ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES - Table of Contents

NUTRACEUTICALS AND FUNCTIONAL FOODS

CHEMISTRY AND HEALTH PROMOTING PROPERTIES OF TEA POLYPHENOLS FOR LIFE SUPPORTING SYSTEMS

Health-Promoting Properties of Tea Polyphenols for Life Supporting Systems-In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

Studies on Human Models

NUTRITIONAL VALUE, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF FRUIT JUICE

Role of Fruit Juices in Therapeutic Nutritional Security: A Concept

Categories and Products of Fruit Juices

Bioactive Compounds in Fruit Juices

Proximate Composition and Nutritional Properties of Fruit Juices

Interaction Mechanism of Fruit Juice Components in Human Body

Industrial Applications of Fruit Juices and Future Prospects of Fruit Juice Industry

General Dietary Recommendations of Fruit Juice

Therapeutic Role of Fruit Juices

Negative Elements and Counter Argumentation

POMEGRANATE AS A SOURCE OF NUTRACEUTICALS AND AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

Origin and history

Botanical classification

Vernacular names

Commercial varieties of pomegranate

Primary metabolite composition

Nutritional composition

Bioactive compounds

Health promoting properties

CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES GRAPES

Health promoting grape nutrients

Polyphenols

Resveratrol

Chemistry of Wine

COMPOSITION AND HEALTH-PROMOTING PROPERTIES OF KIWIFRUITS AND ANNONA

Kiwifruit

Annona

ANTHOCYANINS FROM BERRIES: CHEMISTRY AND ROLES IN INFLAMMATION AND DIABETES

Berry Composition

Biological Activity of Anthocyanins

Health Benefits: Inflammation

Health Benefits: Diabetes

Other Health Benefits

HEART HEALTH BENEFITS AND REGULATORY STATUS OF PLANT STEROLS

Chemistry, Properties and Source of Sterols

The Effect of Plant Sterols on Coronary Heart Disease

Mechanism of Cholesterol Lowering by Sterols

Safety of Sterols

Regulations and Health Claims on Functional Foods Enriched with Sterols

COFFEE: THE RATIONALE BEHIND 4 CENTURIES OF CONSUMPTION

Origin and History

Taxonomy and Botanical Features

Production and Processing

Phytochemicals in Coffee

Coffee and Health

Non-medicinal Uses

Economic Importance

Cultural Impact

Relevance to Human Welfare And Peace

Future and Sustainable Development

CITRUS: A TREASURE TROVE OF HEALTH-PROMOTING PHYTOCHEMICALS

Bioactive Molecules in Citrus and Their Analysis

The Health-Promoting Properties of Citrus

Human Studies

Citrus and Food Drug Interactions

Citrus in Ancient Folk Medicine

VETERINARY SCIENCE

BIOLOGY OF SELECT ZOONOTIC PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS

Introduction

The Apicomplexa

The Flagellates

REPRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK

PREGNANCY RECOGNITION SIGNALING, FETAL-PLACENTAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRENATAL FETAL PROGRAMMING

Gene Expression for Uterine Proteins and Nutrient Transporters

Pregnancy Recognition

Implantation and Placentation

Servomechanisms Regulating Uterine Gland Morphogenesis and Secretory Function

Fetal Growth and Development

Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction

Adult Onset of Diseases and Fetal Programming

REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY- ENDOCRINOLOGY

Central Control of Reproductive Physiology: The hypothalamus-pituitary–Gonadal Axis

