ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WATER SCIENCES, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES - Table of Contents

LIMNOLOGY, ANIMALS AND PLANTS

LIMNOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL CHANGES IN LAKE VICTORIA

Introduction

FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE ICHKEUL LAKE NW TUNISIA

Introduction

Flora and fauna of Ichkeul Park

Environmental characteristics of Ichkeul Lake

Flora and fauna of Ichkeul Lake

-XX-NA-XX-

LIMNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE EGYPTIAN LAKES

Introduction

Etymology

Wadi El-Rayan as a Flood Water Reservoir

Wadi El-Rayan as A Drainage Water Reservoir

Wadi el-Rayan Lakes

Wildlife

Fossils

Aquaculture (Intensive Fish Farming)

Land reclamation Activities

Lower Wadi el-Rayan Lake Repeat the History of Lake Qarun

THE NILE FISHES AND FISHERIES

Introduction

Major Lakes of the Nile Basin

Fish and Fisheries of Tropical Lakes (L. Victoria and L. Tana)

Fish and Fisheries of Mid Nile (Sudan Freshwater Fish and Fisheries)

Downstream Fishes and Fisheries (Egyptian Freshwater Fisheries)

Water Quality in Major Nile Basin Fisheries and Its Impact on Fish Production

Freshwater Aquaculture in The Nile Basin

Economic Value of Freshwater Fisheries of the Nile Basin

Future of Freshwater Fish Production of the Nile Basin

TRANSFER OF ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE

Methodology for determination of horizontal moisture transfer components

On interpreting advective and eddy flows of moisture

Factors for water vapor flow formation

Distribution of moisture flows over the Earth

Peculiarities of atmospheric moisture transfer in polar areas

Prospects for further investigations

WATER EXCHANGE BETWEEN LAND AND ATMOSPHERE

Interrelation of moisture exchange processes in the atmosphere - land system

Equation of relation between atmospheric and land surface water balances

General information about moisture circulation in the atmosphere

Land surface moistening

Prospects for further investigations

WATER EXCHANGE BETWEEN LAND AND OCEANS

Global water exchange

Regional aspects of water exchange

Prospects for further investigations

SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER INTERACTION

Typical schemes of surface and ground water interaction

Surface and groundwater interaction in areas with different natural conditions

The role of groundwater function in the water balance of the land

Groundwater interaction with seas and big lakes

The impact of human activities on surface and ground water formation

HYDROSPHERE COMPONENTS

HYDROSPHERE STRUCTURE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE GLOBAL HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

Components of the hydrosphere

Role of individual components of the hydrosphere in the global hydrological cycle

Conclusion

ENERGY BALANCE AND THE ROLES OF THE SUN, EARTH, OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERE

Solar radiation

The heat balance

Distribution of the Energy Balance Components

Energy Balance and Climate Changes

Conclusion

HYDROLOGICAL REGIONS AND WATER BALANCE

World Ocean and Continents of the Earth

Principles of hydrological regionalisation

Other methodological approaches to regionalisation of territories

Multipurpose hydrological regionalisation

Conclusion

ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

On possible change in hydrological cycle components

Classification of human activity factors

Transformation of vegetation cover and the Earth’s surface

Freshwater use

Human impact on climate by changing atmospheric characteristics

Conclusion

OCEAN-LAND INTERACTION IN COASTAL ZONES AND EFFECT OF OCEAN-LEVEL CHANGE

Classification of the interaction processes between sea and river water

Classification of ocean-level oscillations

Short-term level oscillations

Local level oscillations related to vertical movements of coastal areas

Principal directions of further research

ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION OF THE EARTH

Atmospheric precipitation over oceans

Atmospheric precipitation on the continents and islands

Conclusion

EVAPORATION FROM THE SURFACE OF THE GLOBE

Evaporation from the surface of the World Ocean.

Evaporation from land.

Conclusion

RIVER RUNOFF TO OCEANS AND LAKES

Basic Data and Methodological Approaches

Dynamics of River Water Inflow to Oceans from Continents

Dynamics of Freshwater Inflow to the World Ocean

Fresh Water Inflow to Endorheic Seas and Lakes

Conclusion

GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE INTO THE WORLD OCEAN

Present-day concept of groundwater discharge into seas and oceans

Main notions and definitions

Methods for studying and assessing groundwater discharge into the sea

Quantitative assessing of groundwater discharge into the World Ocean

EVAPORATION FROM LAND, EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

Experimental methods for determining evaporation from land

Comparative assessment of contemporary experimental methods for determining evaporation from land

Design methods for determining evaporation from land

Comparative assessment of design Methods for computation of evaporation from land

Conclusions

EVAPORATION FROM OPEN WATER SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER

Evaporation from free water surface

Ground water evaporation

TRANSPIRATION

Cuticular transpiration

Stoma opening and transpiration

Transpiration measurements

Transpiration rate

Seasonal variability

Daily variations

Transpiration control

Evapotranspiration

Conclusion: transpiration and mineral nutrition of plants

FORMATION OF PRECIPITATION

Basic information about precipitation

Relationship between precipitation and clouds

Dynamic factors of precipitation formation

The role of the entrainment of the ambient air into the cloud

Comparison of observations and theory

Synoptic vortexes and precipitation

Microphysical processes of precipitation formation

TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PRECIPITATION

Precipitation forms

Characteristics of precipitation regime

Classification of precipitation types by annual and daily variations

Classification of precipitation by genesis

Conclusion

EXTREME PRECIPITATION

Statistical characteristics

Hurricanes

Spouts

Dust storms

Monsoons precipitation

Frontal precipitation

SNOW AND ITS DISTRIBUTION

Methods of snow survey

Global scale distribution

Mountainous areas

Landscape zones

Spatial distribution at a local scale

Informative-mapping analysis

Snow under forest canopy

Metamorphism of snow crystals

Snow melting

Impact on business

Snow management

Purposes of future investigations

ARTIFICIAL RAINFALL

History

Scientific basis

Hygroscopic seeding

Glaciogenic seeding

Operational precipitation enhancement projects

Seeding modes

Conclusions

RUNOFF GENERATION AND STORAGE IN WATERSHED

Processes and Phenomena on the Watershed Surface

Processes and Phenomena in Soil or Near-Surface Rock Layer

Runoff Transformation in Runoff Elements

Channel Runoff Transformation

The Relationship of Runoff and Storage in Watershed

The Runoff Generation Problem and Experimental Hydrology

Landscape is a Runoff Producing Complex and the Intersection of Science

The Peculiarities of Runoff Generation Conditions in Various Geographical Zones

SPACE CHARACTERS OF RUNOFF FORMATION

Principal classifications of river runoff formation and their space presentation

Methods for description of space runoff features and factors

New information types as a perspective for estimating space specific features of runoff formation.

GIS as a perspective system to study space specific features of runoff characteristics.

HYDROLOGY OF SLOPING TERRAIN

The Peculiarities of Runoff Formation in Mountain Conditions

Mountain Erosion

Outburst Floods

Debris Flows

Landslides

Snow Avalanches

RIVER RUNOFF MODELING

Discrepancy of the term "Mathematical Model"

Two Essentially Different Classes of Mathematical Models

Deterministic Modeling

Stochastic Modeling

Deterministic-Stochastic Modeling

River runoff Modeling Prospects

URBAN HYDROLOGY

Urbanized Landscape

Climatic Features of Urbanized Landscape

Runoff

Water Balance

Quality of Surface and Underground Water

Research Development

Conclusion

INFILTRATION AND GROUNDWATER FORMATION

Main notion and definitions.

Methods for determining groundwater infiltration recharge

Peculiarities of groundwater formation.

Regime-forming factors

GROUNDWATER OF LOOSE (UNCONSOLIDATED) ROCKS

Groundwater of alluvial and lake-alluvial deposits.

Groundwater of alluvial-proluvial deposits

Groundwater of glacial deposits

Groundwater of Quaternary marine deposits.

Groundwater of eolian deposits.

Conclusion

GROUNDWATER IN SEDIMENTARY, METAMORPHIC AND VOLCANIC ROCKS

Groundwater of Sedimentary Rocks

Groundwater of volcanic rocks

Groundwater of metamorphic rocks

Conclusion

KARSTIC AQUIFERS

Peculiarities of groundwater in the open karst

Groundwater peculiarities in covered karst

Effect of technogenic conditions on karst and karst aquifers

Peculiarities of karst water regime and resources

GENESIS AND GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF GLACIERS

Properties of natural ice

Cryosphere, glaciosphere, chionosphere

Snow-patches and glaciers

Basic boundary levels of snow and ice

Measures of glacierization

Occurrence of glaciers

Present-day glacierization of the Arctic

CLASSIFICATION OF GLACIERS

Geophysical classifications of glaciers

Morphological classification of glaciers. Mountain glacierization

Polar glacierization

Interaction between glaciers and the ocean

Processes at a glacier bed

ACCUMULATION, ABLATION, MASS BALANCE, AND RUNOFF FROM GLACIERS

Regime of glaciers and energy of glacierization

Accumulation processes

Ablation processes

Liquid water on glaciers

Runoff from glaciers

Internal accumulation of glaciers

Glacier mass balance

FLOW AND FLUCTUATIONS OF GLACIERS

Mechanism of flow

Velocities of glacial motion

Glacier tectonics

Glacial erosion and accumulation

Fluctuations of glaciers

MANIPULATION, USES AND BENEFITS OF GLACIERS, ICE AND SNOW

Engineering-glaciology problems

Artificial intensification of melting of mountain glaciers

Use of polar glaciers

INTERACTION BETWEEN GLACIATION AND CLIMATE

Global climatic role of the snow cover

Sea ice as a part of the global glaciation

The Influence of snow and ice on climate

Thermal non-equilibrium of the nival-glacial system

Glaciological forecast

Forthcoming warming and the fate of glaciers

WATER HAZARDS CAUSED BY NATURALLY-OCCURRING HYDROLOGIC EXTREMES

Definition of Hazard and Disaster

Hydrological Hazards or Water Hazards

Types of Water Hazards

Disaster Management as a Risk Management

LIMNOLOGY

FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Introduction

Deep Bed Filtration

Other Filtration Technologies

ADSORPTION AND BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Adsorption

Biological Filtration

Types of Biological Filters

Application of Biofilter

SPECIFIC OPTIONS IN BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMNET FOR RECLAMATION AND REUSE

Introduction

Specific Non-Membrane Biological Processes

Specific Membrane Biological Processes

Conclusion

WATER MINING: PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROJECT

Water Mining: An Introduction

Advantages of Water Mining

Planning a Water Mining Project

Conclusion

HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF MATERIAL SELECTION IN THERMAL DESALINATION PROCESSES

Introduction

Historical Review

MSF Technology

MED Technology

Process Pumps

Process Piping

RECENT ADVANCES IN MEMBRANE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN SEAWATER DESALINATION - WITH TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND SINGAPORE

