ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL SCIENCES, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES - Table of Contents

AIR, WATER, SEDIMENT AND SOIL POLLUTION MODELLING

TRANSPORT OF MAN-MADE POLLUTANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR FATE

Introduction

Pollutant Transport Phenomena

Fate of Man-Made Chemical Pollutants

Observations

Conclusion

PHYTOTECHNOLOGIES SOLUTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT

WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY

ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF SOILS

A Soil Science Primer

Human Interaction with Soils

HISTORY OF WASTE MANAGEMENT AND THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL REPRESENTATIONS OF WASTE

From Antiquity to the Eve of the Industrial Revolution

1770s-1860s

1870s-1960s

1970s-Today

HEALTH EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO CHRONIC LEVELS OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

Definition of Chronic Toxicity

Specific Toxicity or Target Organs of Chemicals

Cases of Chronic Occupational Poisoning

Prevention

CONTROL STRATEGIES

General Principle

Strategies in Occupational Health

Strategies in Environmental Health

CASE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION EPISODES IN MEUSE VALLEY OF BELGIUM, DONORA OF PENNSYLVANIA, AND LONDON, U.K.

Meuse Valley Episode

Donora Episode

London episode

CASE STUDY OF THE BHOPAL INCIDENT

Background

Literature review

Epidemiologic Study

Results

Interpretation

MINAMATA DISEASE IN JAPAN

Outbreak of Minamata Disease

Investigation of Cause of Minamata Disease in Two Areas

Medical Aspects of Minamata Disease

Measures to Control Mercury Pollution

Estimating Exposure in Consumption of Seafood and Risks of Mercury Poisoning

Relief of Minamata Disease Victims

MERCURY-CONTAMINATED GRAIN IN IRAQ

Epidemic of Mercury Poisoning in Iraq

Clinical Features of the Iraq Methylmercury Poisoning by Fungicide

Prenatal Exposure in Iraq

Treatment and Prognosis

Dose-Response Relations in Iraq Methylmercury Poisoning

Solution to the Mercury Pollution by Mercurial Pesticides

PEDIATRIC LEAD POISONING OF RESIDENTIAL ORIGIN

Plumbing as a Source of Poisoning

Lead Paint

Health and Developmental Effects of Lead

Diagnosis of Lead Poisoning

Screening for Lead Poisoning

Prevalence of Childhood Lead Poisoning

Treatment of Lead Poisoning

Recurrences of Lead Poisoning

Prevention of Lead Poisoning

Detecting Lead Paint

Children are Especially Vulnerable

Individual Susceptibility

Lead and Nutrition

Exposure of Children to Lead Paint

Remediation of Lead Paint Hazards

Societal and Legal Responses

INSECTICIDES

Organophosphate insecticides

Carbamate Insecticides

Pyrethroid Insecticides

Organochlorine Insecticides

Other Insecticides

HERBICIDES

Chlorophenoxy Herbicides

Triazine Herbicides

Acetamide Herbicides

Phenylurea Herbicides

Glyphosate

Bipyridilium Herbicides

RODENTICIDES

Fluoroacetate Derivatives

Thiourea Rodenticides

Bromethalin

Vitamin D-Based Rodenticides

Norbormide

Scilliroside

Alpha(a )-Chlorohydrin

Thallium

Yellow Phosphorus

Zinc Phosphide

Strychnine

Anticoagulant Rodenticides

FUNGUS AND ACTINOMYCETE-INDUCED DISEASES

Fungal Infections

Allergic Fungal Diseases

Intoxication by Mycotoxins

CASE STUDY OF LYME DISEASE

First Case Report of Lyme Disease in East Asia

Epidemiology

Causation

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis

Treatment and Prevention

CASE HISTORY: EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN ZAIRE, 1995

Part I: A Chronological Account

Detection

Diagnosis

Background on Filoviral Diseases

Genetic characterization of the 1995 isolate of Ebola virus

Mobilization of an International Outbreak Response

Providing Medical Care to EHF Patients

Disseminating Disease Prevention Information to the Local Population

The Epidemiological Investigation

The Search for the Zoonotic Host of Ebola Virus

Part II: Lessons Learned

Was the intervention successful?

Reasons for international concern

Factors that encouraged the epidemic spread of EHF in Zaire

Disease Spread Through Travel

Zaire’s Request for International Assistance

International Cooperation

International Press Management

Scientific Lessons

The Aftermath

CASE STUDIES OF ANTHRAX OUTBREAKS

Etiology

Distribution

Disease in Animals

Disease in Humans

Vaccines and Treatment

The Cases of Large Occurrence

CASE STUDY OF HEALTH EFFECTS OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN DRINKING WATER

The Genus Cryptosporidium

Human cryptosporidiosis

Waterborne transmission

Waterborne Outbreaks

Removal in Water Treatment

Risk Assessment

Water and the Food Industry

Regulatory Aspects

Current Limitations and Future Developments

Role for Education and Effective Interaction

IMPACT OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS ON RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

Socioeconomic Factors and their Influence on the Association Between Indoor Exposures and Human Health

Selected Important Indoor Exposures

Important Building Characteristic Affecting Indoor Exposures: Ventilation

Future Perspectives

SOCIAL CONCERNS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO TOXIC SUBSTANCES

Assessing and Communicating Risks from Environmental Exposures

Equity, Health Disparities, and Environmental Justice

Policy Approaches for Global Challenges

ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE AS A COMPONENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING

Existing Framework for Environmental Decision-Making

Environmental Justice Perspective on Environmental Decision-Making

Incorporating Environmental Justice into Environmental Decision-Making

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY-AN OVERVIEW

Occupational Health and Safety

Occupational Health Practice

Human Factors and Ergonomics

Physical Agents

Special Groups at Work

Growing Points in Occupational Health and Safety

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AND INJURIES

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Mental Health and Stress

Occupational Cancer

Occupational infections

Respiratory Diseases

Skin Disorders

Work-Related Injuries

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

Preventing Accidents at Work

Workplace Safety, Moving Goods and Materials, Transport and Driving for Work

Construction and Demolition Hazards

Outdoor Working

Safety in the Use of Work Equipment

Electricity

Fire Safety

Chemical Safety

Fire and Explosion

The Storage of Hazardous Goods

Confined Spaces 

Permit to Work Systems

HAZARDS MANAGEMENT, MONITORING OF THE WORK ENVIRONMENT AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STANDARDS 

Hazard and Risk

Hazard Identification

Exposure and Exposure Routes

Measuring Exposure

Measurement of Inhalation Hazards

Measurement of Dermal and Ingestion Hazards

Measurement of Physical Hazards, Noise, Vibration, Lighting, Thermal

Interpretation of Exposure Measurements

Exposure Limits and Standard

Assessment of Risk

Control of Risk- Hierarchy of Control

Communicating Exposure and Risk Information to Workers

HEALTH, WORK AND WELLBEING

The Health of Individuals in Relation to their Work

Well-Being Programmes in the Workplace

ANIMAL RESOURCES AND DIVERSITY IN AFRICA

ETHNOBIOLOGY

OCEAN CURRENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON MARINE LIFE

Impacts on nutrient circulation and productivity of the oceans

Other impacts of ocean currents on marine life

ROLE OF MARINE MICROBES IN CARBON AND NUTRIENT CYCLES

Microbes in the sea. Defining the subject of study in marine microbiology.

The role of microbes in the cycles of nutrients and carbon. A historical view.

The end of the black box approach to the study of the ecology of plankton microbes.

Evolving perceptions on the role of microorganisms in the organic matter fluxes in planktonic food webs.

Evolving perceptions on the role of microorganisms in the inorganic nutrient fluxes.

