSTRUMENTATION

CHEMICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES

Common Laboratory Apparatus

The Reaction

Isolation and Purification Techniques

GAS AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

Evolution and Classification of Chromatography

Chromatographic Theory

Gas Chromatography

High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Analytical Objectives

VOLUMETRIC AND CALORIMETRIC TECHNIQUES

Volumetric Methods

Calorimetric Methods and Instruments

Applications in Life Sciences

NMR SPECTROSCOPY

Classical Description

Quantum Description

Multidimensional NMR

Dynamic Aspects of NMR

Spatial Information from NMR

Solid, Liquid, and Partially Oriented Samples

The Impact of NMR

THEORETICAL APPROACH TO CHEMISTRY

SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION AND QUANTUM CHEMISTRY

The Schrödinger Equation

Quantum Chemistry

MOLECULAR ENERGETICS: VALENCE BOND AND MOLECULAR ORBITAL METHODS. DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES

Methods for obtaining approximate electronic wavefunctions

Density functional theory of atoms and molecules

MOLECULAR DYNAMICS: COLLISIONAL AND STATISTICAL APPROACH TO REACTION RATE

Definitions and Models

Theoretical Aspects of Collision Dynamics

Experimental Techniques

Phenomenology

OPTIMAL CONTROL OF MOLECULAR SCALE PHENOMENA

Theoretical Principles of Quantum Control

Quantum Learning Control

Laboratory Realizations of Quantum Control

Control-Assisted Extraction of Microscopic Information

The Future of Quantum Control

CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND STATE FUNCTIONS

Thermodynamic Systems

Internal Energy and First Law of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Second Law of Thermodynamics

Equilibrium Conditions in Simple Systems

Graphical Representation of Equilibrium States

Stability of Thermodynamic Equilibrium States

Eulero and Gibbs–Duhem Equations

Entropy and Transformation of Heat into Work

Entropy and its Absolute Value: Third Law of Thermodynamics

Other State Functions for Equilibrium Conditions in Chemical Systems: Enthalpy and Free Energies

Relationships among State Functions

State Functions for Multicomponent Systems: Molar and Partial Molar Functions

ENERGY BALANCE OF REACTING SYSTEMS

Historical Perspectives

Rules for Writing Down the Energy Balance

Energetic Properties of Chemical Reactions

Calculation of State Functions Involved in Energy Balances

Evidencing Reactions Contributions to Energy Balances

EQUILIBRIUM IN MULTIPHASE REACTING SYSTEMS

Equilibrium conditions from thermodynamic laws

The phase rule and the Duhem’s theorem

The chemical potential

Equilibrium constant

Applications

STATISTICAL APPROACH TO THERMODYNAMICS

Microscopic behaviour of ideal gases.

Internal energy and zero point energy.

Statistical interpretation of the first law of thermodynamics.

Probability, entropy and laws of thermodynamics.

Properties of the ideal monoatomic gas.

Boltzmann distribution law.

Translational partition function.

Gibbs approach to statistical mechanics.

Ideal polyatomic gases.

Monoatomic solids.

Interacting systems.

Charged Particle Systems.

Stability of matter.

General treatment of real fluids.

Phase transitions

IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES: PHENOMENOLOGICAL AND STATISTICAL APPROACH

The Boltzmann equation

Transport coefficient for gaseous mixtures

Onsager’s Reciprocity Relations from the Boltzmann equation

The macroscopic theory of irreversible processes

The reciprocity relations

Irreversibility, patterns and chaos

CHEMICAL KINETICS AND DYNAMICS

RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS: THEIR MEASUREMENT AND MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSIONS

Reaction Rate, Kinetic Equation, Catalysis

Dependence of the Rate on Temperature

Measurement of Rates

MICROKINETICS VERSUS MACROKINETICS: THE ROLE OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN DETERMING REACTIONS RATES