Introduction

Membrane Processes for Desalination: Overview

Case study I: Membrane Desalination in the Middle East

Case study II: Seawater Desalination in Singapore

Conclusions and Future Outlooks

OZONE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

HISTORY OF OZONE SYNTHESIS AND USE FOR WATER TREATMENT

Ozone Generation

Ozone Use for Water Treatment

OZONE TRANSFER FROM GAS INTO WATER AND CONTACT EQUIPMENT DESIGN

Introduction

Ozone properties

Ozone mass transfer in water

Design principles of ozone contactors

OZONE REACTIONS WITH INORGANIC AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WATER

Introduction

Oxidation of Inorganic Compounds

Oxidation of Organic Compounds

Conclusion

OZONE-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

Introduction

Ozone based AOPs

Conclusions

GROUNDWATER IN IGNEOUS, METAMORPHIC AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Rocks as Receptacles for Water

Groundwater in Different Rock Types

GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS

General Approach

Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions

Rain and the Feeding of Groundwater

Interactions between Rivers and Groundwater

Exchanges between Surface Water Accumulations and Groundwater

Interactions between Glaciers, Snowy Mantle, and Groundwater

Artificial Aquifer Recharge

Interactions between Seawater and Groundwater

Localized Points of Exchange between Groundwater and Surface Water

The Contributions of Deep Groundwater

Tracing Surface Water and Groundwater

CATCHMENT WATER BALANCE, CLIMATE AND GROUNDWATER

Catchment water balance

Discharge of water by vegetation

Groundwater dependent ecosystems

Climate and a catchment water balance – a case study

Conclusions

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE

Groundwater Flow Systems

Flow System Extensions

Sources and Mechanisms of Recharge

Conceptual Models of Recharge

Methodologies for Recharge Estimation

Factors Influencing Recharge, Predictive Relationships, and Recharge Regionalization

Difficulties and Challenges in Recharge Estimation

GROUNDWATER IN MOUTAIN REGIONS

Conceptual Model for Groundwater Flow in Mountains

Heat Transport in Mountainous Regions

Groundwater and Surface Water Interactions in Mountainous Regions

Groundwater Resources of the Mountainous Regions of British Columbia in Canada

Conclusions

GROUNDWATER IN KARST REGIONS

Karst Geology and Hydrogeology

Karstification Process

Development of Joints, Faults, and Openings in Limestones

Carbonate Rocks

Karst Springs

Basic Theories on Karst Groundwater Circulation

Karst Aquifers

Methods of Karst Hydrogeological Research

Coastal Aquifers in Karst Regions

Proposed Criteria for Groundwater Protection Zoning in Karst Regions

GROUNDWATER IN ARID AND SEMIARID REGIONS

Groundwater Recharge

Hydrogeological Domains

Groundwater resources understanding

Current and future groundwater supplies

HYDROGEOLOGY OF LARGE PLAINS

Hydrological Features of Large Plains

The Southern Hemisphere’s Largest Plain: The Argentine Pampas

THERMAL SPRINGS

Conceptual Models of Water Circulation

A Special Spring: The Geyser

Origin of Thermal Waters

Chemical Composition of Thermal Waters

Estimation of Reservoir Temperature

Recognition of Mixed Waters

Age Dating of Hydrothermal Waters

Historical Aspects of Utilization of Thermal Springs

TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN GROUNDWATER

GROUNDWATER FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA

The porous medium. Water reservoirs

Basic principles of groundwater flow in porous media

Flow equation

Example

Recent advances

GROUNDWATER FLOW THROUGH FRACTURED ROCKS

Barenblatt’s et al. mathematical model

Warren and Root solution to Barenblatt’s equations

Determination of the Parameters of Homogeneous Behavior

Inhomogeneous Fractured Formations of Double Porosity

Radial Flow through Inhomogeneous Formations

BASIC CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES OF GROUNDWATER

Properties and structure of water

Expression of concentration units

Groundwater chemical composition

Principles and processes controlling water composition

Sampling and analysis of groundwater samples

Presentation of water quality data

ADVECTION, DISPERSION, SORPTION, DEGRADATION, ATTENUATION

Advection

Dispersion and Diffusion

Sorption

Degradation and Attenuation

ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES IN GROUNDWATER STUDIES

Environmental Isotopes

Applications in Groundwater Studies

General Remarks on Environmental Isotopes

SUBSURFACE HYDROBIOLOGY

Subsurface Environment

Flow Systems

Groundwater Contamination

Technological Hurdles in Studying Subsurface Hydrobiology

REVIEW OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF FLOW AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

Modeling Flow in a Three-Dimensional Domain

Modeling Two-Dimensional Flow in Aquifer Domains

Transport of a Single Contaminant

Modeling Flow and Solute Transport with Variable density

TRANSPORT PHENOMENA AND VULNERABILITY OF THE UNSATURATED ZONE

Transport Processes

Hydrologic Processes

Into the Twenty-First Century

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID AND FLUID MATRICES

Solid Phase

Soil - Water Interactions

Soil Mechanical Properties

Transport Properties

Opportunities and Challenges

VOLUMETRIC WATER CONTENT-MATRIC POTENTIAL RELATIONSHIPS

Concept of Capillarity

Matric Potential

Relations between Potentials on a Mass, Volume, and Weight Basis

Distribution of Potentials in the Liquid Phase for a Convex Gas - Liquid Interface

Experimental Determinations

Parametric Models

Property-Transfer Models

Inverse Procedures

WATER AND SOLUTE TRANSPORT IN THE VADOSE ZONE

Obstacles to a Sustainable Future

Paths Towards a Sustainable Future

BIODEGRADATION IN THE VADOSE ZONE

Vadose Zone

Soil

Organic Matter Transformations and Cycles of Principal Elements

Soil as Habitat for Microbial Life

Enzyme Activity in Soil

Biological Processes

Biodegradation Processes

Impact of Agricultural Practices on Subsurface Habitat

Biodegradation of Organic Residues

Biodegradation and Bioremediation

PROCESSES CAUSING ATTENUATION IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED ZONE

Principles of the Vadose Zone’s Functioning

The Unsaturated Zone

The Saturated Zone

Attenuation Processes

Soil Biotic Components Affecting Attenuation

Microbia-Mediated Redox Processes

Mobile Subsurface Colloids

Organic Contaminants

Organic Nutrients

Reactivation of Pollutants Stabilized at the Vadose

GROUNDWATER VULNERABILITY IN DIFFERENT CLIMATIC ZONES

Concept of Groundwater Pollution Vulnerability

Aquifer Pollution Vulnerability in a Groundwater Protection Program

Groundwater Pollution Vulnerability in Different Climatic Conditions

Methods for Groundwater Vulnerability Cartography

The Future of Groundwater Pollution Vulnerability Methods

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE VADOSE ZONE

Sources of Organic Pollutants

Major Categories of Organic Pollutants

Transport of Organic Pollutants in the Subsurface

Measures for Minimization of Pollutants

Natural Organic Compounds in Soil

Interactions between Natural Organic Compounds and Xenobiotics

Soil Composting

SURVEY METHODS

Surveying Guidelines

Geologic And Geomorphologic Exploration

Geophysical Methods

Tracer Hydrology

Geochemical Exploration

Pumping Tests

GROUNDWATER MONITORING NETWORKS

Types of Groundwater Monitoring Networks

Scale of Monitoring Networks

Planning and Design of Networks

Sustainability of Groundwater Monitoring Networks

COASTAL AQUIFER DEVELOPMENT

Land Subsidence

Seawater Intrusion

Quantitative Evaluation of Saltwater Behavior

Groundwater Development in Coastal Aquifers

Utilization of Saline Water in Coastal Aquifers

GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT IN HARD ROCKS

Occurrence of Groundwater

Groundwater Development

Types of Well

Drinking Water Supply

Exploration

Recharge Augmentation

Sustainability and Pumpage Control

GROUNDWATER USE AND PROTECTION

GROUNDWATER USE AS POTABLE WATER SUPPLY

Water for Drinkable Use

Quality and Vulnerability of Groundwater Intended for Drinking

Withdrawal of Groundwater for Drinking

GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION, PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION

The concept of groundwater quality.

Contamination of subterranean waters.

Contamination classification systems.

Principal groundwater contaminant types and processes.

Role of the unsaturated zone in the behaviour of polluting agents.

Groundwater protection and prevention

Aquifer remediation technologies

The Concept of Vulnerability of Aquifers.

The Protection of Groundwater Wells.

The development of protection perimeters around wells.

Protection of Recharge and Unsaturated Zone of Aquifers.

Establishment of Systems of Prevention and Control of Groundwater Quality.

Aquifer Decontamination Technologies.

ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE

Artificial Groundwater Recharge (AGR)

Influence of Recharge Factors

Methods of Artificial Recharge

Mixed Systems of Water Recharge

Evaluation of Aquifer Recharge Area by Piezometric Map Analysis

Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Groundwater Recharge

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE

Introduction: Overview of Groundwater Recharge and Discharge

Artificial Recharge

Physical Methods for Quantifying Recharge Rates

Chemical and Isotopic Methods for Quantifying Recharge Rates and Identifying Recharge Areas

Calculating Recharge and Discharge Rates Using Analytical Expressions, Groundwater Flow Models, and Flow Nets

Natural Discharge

Groundwater Discharge to Wells and Galleries

Future Concerns and Directions

SUSTAINABLE GROUNDWATER USE AND OVEREXPLOITATION

Scope and Aims

What Does Sustainability Mean?