OCEAN FOOD WEBS AND TROPHIC DYNAMICS

The pelagic food web

Benthic food webs

ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MARINE FISH

Fish life history

Population dynamics

Fish behavior

Fish communities

Production and fisheries

HARVESTING THE OCEAN

History of human harvesting technology

Harvesting marine biological resources

Future challenges and scenarios

ADAPTATIONS TO LIFE IN THE OCEANS

ADAPTATIONS TO LIFE IN THE OCEANS. PELAGIC MACROFAUNA

The distribution of pelagic macrofauna

Sensorial physiology

Feeding and metabolic rates

Reproduction and life histories

MARINE BENTHIC FLORA

Diversity of benthic marine flora

Adaptations of benthic marine flora.

Human uses

Short term changes

Long term changes

Conservation

LIFE IN EXTREME OCEAN ENVIRONMENTS: ANCHIALINE CAVES

The anchialine environment: a subterranean marine/freshwater ecotone

The marine condition of anchialine caves

Typology and distribution of anchialine environments

Sources of organic matter and trophic relationships in anchialine caves

Characteristics of the anchialine fauna

Origin of the anchialine fauna

Conservation aspects

PLANKTON

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PHYTOPLANKTON

Reproduction

Losses

Perennation

The balance between reproduction and loss

Seasonality

NITROGEN METABOLISM IN PHYTOPLANKTON

Availability and use of different forms of nitrogen

Assimilation pathways

Accumulation and storage

Nutrient classification and preferences

Plasticity in cell composition

Overflow mechanisms: excretion and release processes

Recycling of nitrogen within the cell

Degradation pathways

From uptake to growth: time-lag phenomena

Relationships with carbon metabolism

Future directions

VIRUS AND HETEROTROPHIC MICROPLANKTON

The main players

Future perspectives

ZOOPLANKTON ECOLOGY

Zooplankton in the context of marine life

Trophic ecology

Zooplankton production

Zooplankton and marine food webs

SWIMMING DYNAMICS OF ZOOPLANKTON

How do they swim?-The study of zooplankton locomotion

Why do they swim?-The study of swimming behavior

INDUCTION OF SETTLEMENT IN MEROZOOPLANKTON

Biological and environmental challenges faced by merozooplankters

Settlement cues and signal transduction

Overview of natural settlement cues

A case study: Settlement induction in barnacles

Future challenges

MARINE REPTILES: ADAPTATIONS, TAXONOMY, DISTRIBUTION AND LIFE CYCLES

The fossil marine reptiles

Physiological adaptations to sea life

Sea Turtles

Marine Iguana

Sea Snakes

COASTAL DYNAMICS

COASTAL EROSION

Causes of Erosion

Special Cases

Solutions to Coastal Erosion

The Future

WAVES AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE NEARSHORE ZONE

Definition of nearshore zone

Wave shoaling

The surf zone

Sediment transport

EPISODIC PROCESSES(STORM SURGES AND TSUNAMIS)

Sea level

Storm surges

Tsunamis

SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN ESTUARIES

Estuarine Hydrodynamics

Estuarine Sediment Characteristics

Cohesionless Sediment Transport

Cohesive Sediment Transport

Bed Exchange Processes

Measurements

Modeling

Morphology

Human Impacts

COASTAL SYSTEMS

ROCKY COASTS

Origin of rocky coasts

Processes

Geomorphology

Cliff erosion and retreat

Shore platforms

Cliff retreat and landslide hazard

COASTAL BARRIERS

Physical Description

Global Distribution and Tectonic Setting

Barrier Types

Barrier Coast Morphology

Prograding, Retrograding, and Aggrading Barriers

Barrier Stratigraphy

COASTAL SAND DUNES AND BARRIER ISLANDS

General features

Environmental characteristics

Flora and fauna of sand dunes and barrier islands

Human perspectives

Coastal management and conservation. Policies and professional practice

MORPHOLOGY AND MORPHODYNAMICS OF SANDY BEACHES

Sandy beach morphology

Environmental boundary conditions and external hydrodynamic forcing

Morphological change

Beach morphodynamics and classification

Management of sandy beaches

Future trends and perspectives

MORPHOLOGY AND MORPHODYNAMICS OF GRAVEL BEACHES

Gravelly Beach Morphology

Hydrodynamics of gravel beaches

Morphosedimentology of Gravel Beaches

Stratigraphy of Gravel Beaches

Gravelly beach responses to external forcing

Future directions

BEACH PLAINS: FORMATION, EVOLUTION AND ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

Beach-plain stratigraphy and morphology

Beach-plain sediments and sediment sources

Modes and processes of beach-plain formation

Post-formational morphological modifications

Hydrology and soil development in beach plains

Vegetation on beach plains

ESTUARINE SYSTEMS

RIAS AND TIDAL-SEA ESTUARIES

General Processes

Morphology and Sedimentology

Sedimentary Infilling

The Rías Baixas infilling: a case study

Environmental features on rías and estuaries

Introduction

Conclusion

COASTAL LAGOONS

Definition and importance of coastal lagoons

Origin and size of coastal lagoons

Climatic setting

Grain size and sedimentation rates

Dominant processes

Barriers

Inlets

Flood and Ebb deltas

Primary production in coastal lagoons

Ecology, fisheries and acquaculture

Pollution and eutrophication

Evolution and alteration of coastal lagoons

PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN COASTAL LAGOONS

Measurement of primary production

Temporal and spatial variations

Physical setting and primary producers

Primary production in Mexican coastal lagoons

DELTAS

Subenvironments

Life Support Products

Threats to Environment

Policy Drivers

TIDAL SALT MARSHES AND MANGROVE SWAMPS

Definition and Distribution

Climate

Soil Accretion and Geomorphic Evolution

Values

Human Impacts

COASTAL TRENDS

COASTAL EVOLUTION

Plate tectonics and coastal evolution

Sea-Level Change and Coastal Development

Development of Coastal Environments

ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS

ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE COASTAL BIOTA

Anthropogenic effects on fish and shellfish stocks of the continental shelves

Anthropogenic effects on coral reef communities

Anthropogenic effects on kelp beds

Anthropogenic effects on seagrass beds

Anthropogenic effects on Mangroves

Anthropogenic effects on salt marshes

Anthropogenic effects on intertidal sandflats and mudflats

ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON ESTUARIES

Physical impacts

Chemical impacts

Biological impacts

Aesthetic changes

Discussion

MEASUREMENT TOOLS: SOIL SYSTEMS

The Soil Solid Phase (Soil Matrix)

Soil Solution

MEASUREMENT TOOLS FOR ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEMS

Techniques

Measurement Tools for Meteorological Parameters

Measurement Tools for Chemical Parameters

MEASUREMENT TOOLS: WATER SYSTEMS (INLAND WATERS)

Field Techniques

Measurement Tools

MEASUREMENT TOOLS: WATER SYSTEMS (OCEANS)

Current Measurements for Oceans

Thermodynamic State Properties

Optical Measurements

FIELD TECHNIQUES: SOIL SYSTEMS

Field techniques to study soil formation and soil classification

Evaluating the impact of human activities on soil quantity, soil quality and soil functions

Field techniques related to study soil loss, soil functionality and soil pollution

FIELD TECHNIQUES FOR ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEMS

Conceptual Aspects of Field Campaigns and Techniques

Platforms

Chemical Sampling Techniques

Flux Measurements

Intensive Field Studies and Long-term Monitoring Programs

Epilogue

FIELD TECHNIQUES: INLAND WATERS

Objectives: Lakes, Rivers, and Groundwaters

Human Use, Anthropogenic Changes, and Threats to Inland Waters

Sampling, Data Assessment, and Field Techniques

Monitoring the State and Change of Water Quality

Monitoring Surface Waters by Remote Sensing

FIELD TECHNIQUES: WATER SYSTEMS (OCEANS)

Measuring Platforms

Vertical Profiling

Towed Systems and Drifters

Remote in situ Methods

Satellite Remote Sensing

BIOINDICATORS

Levels of Bioindication

Application of Bioindicators

BIOINDICATION OF ECOSYSTEMS REGENERATION ABILITY THRESHOLDS

Background

Model Concept

Applications

Results, Current State of the Work and Future Outlook

SPATIAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

Use of Spatial Environmental Information

Spatial Data Geometry

Classification of Spatial Environmental Databases

Metadata for Spatial Environmental Information

Spatial Information Systems

Aerial and Satellite Images

An Example Study: The European THETIS Project

NON-SPATIAL ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

Proliferation of Environmental Information

Classification of Environmental Databases

Metadatabases for Environmental Information

Environmental Information Systems and Meta-information Systems on the Free Internet