Physiological Control of Reproduction in Seasonal Breeder Farm Animals

Physiological Control of Reproduction in Non-Seasonal Breeder Farm Animals

SEASONAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING REPRODUCTION

Environmental Regulation of Reproduction in Mammals

Socio-Sexual Signals

Socio-Sexual Signals and Seasonal Reproductive Patterns

General Overview

INTERFACE BETWEEN NUTRITION AND REPRODUCTION: THE VERY BASIS OF PRODUCTION

Basic Aspects of Intermediary Metabolism: Hormonal Control of Energy Homeostasis

Basic Aspects of Reproduction: Neuroendocrine Regulation

Integration of Nutrition and Reproduction: Neuroendocrine Mechanisms

Direct Roles of Nutrition in Modulating Reproductive Function

The Kiss1 System: Novel Transducer for The Metabolic Control Of Reproduction

Nutrition, Birth Weight, Fetal Programming and The Energy Metabolism Of The New Born

Final Considerations

FEMALE FACTORS AFFECTING EMBRYO VIABILITY. EMBRYO CRYOPRESERVATION

Evaluation of Embryonic Viability

The Oocyte and the Follicular Environment. Superovulation. Young vs. Adult Females

Embryo Cryopreservation

LIVESTOCK SEMEN BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

Semen collection, assessment and Handling in Livestock

Semen Preservation for artificial reproduction techniques

Sperm Assessment Post-Preservation

Future Trends

EMBRYO PRODUCTION

In vitro embryo production

In vivo embryo production

REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT IN CATTLE AND SHEEP

Reproductive Management of Beef Cattle

Reproductive Management of Dairy Cattle

Management of Reproduction in Sheep

PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF THE OVARIAN FUNCTION

Ovarian Physiology.

Hormones and Pharmaceutical Drugs

Control of the Estrous Cycle

Manipulation of Follicular Waves for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI).