The Complex and Varied Concept of Overexploitation

Issues Relating to Groundwater Mining

The Importance of Institutional Robustness to Groundwater Management

Policy Implications

Looking Forward to a New Renewable Water Resources Policy

Final Remarks

GROUNDWATER AND ECONOMICS: GISSER-SANCHEZ'S EFFECT RECONSIDERED

Gisser-Sanchez's Model, Caveats and Robustness

Long-run Robustness of GSE

GSE with Dynamically Interacting Agents

GSE in Models of Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater

GROUNDWATER LEGISLATION PRINCIPLES

Regulatory framework.

The ownership of groundwaters.

Organisation of users.

Management of groundwaters.

Environmental considerations. Environmental impact assessment legislation.

Groundwaters and the European Union. International groundwaters.

CONJUNCTIVE USE OF SURFACE WATER AND GROUNDWATER

Types of Conjunctive Use

Integration of Groundwater in Hydrological Planning

Information, Uncertainty, and Economic Aspects

Methods of Analysis

SPECIAL ISSUES IN GROUNDWATER

Brief presentation of selected issues

CLIMATE CHANGE AND HYDROGEOLOGIC PROCESSES

The Status of Climate-change Predictions and Associated Hydrologic Consequences

Climate Change and Regional Groundwater Systems

Approaches and an Example of Climate-Change Forcing in a Regional Aquifer System

URBAN HYDROGEOLOGY

A Quick Glance at Urban Hydrogeology

The Urban Hydrogeological Cycle: Quantification of Groundwater Resources

Quality of Groundwater

Urban Subsurface Structures and their Particular Problems

Data Integration for Case Studies

Integrated Water Resources Management

THE SCALING PROPERTIES OF GEOLOGICAL MEDIA WITH RESPECT TO GROUNDWATER FLOW AND TRANSPORT

Dispersivity

Hydraulic Conductivity

"IN SITU" GROUNDWATER TREATMENT

Origin, physicochemical factors and water regulations

Biological oxidation and reduction

Removal of iron and manganese from groundwater

Removal of nitrate from groundwater

ADVANCED TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR RECYCLE/REUSE OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Technologies

Biological Nutrient Removal Processes

Physicochemical Processes

MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES

History

Definition and classification

Performance parameters

Membrane separation processes where the driving force is pressure

Membrane separation processes where the driving force is partial pressure

Membrane process where the driving force is difference in electrical potential

Other membrane processes

WATER REUSE FOR AGRICULTURE

Treated Water Reuse by Irrigation

Public Health Aspects

Irrigation Schemes

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment

Wetland Systems

Constructed Wetlands

Constructed Treatment Wetlands (CTW)

ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE AS A METHOD OF WASTEWATER DISPOSAL

Background

Methods

Wastewater Types available for Artificial Recharge Operations

Problems Associated with Artificial Recharge Operations with Wastewater

Solutions to Problems Encountered with Recharge Operations

Major Steps in a Successful AR Operation

Field Monitoring

Predicting the Impacts of Recharge by Modeling

Economic Considerations

Future Trends and Perspectives

HUMAN HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH WATER REUSE

Risk Assessment Paradigm

Pathogens and their Indicators

Chemicals

WASTEWATER REUSE: CASE STUDIES IN MICROBIAL RISKS

Case 1—Salad Crop Irrigation Risks

Case 2—Dual Reticulated Water Microbial Risks

RAW MATERIALS AND PROCESS CHEMICAL RECOVERY IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

Case Studies

BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY IN INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

Case Studies

PROCESS/TECHNOLOGY MODIFICATIONS IN WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

Case Studies

THE POTENTIAL FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER REUSE

Water Availability and Consumption

Industrial Wastewater Reuse: Present Status, Trends and Issues

Available Treatment Technologies

Policy and Institutional Aspects

WASTE MINIMIZATION IN METAL FINISHING INDUSTRIES

Metal Finishing Operations

Waste Streams of Metal Finishing Industries

Environmental Impacts of Metal Finishing Wastes

Opportunities for Waste Minimization

Profitability of Process Modifications—a Feasibility Study in Bangkok, Thailand

Water Reclamation from Small-scale Metal Pickling Units—a Feasibility Study in Delhi, India

WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS, MANAGEMENT AND REUSE IN MINING AND MINERAL PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

Wastewater Sources and Characteristics

Wastewater Minimization

Wastewater Reuse/Recycle

Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater Disposal

FRESH WATER MINIMIZATION BY MEMBRANE FILTRATION IN THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

Surroundings for Closed Water Circuits

Internal Purification

Overview of Membrane Filtration in the Pulp and Paper Industry

Membrane Filtration

QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

Assessment of Water Quantity

Assessment of Water Quality

CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

Treatment Processes

Rapid Mixing

Flocculation

Sedimentation

Filtration

Disinfection

RURAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Need for Alternative Water Supply Systems

Water Sources

Rainwater-based Rural Water Supply Systems

Groundwater-based Water Supply Systems

Surface Water Supply Systems

Water Distribution Systems

TRADITIONAL AND HOUSEHOLD WATER PURIFICATION METHODS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Traditional Water Treatment Methods

Appropriate Water Treatment Methods

Household Water Treatment Methods

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR REMOVAL OF SPECIFIC IMPURITIES FROM WATER

Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) Removal

Fluoride Removal (Defluoridation)

ON-SITE SANITATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR REUSE

Options for Small Decentralized Systems

On-site Sewage Management for Single Households

ON-SITE SANITATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR COLD AND TEMPERATE CLIMATES

Problems of On-site Sanitation Systems in Cold and Temperate Climates

Appropriate On-site Sanitation Systems

Soil Absorption Systems

Treatment Systems

NON-CONVENTIONAL SEWERAGE

Development of Non-conventional Sewage Collection Systems

PUBLIC HEALTH ASPECTS OF ON-SITE SANITATION

Factors Affecting Transmission of Diseases

Pathogens in Excreta

Environmental Classifications of Diseases

Pathogens in the Environment

On-site Excreta Collection and Treatment Systems

INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

TRANS-BOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Integrated Water Resources Management as the Foundation

The Political Pillar: Creating an Enabling Environment

The Legal-Institutional Pillar

The Technical-Operational Pillar

Towards a Strategy for the Integrated Management of Shared River Basins

Introduction

WATER LAW AND INSTITUTIONS

Institutions, Policies and the Law

National Water Legislation

Water Quality and Environmental Law

Managing Water Resources

Improving Water Resources Management

WATER SCARCITY

WATER CONSERVATION IN ARID AND SEMI-ARID REGIONS

Understanding an Arid Water Resource Base

Institutional Framework

Water Policy

Water Sector Management

Water Conservation Measures

Water Demand Management

Environment

International Water Issues

ECONOMIC VALUATION OF WATER

Introduction and scope

Estimation of the cost and value of water

Values and costs in user sectors: some illustrative estimates

Summary and Conclusions

NON-WATERBORNE SANITATION AND WATER CONSERVATION

Paradigm shift, water conservation and sanitation

History of waterborne sanitation

Ecological sanitation and nutrient recycling

Vision of the future

WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

Classification of Decision and Planning Problems

Basic Approaches

Modern System Theoretic and Artificial Intelligence Methods

Conclusions

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS

System Framework

Conclusions

RELIABILITY OF OPERATION OF WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS

Levels of Water Resources System Design

Examples

Conclusions

MULTI-CRITERION ANALYSIS IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Concepts and Terminology in Multi-criterion Decision Making