Need for Analysis and Evaluation of Environmental Databases

STATISTICAL ANALYSES' DESIGN

Classification of Environmental Problems

A Sample of Environmental Problems

Environmental Data

Characteristics of Environmental Processes

Domains of Analyses

Statistical Approaches

Design of Statistical Analysis

Statistical Modeling

Model Selection

BIOSTATISTICS

Analyzing Environmentalecological Structures

Analyzing Spatio-temporal Structures

DATA ACCURACY AND VALIDATION

Data Requirements for Environmental Management

Environmental Data Management

Errors (Noise) in Data

User’s Interpretation of Data Accuracy

TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS

Common Features of Environmental Systems

Types of Environmental Systems

Uses and Objectives of Environmental Models

Types of Models

Modeling Environmental Systems

Future Directions in Environmental Modeling

CASE STUDIES OF LOCAL, REGIONAL AND GLOBAL APPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS

Modeling the Environment

Local, Regional and Global: The IMAGE Model

Policy use of the IMAGE Model

DATA INTEGRATION INTO ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS AND SENSITIVITY TO INPUT DATA

Introduction: Mathematical Modeling

Examples of Data's Importance in Environmental Modeling

IDENTIFICATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF COUPLED CLIMATE MODELS

Elements of Coupled Climate Models

Component Models

Coupling Interfaces

Computational Aspects of Coupled Climate Models

Important Issues in Climate Model Coupling

Hierarchy of Coupled Climate Models

Applications of Coupled Climate Models

MODEL APPLICATION FOR DECISION MAKERS AND POLICY EVALUATORS

The Spatial Dimension

The Temporal Dimension

The Hydrological Cycle - Stocks and Flows

Implications for Life Support on Earth

ASSESSING THE ROLE OF CLIMATE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND MODELING

Brief Description of the Climate System and How it is Modeled

The Role of Climate in Environmental Modeling

Case Study I: Smoke From Biomass Burning

Case Study II: Rainfall/Runoff in Climate Models

MULTI-OBJECTIVE DECISION SUPPORT INCLUDING SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

Basic Concepts

Multi-objective Model Analysis

Structure and Use of Model-Based DSSs

Advantages and Limitations of Model-Based DSS

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AT DIFFERENT SCALES

Regional water quality management

Land use planning

Air quality management

Lessons from the presented DSSs

VALIDATION AND UNCERTAINTY IN ANALYSIS DECISION SUPPORT

Validation of Decision Support Systems

Uncertainty in Decision Support Systems

Validity and Uncertainty Analysis

SYSTEM TO SUPPORT DECISIONS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT

Definition of Sustainable Development

Operationalization of the Concept of Sustainable Development

Sustainability Indicators as a Further Step in Operationalizing Sustainable Development

Sustainable Global Development - The Integrative Concept

Decision Support System - General Aspects

Information Technology and Environmental Systems

KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS AND NEURAL NETS

Knowledge-based Systems

Neural Nets

SYSTEM TO SUPPORT DECISIONS ON CLEAN-UP OF POLLUTED LANDS

Questions on Clean-up Strategy

Hydrogeological Foundation

The Rule-based Map-orientated Analysis

Problems of Measurement Values

SYSTEMS TO SUPPORT DECISIONS ON ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

Electricity Production Systems

Contribution of Energy Resources to World Electricity Production

Energy Storage, Efficiency of Production and Waste Heat

Appraisal of Investments in Electricity Production Systems

Expansion of Production vs. Demand Side Management

External Cost Factors

Optimization of Energy Mixture in Power Generation Systems

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR ENERGY, TRAFFIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Spatial analysis and optimization models

A dynamic multi-time scale system representation of the air quality management problem

A heuristic for solving the regulators problem

A Multi-criteria Air Quality Management Model

Implementation

Discussions

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING

Population Growth

Urbanization

Decision Support Systems (DSS) for Regional and Urban Planning

SYSTEMS TO SUPPORT DECISIONS FOR URBAN AREAS

Environmental Impact Assessment and Multi-attribute Impact Theory

Consensus Formation and Multi-Agent Decision-making

Risk Management and Value Function under Risk

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SERVICES AND COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Introduction

The Problem Domain: Urban Atmospheric Quality

Paving the Scene: Choose the Parameters of Interest

Be Informed In Advance: Operational Air Quality Forecasting

Computational Intelligence Methods for AQ Forecasting

Construction of Operational Prediction Models

Information Services for the Atmospheric Environment

An AQ Information Service Example

Quality Of Life Information Services for the Atmospheric Environment: The Future

Conclusions

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE VULNERABILITY TO EROSION OF THE COASTAL ZONE DUE TO A POTENTIAL RISE OF SEA LEVEL: THE CASE OF THE HELLENIC AEGEAN COAST

Introduction

Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI)

The Aegean Sea: Physicogeographic setting

Coastal Vulnerability of the Hellenic Aegean coast

Discussion and conclusions

BASIC CONCEPTS OF THE GAS PHASE

Survey

Elementary Particles in Chemistry and Physics

The states of aggregation

Physical Properties of a Compound

Forms of Energy

Equation of state

The Kinetic Theory of Gases

EMISSION SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

Survey

Flue Gas Sampling

Gas Analyzers

EFFLUENT GAS MONITORING

Survey

Occupational Hazard Monitoring Methods

Light Absorption Methods

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Spectrochemical Emission Analysis

Electrochemical Cells

Paramagnetic Instruments

DUST-PARTICLE FORMATION AND CHARACTERISTICS

Survey

Sources

Physical characteristics

Chemical characteristics

Source apportionment

Dust Sample Analysis

Particle Evaluation

Effluent Dust Analyzers

Dust Sampling Procedure

DUST COLLECTION

Scope

Aims and some applications

Respirable Dust

Emission Codes

Collection efficiency

Principles of Dust Separation

Selecting a Filter

Safety Factors: Dust Explosions

MECHANICAL AND CYCLONIC COLLECTORS

Survey

Settling Chambers

Cyclone Separators

Mechanical centrifugal separators

Brownian Movement

Dry Atmospheric Deposition

GAS FILTRATION

Survey

Absolute Filters

Filter Characteristics

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

Survey

Characteristics

Operation

Operating Problems

Wet Electrostatic Precipitators

Unusual Forces acting on Aerosol Particles

WET SCRUBBERS

Survey

Liquid Atomizers

Scrubber Types

Venturi Scrubber Practice

Particulate Scrubber Design

Estimating Collection Efficiency and Pressure Drop

Wet Scrubbing of Gaseous Compounds

Mist Elimination

Wet deposition

CONTROL OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, INCLUDING CONDENSATION

Condensation

Control of Carbon Monoxide

Volatile Organic Compounds

ADSORPTION OF GASEOUS POLLUTANTS

Scope

Scientific Principles of Adsorption

Adsorption kinetics

ADSORBENTS AND ADSORPTION PROCESSES FOR POLLUTION CONTROL

Survey

Properties of adsorbents

Fixed bed adsorbers

Continuous counter-current flow systems

Application of adsorbents for desiccation

Desorption and adsorbent regeneration

Design of adsorbers

CONTROL OF SULFUR OXIDES

SO2 Control Strategies

Fuel Cleaning

Flue Gas Desulfurization Technologies

CONTROL OF NITROGEN OXIDES

Nitrogen Oxides

Sources of NOx-emissions

Formation of NOx

Pollution Prevention and Combustion Control Techniques

Flue Gas Treatment Technologies

ODOR EMISSION CONTROL

Human Senses and Smell

The Human Senses

Generation and Monitoring of Odors

Technical Solutions to the Smell Problem

INDOOR AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND CONTROL

Indoor Air Quality

Origins

Methods of Study

Symptoms

Remediation Methods

Combustion

Biological contaminants

VOCs

COMBUSTION FUNDAMENTALS

Basics

Combustion Kinetics and Mechanisms

Basic Types of Flames

Combustion of Gases

Combustion of Liquids and Solids

FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN COMBUSTION

Dimensional Analysis and Mathematical Modeling

Transport Phenomena

Fluid Flow

Heat Transfer

Mass Transfer

Prediction methods for Physical Properties

COMBUSTION RESEARCH AND COMPUTER FLUID DYNAMICS

Combustion Research

Combustion Research

Basic Types of Flames

Combustion Fundamentals: Chemical Aspects

Practical Problems

THERMAL AND CATALYTIC COMBUSTION

Survey of VOCs treatment methods

Thermal combustion

Catalytic post-combustion

Process control optimization and improved firing technique

Combustion, Safety and Environmental Pollution

MANAGEMENT OF COMBUSTIBLE WASTE

Some Principles in Waste Management

Selection of Disposal Methods

Properties of Combustible Wastes

Planning Incineration.