Ovarian Superstimulation and Embryo Transfer

Final Remarks

VAGINAL SURGERY IN THE COW

Anatomy Fundamentals

Genital Tract Exploration

General Presurgical Considerations

Vaginal Pathologies and Surgical Resolution

GENETIC BASIS AND IMPROVEMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS

Reproductive traits

Quantitative genetics

Molecular genetics approaches

Perspectives

PEOPLE IN RANGELANDS: THEIR ROLE AND INFLUENCE ON RANGELAND UTILIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT

Introduction

The Economics of Common Property Resources

Drivers of Change

Challenges for the Future

SCIENCE AND THE COMMUNITY: ROLE OF THE ECOLOGICAL APPROACH IN SUSTAINABLE RANGELAND MANAGEMENT

Definition of the Ecological Approach

Participatory implementation of the ecological approach

A Village-based Catchment Management Plan

FROM INVENTORY TO MONITORING IN SEMI-ARID AND ARID RANGELANDS

Introduction

Definitions

Rangeland Inventory and Analysis

Rangeland Monitoring

Conclusions

CROP AND SOIL SCIENCES

GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF OAT AND RYE

Introduction

Oat

Rye

Conclusions

HERBS AND LEAF CROPS: CILANTRO, BROADLEAF CILANTRO, AND VEGETABLE AMARANTH

Introduction

Cilantro

Broadleaf Cilantro

Vegetable Amaranth

PERENNIAL SPICE CROPS: BLACK PEPPER, CINNAMON, CLOVE AND NUTMEG

Introduction

Black Pepper

Cinnamon

Clove

Nutmeg and Mace

Conclusions

CUMIN, FENNEL AND FENUGREEK

Introduction

Cumin

Fennel

Fenugreek

Conclusions

MANGOSTEEN AND RAMBUTAN

Introduction

Rambutan

Mangosteen

SAPOTE, SAPODILLA AND STAR APPLE

Introduction

Mamey sapote

Sapodilla

Star Apple

AVOCADO, PAPAYA AND LITCHI

Introduction

Avocado

Litchi

Papaya

CHERIMOYA AND LOQUAT

Introduction

Cherimoya

Loquat

CROPS, THEIR WILD RELATIVES AND CENTERS OF ORIGIN

Introduction

Cereals

Legumes

Others

HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE

Introduction: Domestication and the Origins of Agriculture

Historical Conditions for the Origins of Agriculture

Why Take up Farming? Explanations for the Origins of Agriculture

The Development and Spread of Early Farming

The Consequences of Early Farming

FORESTS AND GRASSLANDS AS CRADLES FOR AGRICULTURE

Humans as Parts of Forest and Grassland Ecosystems

The Development of Agroecosystems—Agroforestry was the Origin

Agroforestry Today

Sustainable Agroecosystems for the Future

DOMESTICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT CULTIVARS

Early Plant Domestication

Reasons for Plant Domestication

Development of Landraces

Advent of Plant Genetics as a Scientific Discipline in Cultivar Development

New Developments of Molecular Genetics and Cellular Physiology

Lessons, Challenges, and Opportunities

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, NOMADIC BREEDING, AND DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS

Introduction to Animal Husbandry

Trends Toward Domestication of Animals

Distribution of Modern Pastoral People

Traditional Animal Husbandry

Social Parameters

Changes in the Pastoral Way of Life in the Early Twenty-First Century

Future of Nomadic Pastoralism

THE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN SATISFYING THE NEEDS OF HUMAN LIFE: THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND FISHERIES

Introduction: A Brief History of Human Evolution and Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries

The Present Situation of Agriculture

The Present Situation of Fisheries

The Present Situation of Forestry

The Biological Basis of Production in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries

The Impacts of Global and Local Climate Change on Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries

The Future: Optimistic or Pessimistic?

AGRICULTURE MANAGEMENT: HISTORIC, GEOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES

Introduction - Domestication of Wild Plants and Animals

Agriculture in the Medieval Era

Agricultural Revolution

Agriculture in the Nineteenth Century

Contribution of Genetic Science to Agriculture

Establishment of Educational and Research Systems in Agricultural Sciences

Agriculture in the Twentieth Century

The Present Situation of Food Production in the World

Biotechnology and Agriculture - Contribution of Biotechnology to Improvement of Agricultural Productivity

Agriculture in the Future

FOOD CROP PRODUCTION

Introduction - Importance and Production of Food Crops

Classification of Food Crops

Origin and Spread of Cultivated Forms of Food Crops

Botanical and Agronomic Characterization of Rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima )

Botanical and Agronomic Characterization of Wheats (Triticum spp. )

Botanical and Agronomic Characterization of Maize (Zea mays)

Botanical and Agronomic Characterization of Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

Botanical and Agronomic Characterization of Soybeans (Glycine max)

FORAGE CROP PRODUCTION

Introduction

Early Recognition of the Importance of Forage

Early Use of Forage Crops

The Dark Ages

The Great Progress

The Modern Era

The Future

ANIMAL PRODUCTION

Introduction: general aspects of domestication of wild animals

Domestication and modern production—goats

Domestication and modern production—Sheep

Domestication and modern production—Pigs

Domestication and modern production—cattle

Domestication and modern production—Horses

Domestication and modern production—poultry

ANCIENT FORESTRY PRACTICES

Properties of Trees

Timber, Wood, Leaves

Coppicing

Timber-growing

Pollarding

Wood-pasture and Savanna

Burning

Hedges and Fence-rows

Other Non-forest Trees

Woodmanship in the Twentieth Century

TREE DOMESTICATION AND THE HISTORY OF PLANTATIONS

Origins of Planting

Movement of Germplasm

Tree Domestication

Plantations

Forest Plantations 1400–1900

Plantations 1900–1950

Plantations 1950–2000

Protection Forests

Amenity Planting and Urban Forestry

Plantation Practices

Sustainability of Plantations

PROTECTING FORESTS AND TIMBER STOCKS

An Overview of Approaches to Timber and Forest Protection

Twentieth Century Forces of Change

The Scientific Approach to Timber Protection

Community Forestry Programs Aimed at Timber and Forest Protection

Domestic Policies and Forest Management

Timber Protection and International Trade

Environmental Labeling, Certification, and Timber Protection

The Evolving International Dimensions to Timber Protection

TRADITIONAL METHODS OF FISHING (SOUTHWEST PACIFIC)