Summary of Basic Concepts

Fluid-Solid Interphase Diffusion and Reactions

Intraphase Diffusion and Reactions

Fluid-Fluid Homogeneous Reactions

DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF COMPLEX REACTING SYSTEMS: ROLE OF NON-LINEARITY

Rate Law of Chemical Reactions

Material and Energy Balances of Reacting Systems

Simulation of Stationary Plug Flow Reactors

Dynamic Treatment of a Reacting System

Steady States and their Stability

Autocatalytic Processes

Analogies with Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena

Turing Patterns and Self-Organization

Symmetry Breaking in Chemical Reacting Systems

CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTANCES

INORGANIC AND METAL-ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

General Properties

Descriptive Chemistry

ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

Organic Reactions

Rate and Selectivity Control

Multistep Reactions

Organic Synthesis based on Weak Interactions: Self-Assembly

Bio-Inspired Organic Synthesis

Synthetic Planning and Strategies

Perspectives

SYNTHESIS OF NANOPHASES

Structure and Properties of Nanophases

Synthesis of Quantum Wells

Synthesis of Quantum Wires

Synthesis of Quantum Dots

POLYMERS AND THEIR SYNTHESIS

The synthesis of macromolecules

The shape of macromolecules

The crystalline and the amorphous state

Application of polymers

Introduction

BIOCHEMICAL METHODS OF SYNTHESIS

Early Employment of Enzymes in Organic Synthesis

Biotransformations in Organic Synthesis

CarbonCarbon Bond-Forming Reactions

Glycosyl-Transfer Reactions

Halogenation Reactions

Abzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

Reactions Catalyzed by Artificial Enzymes

MAIN BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

METROLOGY IN CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

Metrological characteristics of methods and procedures in chemical analysis

Analytical signal: Conducting of a measurement

Errors in chemical analysis: Data treatment

Sensitivity factor, detection limit, and Dynamic range

Analysis of variance, correlation and regression analysis (a general overview)

ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS

Chemical qualitative elemental analysis

Physical methods of qualitative elemental analysis

Chemical quantitative elemental analysis

Physical methods of quantitative elemental analysis

Test methods

Applications of elemental analysis

ORGANIC REACTIONS

Types of organic reactions

Organic reactions in life-support processes

Organic reactions and ecology

ELECTROCHEMISTRY: FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS

Ionic conductors and their conductivity

Electrodes and electrode reactions

Electrode Potentials

The structure of the electrode/electrolyte interface

The Volta problem in Electrochemistry

Electrochemical kinetics

Outlook

CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

BIOSYNTHESIS OF CHEMICAL SIGNALS DE NOVO SYNTHESIS AND SECONDARY METABOLITES

Polyketide pathway: fatty acids and polyketides

Shikimate pathway

Mevalonic acid pathway: Isoprenoids

INTER AND INTRASPECIFICITY OF CHEMICAL COMMUNICATION

Terms used in chemical communicaton

Interspecific chemical communication

Intraspecific chemical communication

CHEMICAL DEFENSE AND MAMMALIAN HERBIVORES

Plant Metabolism

Phytochemical Variation in Plants

Plant Defense Theory

Mammalian Metabolism of Phytochemicals

Mammalian Herbivory

FORAGING AND FOOD CHOICE IN PHYTOPHAGOUS INSECTS

The occurrence of phytophagy

Diet breadth

Foraging strategies

Plant secondary compounds; the determinants of diet breadth

Avoiding the effects of plant secondary compounds

Odors of plant secondary compounds

Pharmacophagy

Secondary compounds and insect evolution

CHEMICAL DEFENCE IN INVERTEBRATES

Mechanisms of acquiring chemical defenses

Delivery of chemical defenses

Introduction

Conclusions

CHEMICAL MIMICRY

Propaganda

Stealth: Escaping detection

Discoveries of chemical mimicry

CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF ANIMAL INTERACTION

CHEMICAL TRIGGERS IN BREEDING CYCLES

Sex Pheromones as Reproductive Stimuli

Glandular Origins of Sex Pheromones

Sex Pheromones as Eclectic Natural Products

Parsimony of Sexual Pheromones

Plant Compounds and Sexual Attractants

Distribution of Plant and Animal Sex Pheromones

CHEMICALS IN HOST-PARASITOID AND PREY-PREDATOR RELATIONS

Semiochemicals influencing the behaviour of parasitoids and predators

Pesticides influencing the host-parasitoid and prey-predator populations

Chemical defenses

Conclusions

CHEMICAL SIGNALS AS ATTRACTANTS, REPELLENTS AND AGGREGATION STIMULANTS

Classification of Chemical Signals

Detection and Decoding of Semiochemicals

Approaches to the Isolation and Identification of Semiochemicals

Attractants

Repellents

Aggregation stimulants

Semiochemicals and Parsimony

Practical Applications

Conclusions

CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS

Why plants apparently play the losing role

How plants survive under a herbivore dominated world

Considerations from evolution

Secondary metabolites and the need to communicate

The counterattack of herbivores

Plant Chemical defenses as feeding flags

Plant volatiles in multitrophic interactions

Old and emerging paradigms

CHEMICAL ECOLOGY IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

THE ECOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLES OF BACTERIAL CELL-CELL SIGNALLING

Bacterial Signalling systems

Ecological role of bacterial signals

Natural defences against quorum sensing

Conclusions

CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF MARINE BACTERIA AND ALGAE

Ecological Roles of Bacterial and Algal Compounds

Temporal and Spatial Variability of Defensive Compounds

Case Study: Dictyota spp.