Incinerator Feed Streams

WASTE INCINERATION TECHNOLOGY

Selection of Incinerator Furnaces

Gaseous and Liquid Wastes

Solid wastes

Mechanical Grate Incinerators

Rotary Kiln Incinerators

The Combustion Cone

Shaft Furnaces

Multiple Hearth Furnaces

Rotary Hearth Furnaces

Vortex Combustors

Fluidized Bed Incinerators

Slagging Operation

CONTROL OF POLLUTION IN POWER GENERATION

Environmental Pollution from Production and Pre-combustion Processing of Fossil Fuels.

Power Generation from Fossil Fuels.

Formation and Control of Pollutants from Power Generation with Fossil Fuels.

Pollution control in nuclear power generation.

Cleaner Power Generation and Renewable Energy Technologies

CONTROL OF POLLUTION IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

Production of Sulfuric Acid

Production of Nitrates-Containing Fertilizers

Lime Production

Soda Production

Production of Sodium Hydroxide and Chlorine by Electrolysis

Cement Industry

Pharmaceutical Industry

Bulk Organic Chemical Industry

CONTROL OF POLLUTION IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

Overview of the environmental impact of the petroleum industry

Sources of Environmental Pollution from the Petroleum Industry

Estimation of Pollution and Control Technologies for the Petroleum industry

CONTROL OF POLLUTION IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

Sinter production: Control of pollution.

Coke production: Control of pollution.

Iron production: Control of pollution.

Steel production.Control of pollution.

Ferroalloy industry: Control of pollution.

Rolling: Control of pollution.

Iron Foundries: Control of Pollution

Steel Foundries: Control of Pollution

CONTROL OF POLLUTION IN THE NON-FERROUS METALS INDUSTRY

Production of aluminum

Production of copper

Lead production

Zinc production

CONTROL OF POLLUTION IN THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY

Technologies for Pulp and Paper Production

Chemical Pulping

Pulp Processing

Bleaching

Stock Preparation

Paper Manufacture

Pulp Preparation from Secondary Paper and the Impact of Paper Recycling on Environment

Emissions

New Trends in Pollution Control

CONTROL OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINED VEHICLES

Environmental Pollution from Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles.

Formation of Pollutants and Their Estimation.

Control of Exhaust Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines

CATALYTIC CONVERTERS AND OTHER EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES

Devices for Post Combustion Control of Engine Emissions.

Devices for Control of Crankcase and Evaporative Emissions.

Maintenance and Future Implementation of Vehicle Emission Controls.

ZERO EMISSION VEHICLES

The Emerging of the Zero Emission Vehicles Concept

Pollution from Vehicles with Reduced Emissions and Zero Emission Vehicles

The Future of Zero Emission Vehicles.

ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Vehicles, Powered by Electric Energy

Capabilities of On-board Energy Storage Devices and Direct Conversion Fuel Cells

Fuel Cells

Energy Requirements of Electric Vehicles

Present and Future of Electric Vehicles

HYBRID VEHICLES

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Concept

The Fuel Cell Technologies

The Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

BIOLOGICAL WASTE GAS CLEANING IN A PILOT-SCALE BIOFILTER WITH DIFFERENT FILTER MATERIAL AND MODELING A HYBRID PROCESS OF ADSORPTION AND BIOFILTRATION

Materials and Methods

Mathematical model for the biofiltration unit

Mathematical Model for the adsorption unit

Results and Discussion Biofiltration

Advantages and disadvantages of investigated filter materials in pilot scale

Results and Discussion Adsorption

Results and Discussion of Hybrid Process

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND STANDARD SETTING

Problems Encountered in Setting Standards

LOCAL REGULATIONS

Meaning of a local authority

Local authority and pollution control

NATIONAL (FEDERAL) REGULATIONS

Overview of the legal system

Sources of national regulation on environmental pollution control

Outline of the evolution of pollution control regulation in selected countries

Structural features of pollution control regulation

INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS

Basic Elements of International Environmental Law

International Environmental Treaties and their Implementation

Important Milestones in Development of International Regulations

Environmental Pollution Regulations in the European Community

Overview of Selected International Agreements

REGULATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS

International Efforts to Regulate Air Pollutants

Regional Regulations of Air Pollutants in European Community

National Regulations of Air Pollutants

REGULATION OF WATER POLLUTANTS

Principles of Regulating Water Pollutants

International Regulations on Water Pollutants

National Regulations of Water Pollutants

REGULATION OF LAND POLLUTANTS AND SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

Regulations Dealing with Prevention of Land Pollution

Regulations on past contamination

Regulations on Waste Disposal

REGULATIONS ON FUEL EXTRACTION AND COMBUSTION

Planning Control for Fuel Extraction and Combustion Facilities

Pollution Control during Fuel Extraction

Regulations on Fuel Combustion

OBJECTIVES OF AND PROCEDURES FOR SETTING STANDARDS

The general framework

Identification of priority pollution issues

International programs

SCIENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARD SETTING

Air Quality Criteria or Guides

Air Quality Goals

Air Quality Standards

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

Air pollution control philosophies

General Characteristics of the Emission Standard Philosophy

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Emission Standards

The Air Quality Standard Philosophy

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Ambient Air Quality Standards

ADOPTION OF STANDARDS

General legislative procedures in environmental control

Legislative procedures concerning ambient air quality standards

The social and economical aspects in setting air quality standards.

Summary of the WHO guidelines

IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT

General approach

Aspects of air pollution control strategy

LICENSING AND PERMITTING OF DISCHARGES

Environmental Permitting and Licensing Systems

Basic principles of environmental permitting

Permitting Policy and Legislation

Procedure for issuing permits

Monitoring and enforcement

EFFLUENT LIMITS FOR DISCHARGES

Emission or effluent standards.

Environmental Quality Objectives (EQO) and Environmental Quality Standards (EQS).

The setting of Emission or Effluent Limit Values (ELVs).

The use of ELVs during the permitting process.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS: ESTABLISHING DISCHARGE ZONES

Business environmental performance

Discharges to Water

Legal framework for the prevention of water pollution

Effluent Guidelines and Performance standards

Discharges to the Aquatic Environment

FACILITY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

The meaning of clean production and the principle of pollution prevention

Aspects Affecting the Design of A Facility

Best Available Techniques used for Pollution Prevention and for the Environmental Management of a Facility

TRADING OF POLLUTION DISCHARGE RIGHTS

Introduction: what is emissions or discharge trading?