Subsistence Fishing Practices and Resource Development

Traditional Fishing Techniques: An Overview

Traditional Fishing: Constraints and Opportunities

DEVELOPMENT OF FRESHWATER FISHERIES

History of Freshwater Fisheries

Development of Freshwater Fish Culture

Recreational Freshwater Fisheries

Evolution of Freshwater Fisheries

DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE FISHERIES

History

Fishermen Character and Policy

Fisheries Resources

Fish Processing and Trade

Financing

International Conditions

Science

Management

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIALIZED SHIPS, NETS, AND EQUIPMENT

How Fishing Tools Appeared

Differentiation of Catching Methods

Fishing Gear and Fishing Vessels

The Major Categories of Fishing Vessels

Scientific Foundation for Fishing Gear Technology

Mid-water and Deep-water Fishing

Electronics and Information Services

Fishing Ports

Education

PROJECTIONS OF GLOBAL CARRYING CAPACITY

The Reality of Projected Population Growth

Responses to Population Pressure on Resources

Optimum Populations

Food Production Outlook

Projections of Global Carrying Capacity

RURAL RESOURCES AND FEEDING FOLK FULLY: PROBLEMS, POSSIBILITIES, AND PROSPECTS

Some Defining Dimensions of Reality

Resources: Degradation vs. Sustenance

The Land Resource

The Water Resource

The Knowledge Resource

THE IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON RURAL LAND USE

Urbanization as Process

Rural Land Use

Impacts of Urbanization

Impacts on Agriculture: Issues

Impacts on the Rural Community: Issues

Policy and Action

QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF WATER FOR AGRICULTURE

The World’s Freshwater Resource

Utilization of the Freshwater Resource

Inefficiency and its Consequences

Overextraction of Water and its Consequences

Climate Change and Water Availability

Allocation of Water for the Environment

Evolving Management Frameworks

SALINATION, DESERTIFICATION, AND SOIL EROSION

Land Use Practices that Lead to Salinization of Croplands

Methods of Preventing and Repairing Salt-Damaged Soils

New Solutions to Salinity Problems

Desertification: Its Extent and Severity

Main Causes of Land Degradation in Drylands

Soil Erosion: A Threat to Sustainability

Erosion Processes

CONSERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC DIVERSITY

Diversity in Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity

The Conservation Process

Sustainable and Integrated Botanical Diversity Conservation

PLANT AND ANIMAL GENEBANKS

Historical Background

State of the Art: Ex Situ Conservation Approaches and Methods

Perspectives and Trends

Future Research

WORLD DEMOGRAPHY AND FOOD SUPPLY

A Decline in the Momentum of Population Growth

Likely Future Population Change

The Global Food Situation

Future Food Production

SOCIOECONOMIC POLICIES AND FOOD SECURITY

Food Security and Policy in a Changing World

Macroeconomic Reforms, Structural Adjustment, and Food Security

Economic Growth and Food Security: Tradeoffs and Complementarities

Agriculture and Food Security: Implications for Short-term Policies and Long-term Strategies

Technological Change, Commercialization of Agriculture, and Food Security

Specific Interventions to Alleviate Food Insecurity

Food Income Transfers: Targeted Distribution and Food Subsidies

Targeting Using Nonincome Criteria

Food Security Policies for the Household or the Individual?