The Roles of the Decision Maker and Analyst

Possible Solution Types of Multi-criterion Decision Problems

Solution Procedures and Typology of MCA Techniques

A Paradigm for Multi-criterion Decision Making

Conclusions

THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE AND HUMAN IMPACT ON IT

The Terrestrial Hydrological Cycle

The Global Hydrological Cycle

WATER RESOURCE SYSTEMS MODELLING:ITS ROLE IN PLANNING

Challenges of Planners and Managers

Challenges of Modeling

Characteristics of Problems to be Modeled

Challenges of Applying Models in Practice

Evaluating Success

Modeling Technology in Transition

Shared Vision Modeling

Some Concluding Thoughts

FLUID MECHANICS

Pressure Variations and Forces in Fluids at Rest

Fluid in Motion: Types of Flow

Basic Principles of Fluid Motion: Continuity, Energy, and Momentum

Hydropower

Energy Loss

Turbines and Nozzles

Open Channel Flow

GROUNDWATER HYDRAULICS

Groundwater Resources and their Significance

Impact on Groundwater

Basic Theory of Groundwater Flow and Transport

Groundwater Modeling

Groundwater Exploration

Groundwater Remediation

Groundwater Protection

FLUID MECHANICS IN PIPELINES

The Fundamental Equations of Fluid Flow

Flow Head-Loss Relationships

Water Hammer

System Requirements

Valves and Other Fittings

Optimizing Pumping Line and Reservoir Sizes

Pump Characteristics Curves

HYDROELECTRIC STRUCTURES AND THE DESIGN OF SURGE CHAMBERS

Water Hammer and Surge Suppression

Design of Surge Chambers

Functioning of Surge Chambers

Water Hammer

Surges

Stability Criteria

HYDRAULICS OF TWO PHASE FLOW: AIR AND WATER

Phenomena Causing Air Entrainment in Free Surface Flows

HYDRAULICS OF TWO-PHASE FLOW: WATER AND SEDIMENT

Historical sustainable design for river sedimentation

The importance of water-sediment two-phase flow

Sediment characteristics

Modes of sediment transport

Turbulent sediment transport

Sediment transport in density currents

Stream form classifications

LOADS ON EARTH-FILL AND ROCK-FILL DAMS ARISING FROM WATER AND WIND

Calculation of Loads, Forces, and Dimensions Involved

Accidental Leakage and Required Drainage Capacity

Upstream Slope Protection

Wind-Generated Waves

Wave Runup

Wind Tide

SEDIMENT PHENOMENA

Physical Modeling

Mathematical Modeling

TURBULENT FLOW MODELING

The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations

Energy Cascade and Length-Scales in a Turbulent Flow

Turbulence Modeling

Examples of Industrial Applications

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND PHYSICAL MODELING

Brief History of Hydraulic Modeling

Model CriteriaDimensional Analysis and Process Functions

Some Scale Effects in Physical Modeling

Some Issues for the Future

PROBABILISTIC METHODS AND STOCHASTIC HYDROLOGY

Statistics, Probability and Model Selection

Stochastic Models

DREDGING TECHNOLOGY

Development of Dredging Equipment

Different Types of Dredging

Survey and Positioning Systems for Dredging

Dredging Contracting

FLOW MEASURING TECHNIQUES

Elements of a Flow Measuring System

Uncertainty Analysis

Design of a Flow Measuring System

FLOW MEASUREMENT IN CLOSED CONDUITS

Categories of Flow Meters and Important Definitions

Types of Flow Meters

Differential Pressure Meters: Principles of Operation

Direct-Reading Types of Flow Meters

Flow Meter Selection

Flow Meter Installation

FLOW MEASUREMENT IN FREE SURFACE FLOW

Chemical Flow Measuring Techniques

Flow Meters for Free Surface Flow Conditions

Indicating, Recording, Telemetry and Processing of Flow-Meter Data

Free-Surface Flow (Open-Channel Flow) Measurement

Rated Sections, Weirs and Bridge Sections

Stream Gauging by the Direct Velocity-Integration Method

Stream Gauging by Indirect Methods, Slope-Area Method, for Cases of Varying Flow

Flow Hydrographs

Pressure and Depth Recording of Stages of Flow or Heads over a Gauging Structure

Sources of Inaccuracy of Flow Measurement

Practical Guidelines for Flow Measurement in General

CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT

Theory and Principles of Control

Design Principles

Typical Examples

Future Trends and Development

WATER CONVEYANCE SYSTEMS AND FLOOD CONTROL WORKS

Water Conveyance Systems: Canal Design

Water Conveyance Systems: Design of Pipelines and Other Closed Conduits

Flow Measurements

Concluding Remarks Concerning Water Conveyances

Design of Flow Control Works

River Confinement Techniques, Devices, Secondary Effects and Maintenance

Some Examples of Flood Control Structures

Flood Monitoring and Contingency Planning Guidelines

Flood Predictions and Warning Criteria

Flood Effect Mitigation and Manipulation

Flood Contingency Management

HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES FOR PUMPING EQUIPMENT: CIVIL, MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Pumps

Motive Power and Electricity Supply

Quality Control and Acceptance Tests

Control Systems and Choice of Number of Pumps and Drive Units

Pump Selection and Intake Design

Civil-Engineered Structure

WATER SUPPLY: DAMS, RESERVOIRS AND WATER TRANSFERS

Planning

Hydraulic Aspects of Dams and Storage Reservoirs

Design and Construction of Potable Water Storage Reservoirs

Augmenting Water Resources Through Advances Technology

General Remarks

Hydraulic Engineering Structures and Equipment and Applications in Various Fields of Water Supply

Hydraulic Structures, Equipment and Systems Design Procedures

Construction of Conveyance Systems

Water Abstraction Structures

Dealing with Sediment Problems

HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES IN URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

Removal of Urban Litter from Waterways

Health Aspects of Abnormal Storm Drainage Due to Flooding

Urban Storm Water Drainage Systems

GUIDELINES FOR POTABLE WATER PURIFICATION

Water Quality

Overview of Unit Processes in Water Purification

Process Selection

Handling Purified Water

TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-WARNING SYSTEMS

Overview

The Tsunami Phenomenon

Generation Mechanics

Parameters of the Source of a Tsunami

Theory and Measurements

Division of Tsunami Energy at a Typical Continental Shelf Edge

Tsunami Runup onto Land

Solving the Tsunami Problem for Actual Geometries: Numerical Modeling

The Third Dimension: The Shape of the Coastline

Warning Systems for Tsunamis

ABSTRACTING WATER FROM SEDIMENT-LADEN STREAMS

Areas of Application

Causes of Sediment Related Problems

Bed Load

Suspended Load

Sediment Accumulation in Reservoirs

Installations Without Weirs

Weir Installations: Basic Layout of Structures

Water Abstraction from Rivers Carrying Coarse SedimentsTirolean Weirs

LARGE DAMS

Historical Background

Types of Dams

Statistics of Some of the Largest Dams and Reservoirs

The Purpose of a Dam

Present and Future Trends

PROJECT DESIGN: DAMS AND RESERVOIRS

Preliminary Design

Temporary Works

Design Options and Safety Criteria; Economics

Preliminary Design Aspects

Detailed Design

GUIDELINES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES

Introduction: Conceptual Considerations

Design Concepts and Challenges

Important Criteria for Sustainability

Planning

Structural Considerations in the Sustainable Development of Water Resources

Technological Precautions

Management in Times of Crisis: War

Disaster Management

Environmental Considerations

Management Requirements for Sustainability

DESIGN OF SPILLWAYS AND OUTLET WORKS FOR DAMS

Spillway Types

Service Spillway Design

Energy Dissipater Design

Outlet Channel Design

Auxiliary Spillways

Outlet Works

GROUND LEVEL RESERVOIRS AND ELEVATED STORAGE TANKS

Historical Background

Factors Influencing Storage Facilities Required for Reliable Water Supply to Towns and Cities

Types of Service Reservoirs for Storage of Drinking Water at or near Ground Level

Construction Details of Service Storage Reservoirs

Elevated Storage Tanks (Water Towers)

Aesthetic and Environmental Considerations

STORM WATER DRAINAGE AND EFFLUENT DISPOSAL

Characteristics of Storm Water and Sewage Effluent

Sewage Treatment Processes

Hydraulics of Drainage Networks

Design Aspects of a Sewerage System

Effluent Disposal on Land

Effluent Disposal into Natural Water Bodies

Other Aspects Related to Effluent Disposal

HYDRAULICS AND SUSTAINABLE WASTEWATER DISPOSAL IN RURAL COASTAL COMMUNITIES

Problems of Conventional Systems

Designing for Marine Treatment

Hydraulic Design

Case Study: Spaniards Bay, Canada

HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES FOR COASTAL PROTECTION

Types of Coastal Protection Structures

Coastal Structures Design Approach

Construction Materials

Performance and Maintenance of Coastal Structures

Examples of Typical Coastal Structures

HYDROPOWER

Terrestrial Hydropower Developments

Conventional Hydropower Plants

Pumped-Storage Plants

Maritime Developments

Rehabilitation of Old Plants

Economic Feasibility

Environmental and Social Considerations

Political Aspects

Historical Survey

INTAKES ON SEDIMENT-LADEN RIVERS

Siting of Intakes

Remedial Measures at Intakes

Control of Suspended Sediment at Intakes

Study Methods for Aiding the Design of Intake Works

CONCRETE DAM ENGINEERING

Concrete Dams

Temperature Effects

Materials and Construction

DESALINATION

Categories of Desalination Processes

General Comments Regarding Process Considerations

General Remarks on the Technological Development of Water Desalination

Examples of State-of-the-Art Desalination

Mobile Seawater Intake Plants for Potable Water Production

Recovery of Freshwater from Sea Ice

THE CONSTRUCTION OF SMALL EARTH-FILL DAMS

Construction Planning and Programming

Embankment Construction

Quality Control

The Role of the Professional Engineer

CORROSION AND THE PROTECTION OF METALS

Corrosion Principles

Types of Corrosion

Methods of Corrosion Protection

Additional Aspects Regarding Corrosion of Hydraulic Structures and Some Recommended Choices of Engineering Materials

THE AGING AND REHABILITATION OF APPURTENANT STRUCTURES TO DAMS AND THE AGING OF MASONRY DAMS

The Principal Causes of Deterioration

Typical Rehabilitation of Outlet Works

Aging of Masonry Dams

Aging Processes in Masonry Dams and Their Control

AGING OF PLASTICS, INCLUDING RESILIENT NON METALLIC ARTIFICIAL MATERIALS BEING USED IN THE WATER INDUSTRY

Advantages

Disadvantages

General

PROTECTION AGAINST DETERIORATION OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES IN THE OCEAN ENVIRONMENT

Materials of Construction

Details of Results Obtained on Materials Tested: Deterioration and Preservation

Protection Against Deterioration of Materials in the Deep-Ocean Environment

Waterfront Facilities: Protection Against Physical Wave Forces and Attack

Waterfront Damage Due to Waves: Forces on Pier Decks and Runup on Shore Facilities

GUIDELINES FOR SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

Project Development Cycle

Policy and Institutional Arrangements

General Remarks

TESTING OF MATERIALS AND SOILS

Testing of Soils Used in Dams

Interpretation of Test Results

Classification of Earth-Fill Materials

HYDROINFORMATICS

The Hydraulic Engineer in the Postsymbolic Era

Tool Builders and Tool Users

Fact Engines and Judgment Engines

The Change in Paradigm at the Level of the Numerical-Hydraulic Model

The Technologies of Persuasion

The Widening Scope of Application of Hydraulics Knowledge

The Technological Service Provider (STP)

DATA ACQUISITION METHODS FOR GROUNDWATER INVESTIGATION AND THE SITING OF WATER SUPPLY WELLS

Groundwater Occurrence and Replenishment

Overview of Investigation of Groundwater Problems

Groundwater Investigation

Geophysical Methods of Groundwater Investigation

Interpretation, Siting and Recommendations

SEDIMENT DATA ACQUISITION

Measurement of the Sediment Discharge of Rivers

Indirect Methods of Determining Sediment Discharge

Sediment Characteristics

SLUICING FLUMES FOR GAUGING SEDIMENT-LADEN RIVERS

Historical Review

Characteristics of Sluicing Flumes

Background

Selection of Flume Dimensions

Theoretical Stage-Discharge Relationships

SURFACE WATER DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS

Measurement of Stage in Streams

Relation Between Stage and Discharge in Streams

Velocity-Area Method for Determining Discharge

Discharge Measurement by Means of Gauging Structures

Environmental Considerations

General Standards for the Density of Gauging Stations

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DAMS, RESEVOIRS, AND BALANCING LAKES

General Data in 2000

The Purpose of Dams

Design and construction

The Environmental and Social Impact of Dams

The Future of Dams

MULTI-DAM SYSTEMS AND THEIR OPERATION

Historical Development of Dam Operation

Multi-Dam Systems

Operating Requirements

Operating Rules and Procedures

SELECTION OF TYPE OF DAMS AND RESERVOIRS

Factors to be examined for selection of dam type

Classificatory criterion of dam type

Embankment Dams

Concrete Dams

Classificatory Criterion of Reservoir Type

FISH PROTECTION STRUCTURES AND FISH PASSAGE FACILITIES

Introduction

Fish protection structures

Fish passage facilities

THE REHABILITATION OF DAMS AND RESERVOIRS

Management of Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation of Foundations of Concrete and Masonry Dams

Rehabilitation of Concrete and Masonry Dams

Rehabilitation of Embankments

WATER INTAKE STRUCTURES FOR SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE WATERS

Types

Water Quality Control

The Reservoir Environment

Composition of the Intake Work

Operation and Maintenance of the Intake .