Advantages and disadvantages of emission and discharge trading

The process of developing a trade

Air emissions trading

Waste water discharges trading

BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Integrated environmental management

Industry and the environment

Guides and guidance manuals

Usage of water in industry and agriculture

ECOLOGICALLY BASED STANDARDS

Definition

Background information

Basic principles for ecological standard establishment

Surface water management in the Netherlands: an application

HEALTH BASED STANDARDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY

Definitions: epidemiology – environmental epidemiology

Principles of epidemiological research

Effects studied in epidemiology

Related study areas

Criteria for determining acceptable levels of effects

HEALTH BASED STANDARDS: TOXICOLOGY

Definition of toxicology and environmental toxicology

Qualitative aspects of the action of substances in the organism

Quantitative aspects of toxic agents

Extrapolation to humans

Calculating guidelines for contaminants in drinking water

HEALTH BASED STANDARDS: ONCOLOGY

Cancer development as a multi step process

Carcinogenicity tests

Classification of carcinogens

Dose-response relationships for genotoxic carcinogens

Risk figures for non-threshold carcinogens

Standard establishment based upon risk figures

PARTICIPANTS IN STANDARD SETTING

Process standard of establishment

Societal groups in standard establishment

Methods for the socio-economical basis of standards establishment

ECONOMIC BOTANY

TWENTY-FIVE ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT FAMILIES

Introduction

Top 25 Plant Families of Economic Importance

Conclusions

PLANT DOMESTICATION AND THE ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE

Introduction

Domestication

Why Farm?

Conclusions

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY

CONCEPTS OF ECOSYSTEM, LEVEL AND SCALE

Definitions of ecosystem and their history

Hierarchy, scale and level of complexity

Systems ecology

Food webs, material cycles, and feedback loops

Limitations

Benefits and value

RESTORATION ECOLOGY

Ecosystem degradation and restoration

Objectives of restoration

Unwanted species and disturbance regime

The introduction of species

Environmental conditions and their manipulation

Landscape restoration

ECOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION AND POLICY

Conservation Biology as a Crisis-oriented, Interdisciplinary Science

Ecological Theory and its Application to Conservation Biology

Conservation at the Cross Roads

Where to go from here?

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

Biological control of arthropod pests

Biological control and ecosystem management

ECOSYSTEM HEALTH:DEFINITIONS,ASSESSMENT, AND CASE STUDIES

Introduction: The Biosphere in Distress

What is Ecosystem Health?

Biophysical Dimensions: Earth System Science and Biosphere Health

Socioeconomic Dimensions: Ecosystem Services and Sustainability

Human Health Dimensions: How Human Health is Impacted by Ecological Imbalance

Quantifying Ecosystem Health: Mathematical and Statistical Tools for the Next Generation of Ecosystem Health Assessments

Education: Towards Integrating Ecology and Health Science—Ecosystem Health as part of the Medical Curriculum

Case Studies: Managing for Ecosystem Health

The Prospect for Restoring Health to the Earth’s Ecosystems

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

PRIORITY PARAMETERS: ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC COMPONENTS

Priority Abiotic Factors

Priority Biotic Factors

BACKGROUND STATE OF THE BIOSPHERE

Natural Hazards

Anthropogenic Activities

BIOINDICATOR SPECIES AND THEIR USE IN BIOMONITORING

Applications of Indicator Species in Biomonitoring

Alternative Biomonitoring Methods

Aquatic Bioindicators

Terrestrial Bioindators

Examples of Biomonitoring

Evaluation and Future Directions

Integrated Biomonitoring of Freshwater Ecosystems

FUNDAMENTALS OF MONITORING TECHNOLOGY AND GLOBAL OBSERVATION SYSTEMS

REMOTE SENSING (SATELLITE) SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

Basics of Satellite Remote Sensing

The Remote Sensing Application Process

GEOPHYSICAL MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

Gravity Methods

Magnetic Methods

Seismic Method

Electrical Resistivity Method

Spontaneous (Self) Potential (SP) Method

Induced Polarization (IP) Method

Electromagnetic (EM) Method

Ground Penetrating Radar

LABORATORY-BASED ANALYTICAL TECHNOLOGIES

Analysis of Trace Organic Contaminants by Chromatography

Analysis of Trace Metals by Atomic Spectrometry

Analysis of Trace Organic and Metallic Contaminants by Mass Spectrometry (MS)

Future Trends and Directions

ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING

PRIORITY PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS

Parameters that Reflect Air Quality

Parameters that Reflect Ecosystem Dynamics

TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION

Background on the atmosphere and dynamics

Smog

Acid Deposition

Particulate Matter

Mercury

Haze

Persistent Organic Pollutants

NOISE LEVEL MONITORING

Effects of Noise

Noise Monitoring

Basic Concepts of Acoustics

Present Status of Noise Awareness

Techniques of Industrial Noise Monitoring

Noise Assessment Models

Calculation of Noise Levels Near Industrial Complexes

Noise Level Monitoring for Prediction

The Development of Source Characterization Model

MONITORING FRESHWATER AND MARINE SYSTEMS

PRIORITY PARAMETERS FOR MONITORING OF FRESHWATER AND MARINE SYSTEMS, AND THEIR MEASUREMENT

Salinity and Conductivity

Light

Dissolved Oxygen

Temperature

pH

Nutrients

Phytoplankton

Zooplankton

Aquatic Pathogens

Fish and Other Large Organisms

FRESHWATER OBSERVATION SYSTEMS, NETWORKS, AND EXISTING DATABASES

Methods for Monitoring of Rivers and Streams

Methods for Monitoring of Lakes

National and International Programs for Water Control

Data processing and Databases

MARINE AND BRACKISH WATER OBSERVATION SYSTEMS, NETWORKS AND EXISTING DATABASES

Fundamentals of Observing Systems of Seas and Oceans

Incentives for a Sustained, Operational and Integrated Observation System

Observation of Seas and Oceans

Major Intergovernmental Actors and Pilot Projects of the Observation System

Existing Databases and Major Data Management Systems

DEPOSITION OF POLLUTANTS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON FISHERIES

Pollutants

The Aquatic Ecosystem

Fate of Aquatic Pollutants

Biotransformation of Pollutants

Impacts of Different Pollutants on Fisheries

Environmental Impact Assessment

Reclamation Strategies

POLLUTION OF LITTORAL ZONE AND BOTTOM SEDIMENT

Freshwater Resources

The Aquatic Ecosystem

The Homeostasis Syndrome

Concept of Aquatic Pollution

Organic Pollution

Eutrophication

Inorganic Pollutants

Toxic Chemicals of Natural Origin

Metal Pollution

Acidification

Thermal Pollution

Water Quality Assessment

Sustainable Management

MONITORING OF GEOMEDIA SYSTEMS

LAKE AND RIVER SEDIMENT MONITORING

Monitoring Programs

Monitoring Results

Sediment Quality

SOIL CONTAMINATION MONITORING

Properties of Soil Contaminants

Soil and Vapor Sampling for Soil Contamination Monitoring

Chemical Soil Contamination Monitoring Techniques

Geophysical Soil Contamination Monitoring Techniques

Biological Soil Contamination Monitoring Techniques

Need for Innovative Soil Contamination Monitoring Techniques

GROUNDWATER MONITORING

Philosophy and Purpose of Groundwater Investigations

Health and Safety Considerations

Groundwater Monitoring Networks

Monitoring Wells

Acquisition and Interpretation of Groundwater Data

DESERTIFICATION AND VEGETATION MONITORING

Causes of Desertification and Vegetation Degradation and Destruction

Monitoring: Indicators of Desertification and Vegetation Destruction

CONTAMINATED SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

Site Characterization and Monitoring Protocol

Assessment Monitoring

Performance/Postclosure Monitoring

Current Technologies and Future Trends

ANALYSIS AND UTILITY OF MONITORING DATA

EVOLUTION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND VISUALIZATION SYSTEMS

Geographic Information and Visualization Systems

Factors Spurring the Evolution of Geographic Information and Visualization Systems

The Role of Access and Geographic Information and Visualization Systems

The State of the Art in Geographic Information and Visualization Systems

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF MONITORING DATA

Statistical Analysis

Quality Assurance

Computer Programs

GEOSTATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF MONITORING DATA

Regionalized Variables

The Semi-Variogram

Theoretical Semi-Variogram Models

Semi-Variogram Modeling for Environmental Data

Kriging

Kriging Process Parameters

Cross-Validation

Sampling Plans for Geostatistical Estimation

Application of Geostatistics: Considerations

APPLICATIONS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

GIS Data Format

Functionality of GIS

GIS Software and Data Capture

GIS Applications

Limitations and Opportunities for GIS

USE OF MONITORING DATA IN HUMAN/ECOLOGICAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