Food Security Interventions: The Role of Food Aid

Policies for Stabilization of Food Supplies and Prices

FOOD CONTROL AND INTERNATIONAL FOOD TRADE

Concerns for Food Quality and Safety

Elements of a Food Control System

Common Food Control Deficiencies

Permanent Expert Groups/Committees

Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC)

Future Directions for Food Control

INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE ENVIRONMENT AND FOOD PRODUCTION

Urbanization, Population Growth, and Technological Changes

Interrelationships between the Environment, Human Societies, and Food Production

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, FOOD, AND NUTRITION

Background

Food and Nutrition Security: A Conceptual Framework

Promotion of Food and Nutrition Security: To A Virtuous Circle

A Technical Cooperation Model for the Implementation of the Food and Nutrition Initiative in Central America

Strategies to Reach Food and Nutrition Security

Food and Nutrition Security at the Local Level: Experiences in Frontier Regions of Central America

WOMEN AND FOOD SECURITY: ROLES, CONSTRAINTS, AND MISSED OPPORTUNITIES

The Three Pillars of Food Security

Women and Food Production

Missed Opportunities

Women and Access to Food

Women and Food Utilization

Time Allocation and Women

FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN HEALTH AND NUTRITION

Functions of Food

Macronutrients

Micronutrients

Water as a Nutrient

ADEQUATE DIET OF ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE

Definitions of Terms

Achieving Adequate Nutrition

Food Groups

Essential Nutrients

Nonessential Nutrients

Perspectives

ETHNOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF HUMAN NUTRITION

A Cultural-Ecological Framework for Understanding the Social Aspects of Nutrition

Cultural Aspects of Food Acquisition—Types of Food Systems

Cultural Aspects of Food Preparation and Storage

Cultural Aspects of Food Distribution

Cultural Aspects of Food Consumption

Research and the Importance of Ethnographic Information for Nutrition Programming

REGIONAL AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN NUTRITION

Evolution of Dietary Culture

Food and Religion

Food Habits in Different Regions

Nutritional Status in Different Regions

ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN FOOD LEGUMES AND EFFECTS OF PROCESSING

Phytic Acid, Saponins, Polyphenols, Lathyrogens, a-galactosides

Protease Inhibitors, Lectins, and a-amylase Inhibitors

NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT: METHODS FOR SELECTED MICRONUTRIENTS AND CALCIUM

Stages in the Development of Nutritional a Deficiency

Choosing the Most Appropriate Nutritional Assessment Indices

Dietary Assessment

Nutritional Assessment Indices

NUTRITION AND HUMAN LIFE STAGES

Preconceptive and Periconceptive Nutrition

Fetal Nutrition and Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation

Infants and Children

Adolescents

Adults and Families

Aging and the Aged

MALNUTRITION: HUNGER AND SATIETY, ANOREXIA AND OBESITY

Critical Contrasts

Food and Food Systems

Human Energy Imbalance

Diagnosis of Obesity, Underweight, and Intermediary Body Composition Disorders

Hunger and Famine

Eating Disorders

The Obesity Epidemic

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY AND IMBALANCES

Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM)

Conditioning Factors

Malnutrition Secondary to Chronic Disease

Spectrum of Micronutrient Deficit and Excess

FOOD ALLERGIES AND INTOLERANCE: ROLE OF DIETARY INTERVENTIONS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

Food Intolerance

Pathogenesis and Immunologic Mechanisms

Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis

Treatment

Prevention

FOOD MODIFICATIONS AND IMPACT ON NUTRITION

Home Preparation, Processing, and Conservation Techniques to Increase the Micronutrient Content of Foods

Home-Processing Techniques to Increase Micronutrient Bioavailability (Focus on Iron)

Enzymatic Methods to Reduce Phytic Acid Content

Nonenzymatic Methods to Reduce Phytic Acid Content

Experience with Home-Processing Techniques in Developing Countries

Food-to-Food Fortification to Increase Micronutrient Bioavailability (Especially Iron)

Increasing the Intake of Enhancers of Nonheme Iron Absorption

Reducing the Intake of Inhibitors of Nonheme Iron

Plant-Breeding Technologies

Increasing the Mineral or Vitamin Content of Staple Crops

Reducing the Phytic Acid Concentration in the Plant

Increasing the Concentration of Promoter Compounds

FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:NATURAL RESOURCES AND FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

Setting the Context

Agrosystems as Ecosystems

Climatic Resources

Land Resources and Soils

Water Resources

Energy Resources

Biological Diversity

Future Implications

ENERGY RESOURCES FOR AGRICULTURE

General discussion of energy and agriculture

Some specific agricultural energy demands

Analysis of Alternate Energy Sources

GRAINS AND CEREALS

RICE

Rice in the world - living with rice

Short history

Growth, morphology and chemistry of the rice plant

Rice ecosystems

Main constrains to production and environmental consequences

Development of plant genotypes for stabilized high yields for each ecosystem.