CATCHMENT SYSTEMS

Catchments

River systems

Inter-basin Water Transfer

Institutional and legal issues

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF DAMS AND RESERVIORS

Socio-economic impact

Geological impact

Ecological impact

Water quality and climate

Dams and Fishes

DAMS AND FLOODS

Floods as a Natural Hazard.

Extreme Floods in The World.

The Role of Dams and Reservoirs in Flood Mitigation

ACCUMULATION OF SEDIMENT IN RESERVOIRS

Sustainable Sediment Management

Sediment yield, transport and deposition

Sediment management measures

Sediment management and environmental impacts

INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING OF DAMS AND RESERVOIRS

Purpose of instrumentation and monitoring.

Instrumentation and monitoring for the assessment of dam safety

Monitoring for improvement of design procedures and practice for future dams

Example of concrete dam monitoring

Embankment dam monitoring

Water level measurement in reservoir and basin area

WASTEWATER STORAGE TECHNOLOGY

MUNICIPAL SEWER SYSTEMS

Combined System and Separate System

Amount of Sewage

Flow Amount Formula

Determination of Flow Velocity and Gradient

Materials of Sewers and Construction Method

Rehabilitation of the Sewers

Recent Technologies concerning Sewer Systems

INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER SYSTEMS

Water Treatment Techniques

Water Treatment for Use

Problems Associated with Industrial Wastewater Treatment Equipment

Treatment of Industrial Wastewater

AQUEDUCTS, TUNNELS, CANALS, PIPELINES, SIPHONS, AND WATER DISTRIBUTION

Aqueducts

Tunnels

Canals

Pipelines

Siphons

Water Distribution

WATER PUMPING STATIONS

Helpful Organizations

Typical Well Pumping System

River Pumping System

Pumping From Deep Lakes and Reservoirs

PUMPING STATIONS FOR SEWAGE, SLUGE, AND AIR

Sewage Pumping

Sludge Pumping

Air Pumping

METERING

General Considerations

Flow Measurement Methods

Acoustic Flow Profilers

Current Meters

Flumes

Magnetic Flow Meters

Orifices

Pitot Tubes

Positive Displacement Meters

Propeller Meters

Tracers

Transit-time Ultrasonic Flow Meters

Venturi Tubes

Weirs

STORMWATER STORAGE

Runoff

Pollution

Storage for Combined Sewer Overflow Control

Nonpoint source control

Storage for Flood Control

Best Management Practices

Stormwater utilization

BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS IN WATER QUALITY AND STANDARDS

Water quality standards and their development

Monitoring and assessment of water quality standards

Roles and functions of stakeholders

CLASSIFICATION OF WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

Drinking water quality standards

Ambient water quality standards

ASSESSMENT OF STANDARDS

Introduction

Categorization of Source of Chemical Constituents

Conceptual Development of Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment Process

Hazard Identification

Dose-Response Assessment

Exposure Assessments

Risk Characterization

NATURAL WATERS

Characteristics of Water

Distribution of Water on the Earth

Seawater

Rain

Terrestrial Water

Groundwater

Glaciers and Icecaps

SURFACE WATER MONITORING

Introduction

Outline of Surface Water

Monitoring Program for Surface Water

Establishment of General Monitoring Location

Designs of Sampling Programs

Flow Measurements for Understanding of Water Quality

Sampling Techniques and Equipment

Transport to, and Storage for Samples at, the Depot or Laboratory

GROUNDWATER MONITORING

Introduction

Outline of Groundwater

Monitoring Program for Groundwater

Sampling Groundwater

Selection of Sampling Point Location

Contaminants in Groundwater

Sampling Frequency

Types of Sampling Equipment

WATER SUPPLY AND HEALTH CARE

Drinking water

Swimming pool water

WATER SUPPLY FOR AGRICULTURE, AQUACULTURE, AND FISHERIES

Water for agricultural use

Water for aquaculture

Water for fisheries

EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

Saprobity system

Hazardous chemical management for protecting aqua ecosystem

Effects of chlorine-disinfected wastewater on the growth of Nori

INDUSTRIAL WATER

Industrial water consumption

Cooling water

Ultra-pure water

Circulated use of water in main industries

MANAGEMENT OF WATER SUPPLIES AFTER A DISASTER

Damage to water supply

Responses of Hyogo Prefecture

Restoration

Water quality management in emergency water supply

Lessons learnt from disaster

Improvement against disaster

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE AND WATER USAGE

Stocks of water on the Earth

Hydrologic cycle

Water balance and usage

Preservation and effective use of water resources

MINIMIZING LOADS ON WATER BODIES

Self-purification of natural water bodies

Kinetics of self-purification in natural water bodies

Minimization of pollutants loading to natural water bodies

GROUNDWATER DEGRADATION BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES

Causative materials contaminating groundwater

Metals and inorganic compounds

Chlorinated organic compounds

Agricultural Chemicals

Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs)

Environmental pollution by the final disposal site leachate

Environmental standard item and detection status of the groundwater in Japan

SURFACE WATER DEGRADATION BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES

Introduction

Causative materials for contamination of surface water

Heavy metals

Pollution for the phthalate esters caused from human activities

Endocrine disrupting chemicals

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

Evaluation of aquatic environment using stable isotope ratio of nitrogen and carbon in sediments and aquatic organisms

POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION

Kind of point sources

Countermeasures for point sources

Wastewater treatment processes

NON-POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION

Definition of a Non-point Source

Non-point Sources and its Loads

Countermeasures of Non-point Source

SALINIZATION OF SOILS

Causes of salinization and saline soil

Salinity of water and soil

Prevention of salinization and improvement of saline soil

WATER POLLUTION BY AGRICULTURE AND OTHER RURAL USES

Pesticides

Dioxin group

Nitrate

URBAN WATER POLLUTION

Urban Sewage

Sanitary Sewage

Effects of Rainfall on Sewer

Storm Drainage

INDUSTRIAL WATER POLLUTION

Industrial Flows

Wastewaters

Examples of Draining

ORGANICAL CHEMICALS AS CONTAMINANTS OF WATER BODIES AND DRINKING WATER

Contamination of metabolites produced by aquatic microorganisms

Contamination by industrial chemicals

Pesticides

Unintentionally generate substances

Miscellaneous organic substances

Disinfectant by-products

Characteristics of organic pollutants in each water area

INORGANIC CHEMICALS INCLUDING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN WATERBODIES

Naturally Occurring Substances in Bodies of Water

Inorganic Substances in Industrial Waste

Inorganic Substances in Agricultural and Domestic Waste

Inorganic Substances in the Water Supply

Radioactive Material

MICROBIAL/BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF WATER

Bacteria

Viruses

Pathogenic Protozoa

Cyanobacteria

Dinoflagellates

Removal of Pathogenic Microorganisms by Biological Treatment

PHYSICAL/MECHANICAL CONTAMINATION OF WATER

Color and Turbidity

Odor and Taste

Alkalinity, pH and Hardness

Radionuclides

RURAL AND URBAN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

ECONOMICS AND FINANCING

Development cost of water supply and sanitation

Economic analysis

Financial management

System options

QUALITY STANDARDS FOR POTABLE WATER

Development of national standards using WHODWQG

Chemical and acceptability aspects

Microbiological aspects

ANALYSIS OF DISINFECTIONS

Chlorine in water

Storage system and chlorinator

Alternative methods of disinfection

Comparison of disinfection process

DISINFECTANT AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS

Disinfection and disinfectants

Disinfection by-products, DBPs

Control of DBPs

AQUACULTURE WATER REUSE AND HEALTH

Effects on physiological function of aquatic life

Water quality for aquatic life

Effect on endocrine disrupting chemicals for reproduction in aquaculture

WORLDWIDE ACCESS TO SANITATION SERVICES

Historical review of human excreta handling

Objectives of sanitation services

Appropriate technology on sanitation service

Classification of sanitation facilities

Sanitation promotion

Future prospects

CONSTRAINTS TO IMPROVING WATER AND SANITATION SERVICES

Assessment of water supply and sanitation improvement throughout the world

Major problems of the sustainable development

Social aspects of water supply and sanitation

Major initiatives aiming at water supply and sanitation improvement

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SOME MAJOR WATER DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

Health implication of water supply programs in general

Several aspects for health implication

Water supply development project in Phnom Penh

State project of on-site wastewater management in Japan

EXPECTED REDUCTION IN MORBIDITY FROM IMPROVED WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

Emergent and re-emergent waterborne diseases caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia

Watersheds as nature's boundaries for surface water supplies

Human settlements, outdoor recreation, etc.