Conclusions

CHEMICAL SIGNALS IN CORAL REEFS

Chemical signaling in coral reefs

Conclusions

CHEMICAL COMMUNICATION IN FISH

Communication, or Spying?

The Olfactory Sense in Fish

Reproductive Responses to Pheromones

Chemically-Mediated Anti-Predator Strategies

Aggregation and Migration

ENVIROMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION: CAN THE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION HYPOTHESIS BE VALIDATED IN THE INVERTEBRATE PHYLA?

Endocrine Disruption: A Threat to Ecosystem Health?

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

Xenoestrogens: Mechanism of Action

Endocrine Disruption in Invertebrates

Regulatory Considerations

Detection and Assessment: Bioassays and Biomarkers

A Strategy for the Detection of Endocrine Disruption in Invertebrates

Conclusion and Future Perspectives

CHEMICAL SIGNALS IN VERTEBRATES AND HUMAN COMPLEXITIES

THE CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF MUSTELIDS

Scent marking in Mustelids

The Eurasian or European Otter (Lutra lutra)

The European Badger (Meles meles)

The Future of Mustelid Chemical Ecology Research.

APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

CHEMICAL ECOLOGY AND PEST MANAGEMENT

Semiochemicals and their application in insect pest management

Semiochemicals and their application in vertebrate pest management

Conclusion

CHEMICAL ECOLOGY IN RELATION TO MEDICINE AND PHARMACEUTICALS

Chemical Defenses

Symbiosis

Parasitism: A New Approach to Studying the Biochemistry of Defenses

Leads

Natural Products with a Narrow Biological Function

When the Mechanism of Action of a Compound is More Important than its Biological Function

The Management of Vectors: a Control Tool for Vector-Borne Diseases

New Windows for Pharmaceutical Industries

Conclusions

FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PRINCIPLES OF MOMENTUM, MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES

Introduction

Macroscopic Balances

Microscopic Balances

Population Balances

THERMODYNAMICS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES

Introduction

Fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics

Properties of Pure Fluids

Phase Equilibrium Thermodynamics

Chemical Reacting Mixtures and Chemical Reaction Equilibrium

Calculation of Fugacities and Activities

Conclusions

FLUID MECHANICS

The Continuum Hypothesis

Conservation Equations

Non-dimensionalization of the Governing Equations: The Reynolds number

Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Application of the Equations of Motion: Flow in a Circular Pipe

Motion of an Isolated Solid Particle in a Fluid

Particles Settling in a Suspension

MULTIPHASE FLOW

Introduction

Gas/Liquid Flows

Liquid/Liquid Flows

Gas/Solids Flows

Liquid/Solids Flows

Modern Modelling Methods

MASS TRANSFER BY DIFFUSION

Introduction

Velocities and Fluxes of Mass Transfer

Binary Diffusion

Generalized Mass Balances

Binary Mass Transfer in Stagnant Systems and in Laminar Flow

Multicomponent Diffusion

INTERPHASE MASS TRANSFER

Introduction

Turbulent Mass Transfer

Mass Transfer Coefficient in One Phase

Mass Transfer Models

Correlations of Mass Transfer Coefficients

Multicomponent Mass Transfer

CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL KINETICS AND MACROKINETICS

Introduction

Analysis of Common Reactions

Analysis of Heterogeneous Systems

Analysis of Experimental Data

Theories for Predicting the Reaction Rate

CATALYSIS AND BIOCATALYSIS

Brief History

Catalysis-Overview

Catalytic Kinetics

Heterogeneous Catalysis

Homogeneous Catalysis

Biocatalysis (Catalysis by Enzymes)

Catalysis and Green Chemistry

Conclusions

MOLECULAR SIMULATIONS

Introduction

Molecular Simulations

The Concept of the Amorphous Cell and of the Molecular Model

The Molecular Dynamics Method

The Monte Carlo Method

The Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) Method

Conclusion

UNIT OPERATIONS - FLUIDS

EVAPORATION AND CONDENSATION

Introduction

Pool Boiling

Flow Boiling

Thermal-hydraulic phenomena during flow boiling in small diameter channels

Condensation

REFRIGERATION

Introduction

Methods of refrigeration

Refrigerants

New developments in refrigeration technology

DISTILLATION OR RECTIFICATION

Fundamentals

Equipment

Separation Processes

MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS - ABSORPTION AND EXTRACTION