Eating rice

SORGHUM AND MILLETS

Sorghum

Millets

BUCKWHEAT, AMARANTH AND OTHER PSEUDOCEREAL PLANTS

Buckwheat

Amaranth

Quinoa

PEAS AND LENTILS

Pea

Lentil

BEANS

Faba bean

Dry beans

LUPIN AND CHICKPEA

Lupin

Chickpea

VEGETABLES: ROOT CROPS

Vegetables – as a part of the diet

Root vegetables

Bulb alliums – main characteristics

Leaf vegetables

Cole crops, Brassicas

VEGETABLES II (OTHERS)

Tomato

Green pepper: Capsicum annuum

Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

The gourd family: Cucurbit crops

Vegetable legumes

STARCH BEARING CROPS AS FOOD SOURCES

Starch bearing plants as the source of dietary energy

Starch in cereals

Root and tuber crops

Other starchy plants

PROTEIN BEARING CROPS

Protein bearing plants and world’s food supply

Protein sources

PLANTS AS SOURCES OF OIL

Soybean

Oil Palm Fruit and Kernel

Rape

Sunflower

Peanut

Olive

Corn

Flax

Castor plant

Pumpkin

SUGAR BEARING CROPS

The present status of carbohydrate consumption

Sugar crops

Sugar crops as source of ethyl alcohol and fuel

PLANTS USED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BEVERAGES

The importance of spices and herbs in the production of beverages

Plants used for the production of beverages

PLANTS USED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF STIMULANTS

Species used for stimulation

Characterization of the species

SPICES

Spices of the temperate zone

Spices of the tropics

FRUIT IN NORTHERN LATITUDES

Apples

Pear

Plum

Blackberry

Blueberry

Cranberry

Currants /Black and Red/

Gooseberry

Raspberry

SUBTROPICAL FRUIT

Citrus fruit and types

Date palm

Olives

Pomegranate

Grapes

Fig

Kiwi or Chinese gooseberry

Persimmon

Stone fruits: peach nectarine, apricot and plum

TEMPERATE FRUITS

Peach

Apricot

Cherry

Strawberry

TROPICAL FRUITS

Banana

Mango

Pineapple

Papaya

Avocado pear

Guava

Coconut

Passion fruit

Litchi and longan

Soursop and other annonas

NUT PLANTS

Cashew nut

Almond

Macadamia nut

Pistachio nut

Hickory nut

Pecan

Chestnut

Walnut

FIBER, FORAGE, AND INDUSTRIAL CROPS

ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

Ornamental plants

Introduction to selected flower crops

PHARMACEUTICAL PLANTS (PLANTS USED IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS)

Species processed by pharmaceutical industry

Characterisation of the species of main importance

MEDICINAL PLANTS

Medicinal plants used against respiratory tract problems

Medicinal plants against digestive system problems

Medicinal plants for problems of the cardiovascular system

Medicinal plants in nervous system disorders

Medicinal plants curing urinary tract diseases

AROMATIC PLANTS

Chemical structures and extraction of essential oils

Species of main importance used for production of essential oils

Essential oil producing species of main importance from the tropics

Essential oil producing species of main importance selected from the Mediterranean region

Essential oil producing species of main importance from temperate regions

COLOURING (DYE) PLANTS

Alkanet

Elder

Greater nettle

Hollyhock

Madder

Safflower

Saffron

Woad

FOREST LAND RESOURCES

Forest Resources

Forest Products.