Risk management of waterborne diseases

Lessons learn from the development of safe water supply and sanitation

ARSENIC GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION

Scale of the problem

Chemical characteristics, species, and toxicity of arsenic

Sources of arsenic contamination

Human health effects of ingested arsenic

Determination of the arsenic compounds

Technologies for arsenic removal

On-going arsenic mitigation activities in Bangladesh

Future needs of study and actions

DESIGN OF WATER TREATMENT FACILITIES

Water source

Desired finished water quality

Skill of facility operators

Design criteria

Relative size of available funds

ALTERNATIVE SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

General

Selection of sewage treatment method

Design criteria for the individual treatment methods

Activated sludge process

Sludge preparation, drying and reduction

Anaerobic sludge digestion

CONJUNCTIVE USE OF WATER

Conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater

Wastewater reclamation/reuse

Pathogenic microorganisms

Disease incidence related to water reuse

Categories of wastewater reuse and its water quality criteria

Pathogen survival in wastewater treatment system and the environment

WATER ORGANISATIONS AND LEADERS

BIOGRAPHIES OF EMINENT WATER RESOURCES PERSONALITIES

Sextus Julius Frontinus, 40 103 A. D., Roman administrator and water commissioner

Leonardo da Vinci, 1452 1519, Italian philosopher, painter and inventor

Daniel Bernoulli, 1700 1782, Swiss mathematician and educator

Antoine Chezy, 1718 1798, French Civil Engineer and water expert

De Witt Clinton, 1769-1828, American statesman and entrepreneur

Edwin Chadwick, 1800 1890, English social reformer

James Leslie, 1801 1889, Scots Water Engineer

Robert Manning, 1816 1897, Irish hydraulic engineer

William Unwin, 1838 1933, English engineer and educator

Osborne Reynolds, 1842 1912, English hydraulic engineer and educator

Robert Koch, 1843-1910, German bacteriologist, water filtration innovator and educator

Hubert Engels, 1854 1945, German professor of engineering, researcher and educator in hydraulics

Sir Alexander Houston, 1865-1933, English physician and bacteriologist, pioneer of the chlorination of water supplies

Robert E. Horton, 1875-1945, American engineer and hydrologist

Jean Aubert, 1894 1984, French Civil Engineer and inland navigation expert

Lon Jean Tison, 1895 1982, Belgian hydrologist and Secretary-General of IAHS

Thomas Blench, 1906 1993, Canadian Civil Engineer and river expert

Hunter Rouse, 1906 1996, American researcher and educator in hydraulic engineering

Howard Penman, 1909 1984, English soil physicist and research hydrologist

James Dooge, 1922 , Irish hydrologist, educator and politician

J. Eamonn Nash, 1927 2000, Irish hydrologist and educator

Philip Monro, 1946 - , English biologist, inventor of water purification process by osmosis

GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS

Peculiarities of Water Problems

Necessity of a Responsible Authority

The Role of Water in Human Life

Connotation of the Water Authority

Characteristic Aspects of a Catchment Area

The River Authority

Institutional Aspects

Planning the Water Resources

Tools and Steps for Planning

Planning at Catchment and Regional Level

Opportunities and Duties of a Water Authority

Planning Objectives

Flood Prevention and Control

Water Quality and Environment

Internal Structure of the Water Authority

Water Authority and Citizens

Organization of the Water Authority

Water Authority and Government

WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING: EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS AT UNDERGRADUATE - GRADUATE LEVEL

From Hydraulic Engineering to Environmental Engineering

Possible Structure of an Environmental Engineering Course

New and Old Teachings

Italian Example

Students Reaction to the New Environmental Engineering Courses

Conclusions

CONTINUING EDUCATION AND TRAINING (CET)

Reasons for CET

Characteristics of CET

Methods

Execution of CET

Quality Assessment

Outlook

EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR THE DECISION MAKERS

World Water Challenges and Decision Makers

Favorable Institutional Context

Qualification and Knowledge of the Decision Makers

Promotion of Tools and Attitudes for a Democratic Process

WEB-BASED WATER-RELATED EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Historical Evolution of Computer-based Education in Hydroscience

Web Technology for Education and Training

Web-Based Collaborative Engineering

New Education and Training Structures

Future Scenario: Education and Training in 2002 2010

Development of a "Technical Culture"

Introduction

WATER TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TOOLS

Education and Training

Research and Development

Software Transfer Pool Systems

Professional Bodies

Scientific and Technical Publications

Networking of Water Sector Institutions

Conclusion

WATER TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND INFORMATION DISSEMINATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The Specific Outlook of Water Technology Transfer to Developing Countries

Modalities of Information Dissemination as a Process of Continuing Education

The Role of Relevant United Nations and Non-Governmental Organisations

Conclusion

FINDING INFORMATION

Relations with Other Articles of this Encyclopedia

The Concept of "Information"

Information on CD-ROM

Multimedia and Hypermedia

Computer Data Networks and the Internet

The World-Wide Web

Online Access Information Sources and Services

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Finding Books

Finding Journal Articles

Electronic Newsletters and Journals

Citation Searching

Computer Network Interest Groups

Interlibrary Lending and Document Supply

Finding Information in the Subject Domain "Water"

MAKING INFORMATION AVAILABLE

Relations with Other Articles of this Encyclopedia

Variations on the Theme of "Information Centers"

Activities of Information Centers: an Overview

Access to the Services Provided by Information Centers

Collection Development in Information Centers

Assessing the Impact of Scientific Journals

Organizing Access to Information in Information Centers

Applying Information and Communication Technology

Educating Users in Finding and Managing Information

Marketing, Promotion, Public Relations in Information centers

Cooperation, Networking, and Interaction among Information Centers

Future Trends in Libraries and Information Centers

Information Sources about Library and Information Science

Making Information Available in the Domain of "Water"

THE PATENT SYSTEM: A DRIVING FORCE TO PROMOTE INNOVATION

What is a Patent?

The Advantages of Patents

What is Patentable?

Infringement

License

Patents and Water Resources Technology

INCREASING EFFECTIVENESS OF HIGHER EDUCATION

The Concept of Effectiveness

The Relationship Between Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Continuing Education. Role of Practical Training in Higher Education.

Study Exchanges and Mobility. Positive Effects and Side Effects.

Role of Resource Based Learning (RBL) and Information Technology (IT) in Increasing Effectiveness of Higher Education. Are there Limits?

Conclusions

PUBLIC POLICY AND ROLE OF LAW

Development from Ancient Time to Today

Integrated Water Management

Decision Making

Ethical Values and Water Management

Public Participation

Role of Law

Further Development

Conclusions

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Professional Development in a Capacity Building Project

Professional Development in Water Sector

WATER INTERACTIONS WITH ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT, FOOD, AND AGRICULTURE

Water and the Environment

Water and Food: Agriculture

Water and Energy

Conclusions

ENERGY/WATER INTERACTIONS

THERMAL IMPACT ON WATER SYSTEMS

Interactions of Heat and Water in Natural Phenomena

Thermal Impacts through Technology

Mitigation

WATER AND ECOSYSTEM CHARACTER

Ecodynamics the contending forces of nature and ecosystems stability

Water resources and the consequences of human activities

Conclusion - Sustainable Environmental Management

Water is the linking substance for all ecosystems on Earth

WATER QUALITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Water quality

Natural factors regulating water quality

Hydrology

Thermal characteristics

Suspended solids and water quality

Water pollution caused by point source waste discharges

Non-point source water pollution

The impact of water pollution on human health and welfare

Water pollution control

Introduction

CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER RESOURCES

Climate Impacts on Water Supplies

Climate Change and Hydrological modeling

Sea Level Rise

Climate Impacts on Water Demand

Socioeconomic Impacts and Policy Implications

Conclusions and Recommendations

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND WATER QUALITY AND QUANTITY

Environmental Management

Who is Responsible for Environmental Management?

Management Mechanisms

Geographic Parameters

Public Participation of Stakeholders

Types of Environmental Management

Water Resources Management Degrees of Social Responsibility

International Bodies/Global Issues

Water Quality and Quantity Information Management Systems

The Guiding Principle: Sustainable Development

FOOD & AGRICULTURE/WATER INTERACTIONS

WATER RESOURCES FOR AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION

Surface Water Resources

Underground Water Resources

Integrated Resources

Water Resources Availability

Water Resources Development and Management.

Preserving Water Quality

Challenges and Opportunities

WATER BALANCE IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS

Net Water Requirements

Gross Water Requirements

Improving the Water Balance for Agriculture

WATER CONTAMINATION FROM RURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

Water Pollutants in rural areas

Water pollution in rural production systems

Future Demands

Conclusions

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND WATER

The concept of human development

The Human Development Index

The concept of sustainable development

Water resources for human development

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND WATER

Water and Economic Development at the National Level: General Principles

Sector Use of Water and Economic Development

Water Use in Irrigated Agriculture for Economic Growth

Urban Water and Economic Development

Conclusions

CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND WATER

Introduction

HUMAN INTERACTION WITH LAND AND WATER:A HYDROLOGIST'S CONCEPTION

Freshwater: Our Joint Lifeblood

Man and the Water Cycle

The Water Scarcity Syndrome

Overcoming the Sectorization Scourge

Challenge for the Future: Handling Complexity

PERSPECTIVES OF GLOBAL WATER BALANCE AND REGIONAL WATER RESOURCES

An Altering Water Paradigm

Perspectives of the Global Water Balance and Regional Water Resources

GLOBAL FRESHWATER QUANTITY, QUALITY AND DISTRIBUTION

The Living Planet

Global Freshwater Quantity and Distribution

Global Freshwater Quality

Conclusion

GLOBAL WATER NEEDS FOR THE FUTURE

Drivers of Water Use

Present Global Water Needs

Future trends

Conclusion

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS AFFECTS ON FRESHWATER RESOURCES, FLOODING, AND DROUGHT WITH RELATED EFFECTS ON SOME ECONOMIC SECTORS

The Global Water Budget and its Distribution

Impact on Freshwater Resources

Impact on Flooding and Drought

Conclusion

Introduction

THE IMPACT OF EL NIÑO ON WATER RESOURCES

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and La Niña

Impact of El Niño on the World’s Weather

El Niño’s Impact on Freshwater Resources

A Political Response on El Niño 1997: The Case of South Africa

Conclusion

Introduction

THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON SEA-LEVEL RISE

Global Climate Change

Water as an Important Resource

Conclusion

Introduction

THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER MANAGEMENT

Global Climate Change

Water as an Important Resource

Coping with Global Climate Change in the Water Sector

Conclusion

Coping with Global Climate Change in the Water Sector

Introduction

THE ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER RESOURCES

Ethical considerations

Implications for Water Resource Development and Use

Conclusion

Introduction

INTERNATIONAL PROTOCOLS REGARDING GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE IMPACT ON WATER RESOURCES

The need for international protocols: The tragedy of global commons

The different climate change protocols operating in the International System

Impact of the Kyoto Protocol

The implications for water resources

Conclusion

THE IMPACT OF DEMOGRAPHY ON GLOBAL AND REGIONAL WATER RESOURCES

Population Growth; Past, Present and Future

Distribution of the Worlds Population

Reasons for Demographic Dynamics

Different Views on Population

Impact on Global and Regional Water Resources

Conclusion

Introduction

WATER AS A FACTOR IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: FUTURE TRENDS

Historical role of water in development

Current context

Future challenges facing the role of water in development

What can be done?