Types of Data Available

Weight of Evidence and the Precautionary Principle

Concept of Exposure Assessment (EA)

Structure of Exposure Assessment

Ecological Exposure Assessment (EEA)

Human Health Exposure Assessment (HEA)

Case Study: Monitoring and Methylmercury Exposure

WATER POLLUTION AND ITS IMPACT ON FISH AND AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES

Heavy Metals

Organic Compounds

PARASITE INFESTATION OF FISHES AND SEA PRODUCTS

Parasitology of marine and fresh waters

Parasite diseases of commercial fish and shellfish

Parasitic infection of humans

ARTIFICIAL BREEDING IN PISCICULTURE, AND BREEDING OF RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES OF FRESHWATER FISH

Commercial fish culture

Sturgeon fisheries

Conservation of endangered species

Future prospects for aquaculture

FOOD SAFETY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PUBLIC HEALTH

Occurrence the Food-borne Diseases

Control of food safety

MOTHERS MILK SUBSTITUTES AND INFANT HUMAN HEALTH

Classification of Mother’s Milk Substitutes

Mother’s Milk as a Criterion for the Development of its Substitutes

Alimentation-dependent Diseases as a Result of Irregular Feeding of Infants during the First Months of their Life

Principles of Adaptation and Assortment of Mother’s Milk Substitutes

Index of Safety of Mother’s Milk Substitutes

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND MINIMISATION

MANAGEMENT OF NON-HAZARDOUS SOLID WASTES

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, RESIDENTIAL, AGRICULTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION WASTE

Classifying wastes - what aspects to consider?

The IWIC system

Classifying waste materials

WASTE COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS

Waste Classifications for Household Waste Composition and Analysis

Methods of Household Waste Composition Analysis

Industrial and Commercial Waste Composition Surveys

Methods of Industrial and Commercial Waste Composition Analysis

SOLID WASTE STREAMS REGIONAL AND CULTURAL VARIABILITY

Factors affecting Waste Arisings

Trends in High Income Countries

Trends in Developing countries

CHOOSING OPTIONS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT

The Purpose of Waste Planning

What is sustainability?

Making Choices

Planning for an Acceptable Risk

WASTE DISPOSAL COSTS AND FINANCIAL INCENTIVES TO IMPROVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

Landfill: traditionally easily available and cheap

Fiscal Instruments and Waste Disposal

Recycling Credits

Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO)

Landfill Tax

Nitrogen Tax

Taxes on Landfill and Incineration

Non-Financial Instruments

WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDUSTRY

General principles

Practical guidance

INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT

A Historical Perspective

Definition of Integrated Waste Management

The Waste Management Hierarchy

The basic elements of Integrated Waste Management

IWM as a holistic approach to waste management

Scale of the IWM system

Computer models and IWM

Key drivers for implementing IWM

IWM case studies

MANAGEMENT, USE, AND DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

Best Practicable Environmental Option

Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point and Sludge Management Audits

Sludge Production

Sludge Treatment

Routes for the Disposal or Recycling of Sewage Sludge

Environmental Aspects of Beneficial Re-use

WASTE MINIMISATION & RECYCLING

WASTE MINIMIZATION IN INDUSTRY

Scientific and Engineering Principles

Techniques and Practices

Procedures

WASTE MINIMIZATION AND RECYCLING AS PART OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS STRATEGY

Networking for Sustainable Business Practices

Waste Exchange Networks

Community Initiatives for Sustainable Business

Building Sustainable Products

Putting It All Together

INCINERATION AND ENERGY FROM WASTES

SOLID WASTES FOR POWER GENERATION

Waste as Fuel

The Energy Content of Waste

Incineration Principles

Pollution Control

Power Generation Principles and Concepts (Thermodynamic Cycles)

Future Opportunities for Waste, Energy, and Pollution Control for Sustainable Cities

Economic Factors

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION, GASIFICATION, AND PYROLYSIS

Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste to Gaseous Fuels

Anaerobic Digestion

Pyrolysis and Gasification

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

ECOLOGICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS:ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT

Hazardous Wastes

Risk Assessment

Analysis of Public Health and Ecological Risks from Hazardous Waste Facilities

Participatory Risk Management for Hazardous Wastes

HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

Biological Treatment

Physical and Physicochemical Processes

Thermal Treatment

Technological Advances

THE MANAGEMENT OF HEALTHCARE WASTE

Introduction and background

What is Healthcare waste?

Principles of Legislation and Management

Segregation, Handling, and Transport

Treatment and Disposal Methods

Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Reuse

Future Trends

INDUSTRIAL SITE REMEDIATION

Contamination and Pollution

Overall Approach

Plant Closure

Dealing with the Closed Site

INDUSTRIAL METABOLISM

Industrial Ecology and Sustainability

Basic Concepts of Industrial Ecology

Industrial Ecology and the relation to tools and methods

Examples for Applications

How to Achieve Industrial Ecosystems—Potential Benefits

ELEMENTAL KEYS TO SUSTAINABLE WASTE PREVENTION

Evolution of Waste

Sources

Key Roles

Industrial Keys

Government Keys

Advocates Keys

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS

THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION: AIR, RAIL, ROAD, AND WATER

Road Transport

Rail Transport

Air Transport

Water Transport

Measures of Minimizing Transport Threats

URBANIZATION

General Process of Urbanization

Main Problems Caused by Urbanization

Urbanization and Poverty

Urbanization versus Habitat Loss

Environmental Impact of Urbanization

Benefits of Urbanization

Sustainable Urban Development

A case: Chinas urbanization

RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Rural Poverty

Time to Revitalize Rural Development

Challenges for Rural Development

Reducing Poverty and Hunger

Information Techniques

Food Security

SOME ISSUES IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

Issues in Sustainability

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF FOSSIL FUEL EXTRACTIONS AND TRANSPORT

LAND DISTURBANCE AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION FROM OIL - AND GAS - WELL DRILLING AND EXTRACTION, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

Introduction: The Issues

NORM in the oil and gas industry

Mechanisms of Enhancement of NORM

The hazards of alpha active materials

Prevailing levels of NORM and control of risk

Naturally existing levels

Disposal options

Radiation protection philosophy and legislation

Authorised disposal

Identification of the potential environmental pathways to man

The clean-up of contaminated sites

Laboratory evaluations

LAND DISTURBANCE AND RECLAMATION OF PEAT EXTRACTION

What is Peat?

Factors Contributing to Peat Formation

World Peatland Distribution

The Uses of Peat

Peat Extraction and Harvesting

Reclamation of Peatland

International Policies Relating to Peatland Conservation

Introduction

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF SUSPENDED AND TOXIC MATERIALS FROM COAL AND PEAT COMBUSTION

The Atmosphere and its Role

The Effect of Pollutants on Human Health and the Environment

Fly Ash

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

Halogens

Soil Degradation induced by Atmospheric Precipitation of Pollutants

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF TOXIC MATERIALS FROM OIL AND GAS COMBUSTION

Acid Deposition

Effects on Vegetation

Effects on Visibility and Turbidity of the Atmosphere

Effects on Materials

Other Effects on Animals and Aquatic Life

Introduction

ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE OF TOXIC TRACE ELEMENTS FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

Basic Concepts

The Epidemiological Model

Toxic Trace Elements from Fossil Fuel Combustion

Environmental Behavior of Metal Pollutants

Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals

Environmental Impact of Coal Combustion

The Environmental Significance of Toxic Trace Elements

ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE OF FUEL-DERIVED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Emission of Organic Compounds in the Combustion Process of Fossil Fuels

Participation of Hydrocarbons in Oxidation of Nitrogen Oxide

PAH Influence on Human Health

GREENHOUSE GASES FROM FOSSIL FUELS AND THEIR IMPACT ON GLOBAL CHANGE

Global Warming

Fossil Fuels’ Contribution to Greenhouse Warming

The Contribution of Deforestation

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR FUEL PROCESSING. REFINING: FROM THE YELLOW CAKE TO THE FUEL ELEMENT.