Social and Environmental Services of Forests.

CLASSIFICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST BY GEOGRAPHY

Classic Methods of Classification

Classification by Remote Sensing

Classification and Distribution of Actual Forests

Perspectives and Guidelines

BOREAL AND TEMPERATE FORESTS

Definitions and Geographic Distribution of Boreal and Temperate Forests

Boreal and Temperate Forest Classification

Forest Disturbance and Stand Dynamics in Boreal and Temperate Forests

Paleological Perspectives and the Importance of Glaciation

Historical and Modern Patterns of Resource Use and Management

Responses of Boreal and Temperate Forests to Global Climate Change and Other Anthropogenic Impacts

TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL FORESTS

Introduction: Definition and Geographical Localization of the Tropics and Subtropics

Phytogeographical Units, Forest Ecology and Land Use

Important Tree Families

Socioeconomic Framework of Forest Management and Deforestation

Sustainable Natural Forest Management ApproachesSilvicultural Systems

Non-Timber Forest Products

Plantation Forestry

Agroforestry

Conservation Strategies

Certification of Forests and Forest Management and Timber Labeling

Forests as a Carbon Sink

Perspectives

FOREST PLANTATIONS

Definition

History

Future Developments

Types of Plantations

Plantation Silviculture

Plantation Yields and Productivity

Problems with Plantations

Outlook

FOREST ECOLOGY

Introduction: What is a Forest, What are Forest Ecosystems, and What is Forest Ecology?

Why are Forests Different from One Part of the World to Another, at Different Locations on a Continent and Even Locally?

Why do Forests Change Over Time? The Question of Temporal Diversity.

Forest Ecosystem Structure

Forest Ecosystem Function

Interactions Between the Components and Processes of Forest Ecosystems

Forest Ecosystem Complexity

An Ecological Foundation for Sustainable Forest Management: The Application of Knowledge of Forest Ecology

Non-timber Aspects of Forest Ecology

How can Forest Ecology Deal with Ecosystem Complexity and the Large Spatial and Temporal Scales of Forest Ecosystems? The Role of Remote Sensing and Modelling.

FORESTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Protection Forests

Forests Benefit from Environmental Protection

The Role of Forests in Global Cycles

Forests in Restoration, Reclamation and Rehabilitation Projects

UNDERSTORY PLANTS IN TEMPERATE FORESTS

The Understory Environment

Structure of Forest Understory Vegetation

Diversity and Composition of Forest Understory Plants

Physiology of Forest Understory Plants

Reproduction and Clonal Growth

Effects of Canopy Variation

Responses to Disturbance

Changes During Succession

Dynamics of the Understory

Effects of Understory Plants on Tree Seedling Establishment

The Tree Seedling Bank

Functional Aspects of the Understory

Conservation and Management of Forest Understory Plants

URBAN FORESTRY

Urban Forest Statistics

Urban Forest Effects - Benefits and Costs

Urban Forest Management

Future Directions

MULTIPURPOSE SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT

Role of Forests

Sustainability

Conservation of Biological Diversity

Productive Capacity of Forest Ecosystems

Forest Ecosystem Health and Vitality

Conservation and Maintenance of Soil and Water Resources

Maintenance of Forest Contribution to Global Carbon Cycles

Socioeconomic Issues and Forest Management

AGROFORESTRY

Agroforestry Systems and Practices

Biological Basis of Agroforestry

Social Basis

Future Development of Agroforestry

FOREST RECREATION ON PRIVATE LANDS

Overview of Recreational Forestry

Examples from Costa Rica

CONIFEROUS TREES

General overview

Species

TROPICAL HARDWOODS

Types of Tropical Forests

Economic and Environmental Evaluation

Some Tropical Hardwoods

Conservation Strategies

TREE SPECIES IN RECLAMATION

Tree Species Options for Degraded Land

Opportunities for Land Reclamation Using Trees

ARID ZONE FORESTRY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO INDIAN HOT ARID ZONE

Arid Zones of the World

The Indian Hot Arid Zone

Some Important Aspects of Vegetation and its Ecology

Tree Species Profiles

Artificial Establishment of Trees

Synthesis

FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS

HISTORY, NATURE, AND PRODUCTS OF WOOD

History of Wood Use

The Nature of Wood

Basic Forms of Wood and Wood Based Materials

CELLULOSE AND PULP

What is Cellulose?