Introduction

Gas absorption

Liquid-liquid Extraction

MASS TRANSFER OPERATION - MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS

Introduction

An overview on the most industrialized membrane separation processes and emerging applications

Sustainable growth and integrated membrane operations

Conclusions

MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS: HYBRID MEMBRANE PROCESSES

Introduction

Hybrid Membrane Desalination Systems

Integrated Membrane Systems in Agrofood Industry

Hybrid Membrane Operations for Wastewater Treatment

Integrated Membrane Operations in Gas Separation

Integration of Molecular Separation and Chemical/Energy Conversion

Conclusions

HANDLING OF FLUIDS

Introduction

Storage

Transportation

Pumping

Metering

XX-NA-XX

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS - CRYSTALLIZATION

Solid-Liquid-Equilibria

Kinetics

Properties of Crystals

Crystallization Technology

HANDLING OF SOLIDS - TRANSPORT

History

Characterization of Bulk Solids

Storage of Bulk Solids

Transport

PARTICLE GROWTH AND AGGLOMERATION PROCESSES

Product properties

Rate Processes

Regime maps

Population Balance equations

Granulation Equipment

Equipment Design

Conclusion

SOLIDS SEPARATION FROM FLUIDS

Introduction and Overview about Different Solids Fluid Separation Techniques

New Developments in Solids Fluid Separation

IDEAL MODELS OF REACTORS

The Thermodynamic State of a System

The Plug Flow Reactor

The Perfectly Mixed Tank Reactor

The Batch Reactor

The Cascade of Tank Reactors

Comparison of Different Types of Reactors

NONIDEAL FLOW MODELS IN HOMOGENEOUS CHEMICAL REACTORS

The Residence Time Distribution (RTD)

Models of Nonideal Flows

Influence of Mixing Phenomena on Chemical Reactions

Example

MULTIPHASE REACTORS

Introduction

Fundamentals of Phase Contacting in Chemical Reactors

Reactor Selection and Design Issues in Multiphase Reactors

Basic Types of Multiphase Reactors and their Design Features

Future Outlook

CATALYTIC REACTORS: A REVIEW

Fixed Bed Reactor

Fluidized Bed Reactor

Biocatalytic Reactors

Unconventional Reactors

Conclusion

POLYMERIZATION REACTORS

Polymers

A short history of polymer reaction engineering

Polymerization mechanisms

Polymerization reactors

Towards product-inspired polymer reaction engineering

ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTORS

Backgrounds of electrochemistry

Transport and transfer phenomena in electrochemical processes

Technology of electrochemical reactors

Current distribution in electrochemical cells

Design of electrochemical cells: an introduction

Current trends in electrochemical engineering

PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING

Introduction. Photoreactor Design

Reactor Modeling

The Rate of the Radiation Initiated Step

Radiation Field Properties

The Photon Transport Equation

Radiative Transfer in Participating and Reactive Media

Emission Models for Tubular Photochemical Lamps

Optical Properties

The Coupling Attenuation - Reaction Extent

Final Equations for the Example: The Annular Photoreactor

MULTIFUNCTIONAL REACTORS

Reactive Separation Processes

Mechanical Integrated Processes

Heat Integrated Processes

Conclusions

MICROREACTORS

Introduction

General Benefits of Microreactors

Selected Types of Microreactors

Selected Examples of Use

Cost Analysis

Eco-Efficiency Analysis

Process Safety

PROCESS MODELLING, OPTIMIZATION AND CONTROL

SOLUTION OF MODEL EQUATIONS

Classes of Problems and Computer Methods

Algebraic Equation Systems

Ordinary Differential Equation Systems

Differential-Algebraic Equation Methods

Partial Differential Equation Systems (PDEs)

Optimization Methods

Conclusion

PROCESS ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION

Steady State Simulation of a Chemical Process

Solving a System of Nonlinear Equations

Process Optimization

Conclusions

DATA RECONCILIATION

Scope, aims and benefits of Data Reconciliation

Exploiting redundancy

Mathematical formulation of the validation problem

Applications

Conclusions

PRODUCT CENTERED PROCESS DESIGN

Systematic Framework for the Manufacture of Chemical-Based Products

Product Conceptualization

Identification of Product Quality Factors

Selection of Ingredients and Product Microstructure

Generation of Process Alternatives

Product and Process Evaluation

Example: Shampoo and Conditioner in One Product

Conclusions

CAPE SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR MODELLING AND SIMULATION

Introduction

CAPE Modelling and Simulation Tools

Dynamic Process Modelling Background & Basics

A Model-Based Engineering Approach Using CAPE Tools

Conclusions

DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL PROCESS

Introduction

Scientific Basics of Process Development [Baerns 2006]