Conclusion

ATMOSPHERIC WATER

Water Sources

Atmospheric Circulation and Air Masses

Anthropogenic Enhancement and Global and Local Climate Change

SURFACE WATER: OCEANS, INTERIOR SEAS, COASTAL ZONES AND ESTUARIES

Stratification

Water Masses and Mixing

Waves

Estuaries

SURFACE WATERS: RIVERS, STREAMS, LAKES AND WETLANDS

Rivers

Reservoirs

Lakes

Wetlands

TYPIFICATION OF GROUNDWATER CHARACTERISTICS

Types of water in rocks

Typification of gravitational groundwater by conditions of its occurrence

Typification of groundwater by conditions of its recharge and discharge

Typification of groundwater by intensity of subsurface water exchange

Typification of groundwater by origin

Groundwater typification by chemical composition and mineralization

Typification of groundwater by types of its use

INTERCONNECTION OF SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER

Standard schemes of surface and groundwater interaction.

Surface and groundwater interaction in areas with different natural conditions.

Groundwater interaction with seas and big lakes

Impact of anthropogenic activity on surface and groundwater interconnection.

GLACIERS, ICEBERGS AND GROUND ICE

Ice in Space

Glaciers

Ice Sheets

Ice Caps of Arctic and Antarctic Islands

Mountain Glaciers

Hydrology of Glaciers

Surges

Jokulhlaup

Icebergs

Iceberg Interaction with Sea Ice

Ice Shelves

Stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet

Ice Core Studies

Lake, River and Sea Ice

Ground Ice

Ice Wedges

Water source of ice-wedge ice

Massive Ice Bodies

Mountain Permafrost

Global climate change and changes in glaciers and ground ice

THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER, INCLUDING ITS THREE PHASES

Dry Air

Water Substance

Atmospheric Aerosol

Clouds

MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER

The water molecule

Water aggregates

Aqueous particles and water droplets

Atmospheric water as a solute

Ion water clusters

BIOLOGICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER

Link in the global hydrologic cycle

A habitat

Transport and other processes

GLOBAL VARIATIONS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER

Background

Stratospheric aqueous-phase chemistry

Tropospheric aqueous-phase chemistry

PROPERTIES OF OCEANS, INLAND SEAS, COASTAL ZONES, AND ESTUARIES

Oceans

Seas

Coastal zones

River mouth areas

Marine pollution

Science and the World Ocean

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SEAWATER, INCLUDING ITS THREE PHASES

Liquid phase

Solid phase: sea ice

Gas phase: vapor

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WORLD OCEAN

Geochemical formation of the World Ocean and its salt composition.

Appearance of photosynthetic organisms and a cardinal change in the oceanic geochemistry.

Modern salt composition of seawater. "Law of the basic macroion composition stability".

Seawater as the unique natural formation and the cradle of Life on the Earth.

Organic compounds and nutrients of seawater.

Chemical peculiarities of inland seas, coastal zones, and estuaries

Seawater dissolved gases.

PROPERTIES OF OCEANS, INLAND SEAS, COASTAL ZONES AND ESTUARIES. BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

The Ocean

Inland Seas

Estuaries

GLOBAL VARIATIONS OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OCEANS, INLAND SEAS, COASTAL ZONES, AND ESTUARIES

Salinity distribution in the World Ocean.

General regularities of nutrient distribution.

Subsurface maximum and deep-water minimum of oxygen, and deep-water maximum phosphates and nitrates.

Major chemical and oceanographic areas of the World Ocean

Anaerobic zones. Chemical peculiarities.

Hydrochemical processes in estuaries

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER IN VARIOUS AGGREGATIVE STATES

Common information

Physical properties of water

WATER CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RIVERS, LAKES AND WETLANDS

Chemical Composition of Natural Waters.

Formation of Natural Water Chemical Composition.

Rivers

Lakes.

Wetlands

BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FRESHWATER BODIES

Main Features of Biological Structure of Fresh Waters

Biological Productivity

Biodiversity

Biological Self-purification of Water Bodies

Biogeochemical Properties

Structural and Functional Peculiarities of Water Ecosystems

Consequences of Anthropogenic Impacts

Biological Properties of Freshwater for Life-Support Systems

VARIATION IN THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RIVERS, LAKES AND WETLANDS

Anthropogenic impact on land surface waters

The Rhine river

The Great Lakes

Wetlands

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND GROUND WATERS

Soil moisture transition coefficient determination methods

Information Support Preparation of Different Soils According to Hydrophysical Characteristics for Soil and Ground Water Dynamics Calculations

Biosphere Role of Soil and Ground Water from Physical Point of View

Water Equilibrium State in Soil

Soil moisture transition determination methods

Water Transition in Soil

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND GROUND WATERS

Approaches to the study of chemical properties of soil and ground waters

Origin and occurrence of soil and ground waters

General characterization of chemical properties of soil and ground waters

Geographical zonality of chemical properties of soil solutions and ground waters

Ecological value of soil solutions and ground waters

Conclusion

BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND GROUND WATERS

Soil Water as a Condition for the Existence of Soil Biota

Microbiology of Lithospheric Water

Biotic Components of Water and Sustainability of the Lithosphere

GLOBAL VARIATIONS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF GROUND WATER

The origin of common natural constituents in ground water

Pollutants in ground water

Policy options in ground-water quality management

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GLACIAL AND GROUND ICE

History of glacier study

Structure of ice crystal

The transformation of snow to ice

Glacier classification

Variations of density with depth

Disappearance of air bubbles

Mechanical properties

Mass balance of a glacier

Distribution of temperature in glaciers and ice sheets

Temperature of a temperate glacier

Distribution of temperate glaciers

Ice structures and fabrics in glaciers and ice sheets

Ground ice crystallography

Thaw unconformities

Mechanical Properties

Electrical properties

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GLACIAL AND GROUND ICE

Ionic composition in glaciers

Ice and snow chemistry

Ion migration in ice and frozen soils

Methane hydrate

Chemical physics of air clathrate hydrates in ice core

Chemistry of ice in dependence of electrical conductivity

Ionic composition in ground ice

Subpermafrost water geochemistry

Heavy metals in glaciers

Heavy metals in ground ice

Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope of the ice

Temporal variations of isotopic composition of glacial-river water during summer; Oxygen isotope composition of water sources

Stable isotope composition in glaciers

Stable isotopes in ground ice

Isotope composition of ice–wedge ice

BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF GLACIAL ICE

Plant Remains

Diatoms

Pollen and Spores in Glaciers

Pollen and Spores in Ground Ice

Enzymatic Activity

Enzymatic Activity in Glaciers

Enzymatic Activity in Ground Ice

Proteolytic Activity in Ground Ice

Microbes in Permafrost and Ice

Ice Man

Mammoth Carcasses

ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF RIVER SYSTEMS

Primary stage of the occurrence of river systems

Development of rivers in the Paleozoic

Change of hydrography in the Mesozoic

Modification of river systems in the Cenozoic

Water balance change of the river basins in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic

Features of dynamics of the hydrographic network and channel deformations

Hydrography and water resources of the rivers of Eurasia during the period of the last Ice Age and in the Holocene

Processes of the formation and development of rivers

Conclusion

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF RIVERS AND STREAMS IN NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA

Introduction: General Information about the Continent

Factors Affecting Network Development and Runoff Regime

Socio-Economic conditions. Hydrological Network. Regionalization of the Territory

Major River and Lake Systems; Streamflow Distribution and Variations

Water Availability and Water Use

Conclusion

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF RIVERS AND STREAMS IN SOUTH AMERICA

Factors determining the development of the hydrographic network and the hydrological regime of rivers during the present period

Hydrography, hydrological knowledge, river runoff, water use and water availability

Conclusion

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF RIVERS AND STREAMS IN EUROPE

Factors determining the development of hydrografic network and hydrological river cycle at the present time.

Hydrography, hydrological knowledge, river runoff, water consumption and water availability.

Conclusions

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF RIVERS AND STREAMS IN ASIA

Introduction: General Information about the Continent

Factors, Affecting a Development of the Hydrographic Network and Runoff Regime

Socio-Economic Conditions. Hydrological Network. Regionalisation of the Territory

Major River and Lakes Systems; Streamflow Distribution and Variations

Water Use and Water Availability

Conclusion

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF RIVERS AND STREAMS IN AFRICA

Introduction: General Information about the Continent

Factors Determining a Development of the Hydrographic Network and River Runoff Regime

Socio-Economic Conditions. Hydrological Network; Regionalisation of the Territory

Major Rivers and Lakes; Streamflow Distribution and Variations

Water Use and Water Availability

Conclusion

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF RIVERS AND STREAMS IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA

Physical-geographical characteristics. Factors determining the development of the hydrographic network and distribution of rivers

Economical characteristics. Hydrological network. Main river systems.