Refining: From the Yellowcake to the Fuel Element

Nuclear Power

The Problem of Energy Supply

Chemistry and Technology of the Fuel Cycle: Uranium Raw Materials

The Refining Processes and Uranium Products

Radiation and Safety

Uranium Enrichment

Depleted Uranium

Economical Recovery of Non-Radioactive Products

Wastes and Disposal

Health and Environmental Considerations

Treatment of Liquid Effluents

Solid Effluents

Gaseous Effluents

Principles of Radiation Protection and Safety

Recovery of Uranium

Public Acceptance

Conclusion

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Reactors and Power Generation

Environmental Effects

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

Reprocessing

The Chemistry of Fuel Reprocessing

Reprocessing plants and the environment

Plutonium in the environment

Introduction

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF HYDROPOWER PLANTS INCLUDING THOSE USING THERMAL, TIDAL, AND WAVE POWER

Introduction

Riverine Hydropower

Tidal Hydropower

Wave Hydropower

Ocean Thermal Hydropower

Electricity Demand, Hydropower, and Environmental Protection

Conclusions

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF WIND POWER

Emissions

Water Use

Landscape and Visual Impact

Noise

Non-avian Wildlife Impact

Avian Impact

Land Use

Electromagnetic Interference

Lifecycle Energy Balance of Wind Turbines

Disposal and Recycling of Wind Turbines

Future Trends and Perspectives

Introduction

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF GEOTHERMAL POWER

Geothermal Systems

Air Quality

Water Quality

Geologic Hazards

Wastes

Noise

Biological Resources

Land Use

Future Research and Development Directions

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENERGY FROM BIOMASS AND MUNICIPAL WASTES

Environmental Impacts of Current Uses of Biomass and Municipal Wastes

Environmental Effects of Technological Options

Introduction

EFFECTS OF ENERGY PRODUCTION ON HUMAN HEALTH

FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY IMPACTS ON HEALTH

Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases

Main Health Effects

NUCLEAR ENERGY IMPACTS ON HEALTH

Nuclear Energy and Health: Categories of Risk

Why Does This Issue Matter: Important Trends and Issues

Sources of Health Impacts: Normal Operations and Accidents

Controlling Health Effects: National and International Regimes

TYPES AND AMOUNTS OF VEHICULAR EMISSIONS

Pollutants From Vehicles

Mechanisms of Pollutant Formation and Emission Factors

Introduction

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF MOTOR VEHICLES

Impacts of Secondary Pollutants

Impacts of Greenhouse Gases

Impacts on Building Materials and Structures

Impacts of Vehicle Runoff on Water Bodies

Impacts on Ecosystems

HEALTH EFFECTS

Carbon Monoxide

Nitrogen Oxides

Sulfur Dioxide

Volatile Organic Compounds

Particulate Emissions

Photochemical Smog

REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEHICULAR EMISSIONS

Global Distribution of Vehicle Emissions

Twenty Megacity Vehicle Emission Summaries

Urban Distribution of Vehicular Emissions

Remarks

CONTROL STRATEGIES TO REDUCE EMISSIONS

Emission Standards and Regulations

Vehicle Technology for Controlling Emissions

I/M Programs for In-Use Vehicles

Fuel Modifications

Economic Incentives and Traffic Strategy

Remarks

Introduction

AIR POLLUTION CAUSED BY INDUSTRIES

Main air Pollutants and Industrial Emissions Inventory

Petroleum industry

Paper and pulp manufacture

Combustion Sources and their Emission Characterization

The Chemical Industry

Metallurgical Industry

Construction Material Industry

INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER-TYPES, AMOUNTS AND EFFECTS

The types of industrial waste water

The amount of industrial wastewater

The effects of industrial wastewater

Other factors related to the effect of industrial wastewater

TYPES, AMOUNTS AND EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES

Types of Industrial Solid Wastes

Amounts of Industrial Solid Wastes

Effects of Industrial Solid wastes

Introduction

INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGY-CLEANER PRODUCTION

Concept and basic principles of CP

Ways of Implementing CP

Cleaner Production in the 21st Century

Review of Status

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS CONCERNING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION DISCHARGE

Wastewater Emission Standards

Emission Standards for Air

Noise and Odors

ISO (International Standards Organization)

Development Trend of Emission Standards

Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

Enforcement

CONCENTRATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER

Flow characteristics

Composition

AMOUNTS AND COMPOSITION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES

Sources of MSW

Amounts of Municipal Wastes

Estimation and Calculation of Quantity of MSW

Methodology of Estimation of Waste Quantities

The Concept of Composition of Solid Wastes

The Method of Wastes Composition Studies

Waste Composition Studies

Waste Composition of MSW in the World

DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES

Conception of Waste Disposal

Criteria for Evaluating of Wastes Disposal Orientation

Background Conditions that Affect Disposal Orientation

Judgment for Maneuverability of Project

Waste Reduction

Waste Collection and Transfer

Landfill

Incineration

Composting

MUNICIPAL EFFLUENT DISPOSAL STANDARDS

The regulation of conventional pollutants

The standards for toxic and dangerous substances

Technology-Based Standards

Water Quality-Based Limits

Effects of Effluent Disposal Standards

Introduction

Conclusions

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER REUSE

Agricultural irrigation

Industrial reuse

Groundwater recharge

Urban Reuse

Augmentation of potable supplies

Recreational and habitat restoration/enhancement

Treatment Technologies for Wastewater Reuse

INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

Inorganic Chemicals

Metals

Organometallic Compounds

Organic Chemicals

Metalloids

Radionuclides

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS

Insecticides

Fungicides

Herbicides

Other Pesticide Type

By-products

SAMPLING, MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT

Sampling and samples pretreatment

Measurement and determination

Quality Assurance

CONTAMINANT FATE AND TRANSPORT PROCESS

Surface Waters

The Subsurface Environment

The Atmosphere

Introduction

ECONOMICS, SOCIAL, LEGAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Economic implications

Social implications

Legal implications

Human health implications

CONTROL STRATEGY FOR TOXIC POLLUTANTS

Pollution prevention for toxic pollutants

End-of-pipe treatment of toxic pollutants

Remediation of soils and groundwater contaminated by toxic pollutants

AIR POLLUTION DYNAMICS AND MODELING

Source characteristics

Air Pollution Meteorology

Atmospheric Removal Processes

Atmospheric Diffusion

Air Pollution Modeling

Pollution Accidents and Meteorological Control

Introduction

CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

Precombustion Technologies

Combustion Processes

Post-Combustion Treatment

Coal Conversion

Research and Development of CCT

CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR PARTICLES

Cyclones

Fabric Filters

Electrostatic Precipitators

Wet Scrubbers

Researches and Development of Particulate Collectors

Introduction

TECHNOLOGIES OF GASEOUS POLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL

Absorption

Adsorption

Catalytic conversion

Other technologies

TECHNOLOGIES THAT MOVE POLLUTANTS FROM ONE ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENT TO ANOTHER: PHYSICAL METHODS

Screening

Sedimentation

Grit removal

Flotation

Filtration

Other Physical Technologies Commonly Used in Water and Wastewater Treatment

TECHNOLOGIES THAT TRANSFORM POLLUTANTS TO INNOCUOUS COMPONENTS: CHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHODS

Coagulation

Chemical Precipitation

Chemical Oxidation

Disinfection

Adsorption Process

Ion Exchange

Membrane Separation

Prospective Trends

TECHNOLOGIES THAT TRANSFORM POLLUTANTS INTO INNOCUOUS COMPONENTS: BIOLOGICAL METHODS

Activated sludge process

Other Activated Sludge Configurations

Biological Nutrient Removal

Advanced Biological Treatment Techniques

Trickling Filter Processes

Rotating Biological Contactor Processes

Oxidation Pond Processes

Land Treatment Processes

On-site Treatment Systems

Anaerobic Biological Treatment Processes

TECHNOLOGIES THAT TRANSFORM POLLUTANTS INTO INNOCUOUS COMPONENTS: COMBINED BIOLOGICAL/CHEMICAL METHODS

The Application Areas of Combined Chemical/Biological Processes

Chemical Treatment Processes

Biological Treatment Processes

Perspective

REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES FOR SOIL AND GROUNDWATER

Soil Washing

Bioremediation

Containment

Future Development

Pump-and-Treat

Soil Vapor Extraction

Solidification/Stabilization

Air Stripping

Precipitation

Vitrification

Thermal Desorption

Strategy for Technique Selections

CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT- CASE STUDY

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Versions of Possible Causes of the Accident)

Formation and Description of Close-in and Remote Zone of the Environment contamination after the Accident. Radionuclide Composition of the Contamination

Analysis of Radioactive Contamination Transport with Consideration of Real Meteorological Situation after the Accident

Calculation and Reconstruction of Doses after Chernobyl

Penetration of Radioactive Substances into other Medium. Contamination of Agricultural and Natural Vegetation

Medical (for Human Health) Consequences

Biological and Ecological (for Nature) Consequences

DEFINITIONS AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

MODERN TRENDS IN ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

Introduction

Importance of Population Growth

Selected 20th Century Events

Project Phases Involving Geology

Regulatory and Business Influences

Material Characteristics and Natural Processes

Trends and the Future of Engineering Geology

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

SANITARY LANDFILL

Introduction

Biochemical Processes in Sanitary Landfill

Landfill By - Products: Leachate and Gas

Sanitary Landfill Design Criteria

Sanitary Landfill Site Selection Criteria

Landfilling Methods

Bioreactor Landfill: A Modified Approach

Conclusions

GEOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING

CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOLOGIC MATERIALS

Types of Geologic Materials

Engineering Characterization of Soils

Engineering Characterization of Rocks

UTILIZATION OF GEOLOGIC MATERIALS

Introduction

Origin of Geologic Materials

Rock Properties Relevant to Engineering Use

Utilization of Rocks

Utilization of Unconsolidated Materials

MISCELLANEOUS

FORENSIC GEOLOGY

Geologic Science

Geologic Methodology

Site Specific Geologic Context

Evidence Collection/Preservation

Buried Evidence and Clandestine Gravesites

Materials Identification

Documentation/Reporting

Expert Witness/Testimony

Future Trends

MINERAL ECONOMICS

MINERAL RESOURCES AND NATIONAL ECONOMY

Introduction

History of Mineral Utility

Minerals in War and Peace

New Sources of Minerals and Energy

Mining: Environmental Damage and Economics

Mineral Resources of Selected Countries

Conclusions

GLOBAL MINERAL RESOURCES, OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION

Introduction

Statistical data

Characteristics of a mineral deposit

Mineral enrichment processes and formation of economic mineral deposits

Regional distribution of mineral deposits

Future developments in the regional distribution of mineral deposits

Concluding Remarks

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES GOVERNING MINERAL EXPLORATION

Introduction

International Conventions - social impact

The Role of Non Government Organizations

International Treaties

Treaties with Minerals Industry Implications

Industry Roles, Reactions and Relationships

The Role of Governments

Discussion

Conclusion

Treaties and the Resources Industry

ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS AND ASSESSMENT

BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING

BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING: BASIC PRINCIPLES

A historical perspective

A new paradigm in ecology: the Biodiversity-Ecosystem Function Paradigm

Combining old and new concepts

Biodiversity and stability

Implications for ecosystem management and conservation

BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING: EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMS

Biodiversity experiments

Experiment and observation

Experimental design and analysis

Interpretation and mechanism

Advances in biodiversity experimentation

THE ROLE OF ABOVE- AND BELOWGROUND LINKAGES IN ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING

Effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels

Effects of above- and belowground organisms on plant diversity and ecosystem processes

Interactions between aboveground and belowground organisms

Discussion

BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING OF SELECTED TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS: GRASSLANDS

Evidence from observational studies in natural and semi-natural grasslands

Functional redundancy and removal experiments in natural grasslands

Diversity and stability

BIODIVERSITY AND FUNCTIONING OF SELECTED TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS: ALPINE AND ARCTIC ECOSYSTEMS

Alpine and arctic biodiversity

Effects of biodiversity on arctic and alpine ecosystems

Biodiversity and Global change in arctic and alpine ecosystems

Future research needs

BIODIVERSITY AND FUNCTIONALITY OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS

Why research on aquatic systems has lagged behind

The nature of aquatic habitats

Species-specific functional roles

Species-combined functionality: Functional groups

The problem of functional plasticity

Direct and indirect measures of functionality

Threats to Biodiversity and ecosystem function

Future challenges and directions

BIODIVERSITY AND THE FUNCTIONING OF SELECTED TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS: AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

Introduction—biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems

Planned diversity and the functioning of agricultural systems

Unplanned diversity and the functioning of agricultural systems

BIODIVERSITY MONITORING, ASSESSMENT, DATA MANAGEMENT, AND INDICATORS

MONITORING OF BIODIVERSITY

Introduction

Multiple Goals of Biodiversity Monitoring

Monitoring of Biodiversity in a Global Change Context

Scales and Levels of Biodiversity Monitoring

Approaches towards an Integrated Observation System

SEARCH FOR INDICATORS FOR BIODIVERSITY ASSESSMENTS

Measuring biodiversity

The attributes of good indicators

Types of indicators

Some pragmatic solutions

DATA AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNICATION

Scope of the information domain in biodiversity informatics

State of the art

Some perspectives

ECONOMIC RELEVANCE OF BIODIVERSITY

Biodiversity as an economic good

Value and access

Economic measures and limits of use

ETHICAL RELEVANCE OF BIODIVERSITY

Human beings and nature: a complex relationship and its normative implications for the conservation of biodiversity

Rules of preferences and criteria of decision making

DISTURBANCE MANAGEMENT - APPLICATION OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE TO HABITAT RESTORATION

Part A: Concepts and Theory - Relating Disturbance Ecology to Restoration

Part B: For Practitioners - Application of Ecological Knowledge to Habitat Restoration

Part C: Case Study - Conservation Action For Substitution of Missing Dynamics

LANDSCAPE DYNAMICS

Landscape changes in the wilderness

Human driven changes

Analysis of local landscape changes: the importance of mapping for a spatial analysis

Driving factors in temperate agricultural landscapes

Riparian landscapes

How do landscape dynamics have to be considered in ecological restoration?

Discussion and perspectives

ALTERNATIVE RESTORATION STRATEGIES IN FORMER LIGNITE MINING AREAS OF EASTERN GERMANY

General site characteristics

Investigation methods

Colonization processes

Site dependent and chronological woodland differentiation

General Sucessional development—an overview

Near-natural restoration methods

Opportunities and perspectives for integration of natural potential in reclamation of post-mining landscapes

AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION

The particular features of forests among terrestrial ecosystems

Ecosystem level effects of afforestation and reforestation

Effects on biodiversity

Arguments for plantations

Political goals of afforestation and reforestation

Reforestation problems

Afforestation on a global scale

Planting techniques

Case studies of selected regions and countries

TROPICAL FOREST RESTORATION EXPERIENCES

Knowledge about Key Processes

Using differing approaches under different circumstances

Case Studies

Assessing success

Restoration at a landscape level

COMBATING DEGRADATION IN ARID SYSTEMS

Degradation of natural resources

Frame conditions: The importance of scale

Defining compartments for feasible approaches

Assessment and Monitoring of the problem

Approaches to Combating degradation in arid systems

Policy challenges

LARGE-SCALE POLLUTION: GLOBAL EFFECTS AND PROCESSES

TECHNOLOGICAL HAZARDS