The Components of a Chemical Production Plant

Standard Approach of Process Development

Execution of a Project

Evaluation of Chemical Processes

The Future of the Process Development

PROCESS MANAGEMENT

PROCESS SAFETY

Terminology

Safety Assurance Techniques

Safety in Design

HAZOP

Quantitative Risk Assessment

Safety in Operation

Safety in Maintenance

PROCESS RISK ANALYSIS

Introduction

Terminology Used in This Chapter

Application of safety/risk techniques

Hazard identification and safety/risk analysis techniques

Frequency/Probability Modeling Techniques

Consequence Analysis Techniques

Safety Concepts in Process Development and Plant Design

Safety and Risk Analysis

Hazard, Safety and Risk Management in Plant Design and Operation

RECOVERY AND RECYCLING OF POST-CONSUMER WASTE MATERIALS

Introduction

Recycling: A Growing Field of Sustainable Development

Legislative Evaluation

Recycling: Targets, Priorities, Quality Control and Marketing

Target Post-consumer Waste Recovery and Recycling Sectors

PROCESS ECONOMICS

Introduction

Economic Evaluation of Chemical Process Projects

Economic Evaluation Techniques

Economic Evaluation of a Major Project in Practice

Economic Evaluation of Modifications to Operating Process Plants

Optimization of Operating Costs

Challenges for the Future

PROCESS ENGINEERING FOR SUSTAINABILITY

Introduction

History of Sustainable Development

Principles of Sustainable Development

Green Chemistry Concept

Clean Technologies

Definition of Process Engineering

Applications of Process Engineering

History of Process Engineering

Tools of Process Engineering In Sustainable Development

Nanotechnology in Process Engineering

New Scientific Instrumentation in Process Engineering

Microreactors

Membranes

Hybrid Processes

Role of Process Engineering in Integrated Water Resources Management

New Software in Optimal Designing of the Plants

Process Engineering for Medicine

CHEMICAL PRODUCT DESIGN

Needs

Ideas

Selection

Product Manufacture

Conclusions

MULTI-SCALE MODELING

Multi-Scale Structures in Chemical Engineering

Approaches to Analyze Multi-Scale Structures

Descriptive Multi-Scale Methodology

Correlative Multi-Scale Methodology

Analytical Multi-Scale Methodology

Applications in Industries

Prospects

MAIN PRODUCTS

PETROCHEMICALS

Introduction

Petrochemicals Overview

Olefins

Aromatics

Methanol and Ammonia

Polymers

PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS

Introduction

Global Supply and Demand

Chemistry of Petroleum

Petroleum Products

Crude Oil Characterisation

Petroleum Product Properties

Petroleum Production Processes

Challenges for the Future

POLYMERS

Introduction

Polymer Classification

Polymer Synthesis

Physics of Polymers

Polymer Modification

Challenges and New Trends in Polymer Science

AMMONIA AND FERTILIZERS

Introduction

Fertilizer Raw Materials

Fertilizer Processes

Fertilizers and Environment

PIGMENTS AND DYESTUFFS

Pigments

Inorganic pigments

Dyes

Introduction

Organic pigments

Recent developments and future trends

FERMENTATION PRODUCTS

Introduction

Fermentation feedstocks

Food fermentation products

Chemicals and pharmaceuticals made by fermentation

Fermentation products in feed and agriculture

Recent developments and future trends

ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF FOOD PROCESSING

Introduction

Food Industry

Food Processing

Concluding Remarks

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

THE STATUS OF UNDERGRADUATE CHEMICAL EDUCATION

Chemistry Curricula and Degree Production

The State of Chemical Education: Emerging Trends in Undergraduate Curriculum

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

BIOCHEMISTRY

Introduction

Central Metabolism

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (Dna)

Proteins and Enzymes

The Origins of Life

SYMMETRY AND BROKEN SYMMETRY IN MOLECULES

Introduction

The Symmetry of Macroscopic Objects

The Point Group Symmetry of Molecules

The Use of Molecular Point Group Symmetry

Energy Invariance Symmetry

Broken Symmetry

BIOGEOCHEMISTRY

ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSION AND STORAGE - BATTERIES, FUEL CELLS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CAPACITORS

Introduction

Electrochemical Capacitors

Batteries

Hybrid Supercapacitors

Fuel Cells

“Hybrid” Batteries/Fuel Cells

Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC's)

Conclusion

ISOTOPE EFFECTS, ISOTOPE SEPARATION AND ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION

Introduction

Isotope Effects

Isotope Separation

Isotopic Fractionation in Nature

Conclusions