River runoff distribution over the territory and in time

Use of the river runoff, water availability and water consumption

Conclusion

RIVER MORPHOLOGY AND CHANNEL PROCESSES

Channel Processes

Drainage Patterns

Channels in Alluvial Plains

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVERS

Chemical characteristics and water quality

Natural origins pathways and levels of river borne chemicals

Anthropogenic impacts on river chemistry

Spatial distribution of river quality in impacted basins: the Seine River example

Time variability of river water chemistry

Trends in river chemistry

Conclusion: human responses to river quality degradation

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVERS

Biota of streams and rivers

Autotrophic organisms

Microbes and protista

Macroinvertebrates

Adaptation and characteristics of aquatic insects

Feeding and trophic characteristics of macroinvertebrates

Fish

Habitat and habitat partitioning

River continuum concept

Ecological spiraling in running water

TYPES OF RIVER ECOSYSTEMS

Characteristics of riverine ecosystems

Four-dimensional perspective of river systems

Ecological river concepts

Discussion and conclusions

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER SYSTEMS

Geochemical Approach -Mass Balance

Biogeochemical Approach -Metabolism and the Biogeochemical Cycles

Biogeochemical Characteristics Using Ecological Modeling

Conclusion and Future Issues

RIVER FLOW

The Near-Bed Boundary Layer

Bulk flow in Straight Channels

Bulk Flow in Curved Channels

Initial Motion of Loose Bed Sediment

Bed-form phase existence fields

Suspension Dynamics

Transport of Bed Materials

THERMODYNAMICS OF RIVERS

The basic laws and equations of thermodynamics

Example: mixing two rivers with different temperature

Free or natural convection

Surface heat exchange

Case Study: Forced and natural thermal regime of a river

CONSTITUENT TRANSPORT

Physics of constituent transport.

Turbulence in river flow.

Theories of turbulence.

Retardation of constituent transport

Mass balance in a river

Three-dimensional approach

Two-dimensional approach

One-dimensional approach.

Dead-zone model.

Tracer studies

At the turn of millennium.

TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENTS

Bed-Load Transport

Suspended-Load Transport

Total-Load Transport

Introduction

CHEMICAL TRANSPORT IN RIVERS

Hydraulic Mechanisms

Physical, Chemical and Biological Transformations

Reactor Kinetics

River Models

Trends in River Modelling

BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN RIVER SYSTEMS

Part 1: Key biochemical processes in river systems (by F. J. Triska)

Part 2: Factors affecting biogeochemical processes in rivers (by L.W.G. Higler)

DYNAMICS AND CYCLING OF MATERIALS IN RIVER SYSTEMS

Primary sources of materials

Materials and the hydrological cycle

A discontinuous transport flux

Transport down the lower reaches of rivers

Phosphorus and Nitrogen cycles contrasted

BIOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY OF RIVER SYSTEMS

Ecological characteristics along the course of running waters

A general faunistic zonation pattern of benthos in pristine streams

ECOTONES OF RIVER SYSTEMS

Typology of ecotones of river ecosystem

Roles of Ecotones of riverine ecosystem

Vertical ecotones

Longitudinal ecotones

Lateral ecotones

RIVER ECOSYSTEMS REHABILITATION

Concepts in stream restoration ecology

Ecohydrology Concept—an approach for river restoration

RIVER NAVIGATION AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES

River Morphology and Sediment Transport

Locks and Dams

River Training

Sediment Movement Caused by Navigation Traffic

Species Population Impacts

Chemical Spills

The Future of Inland Navigation

DREDGING IN RIVERS AND ESTUARIES

River Water and Uses

Control of a River

Navigation on a River

General Specifications of Some Ports

Capital Dredging

Maintenance Dredging

Water Injection Dredging

Environmental Dredging

Conclusions

SEDIMENTATION OF RIVERS, RESERVOIRS AND CANALS

Sediment Problems

Estimation of Sediment Yield

Carrying Capacity of Lined Canals and Sediment Control

Sediment Transport of Uniform Material

Transport of Non-uniform Sediments

Non-equilibrium Effects

Conclusions

Introduction

SEDIMENT EXCLUSION AT RIVER INTAKES

Sediment Transport in Rivers

River Intakes

Control of Bed Load at River Intakes

Control of Suspended Load at River Intakes

Concluding Remarks

RIVERS AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Rivers as Sources of Water Supply

Rivers as Sinks for Wastes

Rivers as Sources of Energy

Rivers and Ground Water

Contemporary Issues in River Water Development

Conclusion

POTABLE WATER

Potable Water Supply

Urban Water Use

Wastewater Impact

Conclusions

DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE

Disposal Methods

Sewage Treatment

Industrial Effluent Disposal, Agricultural Run-off and Solid Waste Removal

Conclusions

SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL WATER USE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

The Region and the River - Characteristics, Properties, Features

Water Usage in the Middle-Neckar Region - Problems and Solutions

Flood Protection

Fresh Water Supply in the Middle-Neckar Region

Deficiencies on the Ecological Side

Striving for Sustainable River Water Use

Synopsis, Lessons Learnt and Future Outlook

Conclusions

WATER CONSUMPTION, FISHERIES AND WATER-RELATED RECREATIONAL FACILITIES

Consumptive Uses of Water

Conservative Uses

Impacts of Consumptive Uses of Water

The Impacts of Conservative, Non-consumptive Uses

Possible Adverse Effects of the Joint Recreational and Commercial Uses of Rivers, Dams and Reservoirs

Preventative Measures

River Management and Future Water Uses

Historical Review of Domestic Water Supply

Water Supply: The Current State of Affairs

The Division of International Water by the Helsinki Rules

Conclusions

HUMAN MADE LAKES AND RESERVOIRS : THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ALTERATIONS

Turning rivers into lakes

Changes downstream of dams

Beyond the down-rivers – a final remark

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT ON WATER RESOURCES

THE FUTURE OF BIG DAMS

Environmental Sustainability in Hydro Dams

Transparency and Participation

Environmental Least-Cost Ranking

Involuntary Resettlement

Irrigation Dams

Greenhouse Gas Emission Damage Costs

The Future of Dams

Conclusion

WATER AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION

THE DUBLIN PRINCIPALS: INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Overview and introduction

Fresh Water as Finite and Vulnerable Resource

Water Development and Management

Water as an Economic Good

WATER MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN DRYLANDS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

Nature of Dryland Environments

Population Growth in the Twentieth Century

Water Usage

Water Resource Availability

Water Use in the Twenty-First Century

New Sources of Water

Water and Conflict

Transboundary Rivers

Conclusion

BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO REDUCE WATER POLLUTION: THE CASE OF MARICULTURE

Introduction: Water Pollution and Agro-Industries

Single Best Management Practices for Improved Mariculture Water Quality

The Costs & Benefits of Reduced Exchange

Costs and Benefits of Single Water Exchange Practices

Future Implications: An Integrated Approach to Best Management Practices

Conclusions and Questions around the Adoption of Best Management Practices

FOOD AND WATER DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN 2025

The PODIUM Model

What can be done to Change Future Water Use

INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT

From Administrative to Service Delivery Organizations

Conversion of Irrigation Systems into Multi-use Water Service Systems

Transcending the Infrastructure DependencyDeterioration Trap

Establishing Appropriate Legal and Regulatory Frameworks

Implementing Integrated Management of Water

VALUATION OF WATER: OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Scarcity of Water Resources: An Increasing Concern

Rationale for Valuation of Water: The Need for Price Reforms

Methods of Valuation

Future Directions for Sustainable Water Use in Developing Countries

WATER AND CONFLICT

Water Scarcity

Water Scarcity and the Risk for International Conflict

Water Scarcity and the Risk for Conflicts within Countries

WATER AND SUSTAINABILITY IN MEXICO CITY

Natural Environment

Population

Expansion of the City

Transformation of the Ecosystem

Supply of Potable Water

Water Consumption

Leaks

Wastewater Treatment

Future Scenarios

Final Remarks

IRRIGATION, DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY AND HUMAN HEALTH

Global Water Scarcity

Water and Health

Improving Water Supply and Sanitation

Domestic Use of Irrigation Water

Situation AnalysisCritical Issues to be Addressed in the Twenty-First Century

Two Cases of Multiple Use of Irrigation Water

Lessons Learned

CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES IN THE FIELD OF WATER RESOURCES

Mothers Against Toxics

Women’s Civic Groups

The Professional and Political Women

The Future

CODES OF PRACTICE AND STANDARDS

Standardization of objects

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

Selection of water sources and their protection

Standardization of potable water quality

Influence of water pollutants on its quality

Methods and technological layouts for water quality improvement

Monitoring

WATER SUPPLY FOR AGRICULTURE

Water supply of rural units

Water quality in cattle breeding

Water quality in irrigation

WATER SUPPLY FOR INDUSTRY

Classification of utilized waters and general requirements for water quality used in industry

Thermal power industry

Mining industry

Ferrous metals metallurgy

Non-ferrous metals metallurgy

Metallurgy of rare, rare-earth and radioactive metals

Chemical industry

PERSPECTIVES ON WATER QUALITY

Protection of water systems

Water purification

Control of water bodies

Monitoring

Water quality regulations

Control of water quality, standardization and certification

Legal basis

ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY

General methods of waste water analysis

WATER HAZARDS CAUSED BY NATURALLY OCCURRING HYDROLOGIC EXTREMES

HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEMS MODELING

MODELING OF WATER EROSION AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

Introduction

Structure of the Model

Model Application

Conclusion

COUPLED MODELING WATER VAPOR AND CARBON DIOXIDE FLUXES IN THE SOIL-VEGETATION-ATMOSPHERE SYSTEM

Introduction

Modeling H2O and CO2 Exchange at a Leaf Scale

Modeling H2O and CO2 Fluxes at an Ecosystem Scale

Conclusion