Fundamentals of Cellulose

Cellulose and Liquids

Cellulose Derivatives

Grafting of Cellulose

Thermal Decomposition of Cellulose

Synthesis of Cellulose

Outlook for Uses of Cellulosic Products

Introduction of Pulp

How Pulp is Made

Pulp Properties

The Utilization of Pulp

FOOD, FORAGE AND MEDICINAL RESOURCES OF FORESTS

Forest Food

Forage

Forest Medicines

Agroforestry, Swidden and Other Forms of Forest Management

Economic Use and Potential

PRODUCTS OF RESIN PROCESSING

Resins from Conifers

Resins from broadleaf trees

Hard Resins

Fossil Resin

Lac

WILDLIFE AND TOURISM IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

Wildlife

Tourism

THE ROLE OF FORESTS IN THE PRESERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY

Levels of Diversity

Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity

Forest Age/Successional Stages and Biodiversity Preservation

Human Influences in Forest’s Role in Preserving Biodiversity

THE ROLE OF FORESTS IN THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

The Hydrological Cycle in Forests

Forests and Hydrological Processes

Effects of Afforestation/Deforestation on Streamflow

Influence of Forests on Water Quality

ROLE OF TREES IN CROPLANDS

Classification of trees in croplands

Contributions of trees in croplands to economic development and income generation

Contributions of trees in croplands to environment improvement

Negative Effects of Trees in Croplands

Management Options to Increase Benefits and Decrease Negative Impacts

Some Important Trees in Cropland

Introduction

FLOW AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY IN FORESTS

The Flow and Capture of Light Energy in Forests

Factors Influencing Flow and Conservation of Energy in Forests

Methodologies

TECHNIQUES IN FOREST TREE BREEDING

Genetic Surveys of Natural Populations

Improvements Through the Use of Superior-Tree Selection in the Wild

Testing Procedures for Genetic Advancement

Genotype by Environment Interactions

Advanced Generation Breeding and Testing

Breeding Population Structure

Inbreeding Depression

Genetic Diversity and Risk in Forestry

Gene Conservation

Changes in Deployment Zones through Climate Change

Advanced Technologies and their Role in Tree Breeding

STRUCTURE, GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION OF FOREST TREES

Crown Form

The Stem

Roots

Leaves

Reproduction

SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS FOR BOREAL AND TEMPERATE FORESTS

Silvicultural Systems and their Applications

Benefits from Silviculture: Today and in Future

Constraints to Implementing Silvicultural Systems

TROPICAL FOREST PLANTATIONS

Reforestation in the tropics

Main purpose of reforestation

Forest Research

Some problems

PRODUCING PLANTING STOCK IN FOREST NURSERIES

The unique character of forestry planting stock

The role of forest nurseries in forest management

Does the nursery affect the planting stock?

Types of nurseries

Establishing a new nursery

The origin of the planting stock

The culture of forestry planting stock:

The control of harmful organisms in the nursery.

Beneficial soil organisms

Storage of planting stock

Stock quality

FOREST PEST AND FIRE MANAGEMENT

Causes of Death in Natural Forests

Problems Caused by Human Activity

The Trend Toward Ecologically-Based Integrated Resource Management

Strategies and Tactics in Integrated Pest and Fire Management

Future Prospects

FOREST RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Historical Review of Forest Resource Management

The Status of World Forests

Approaches of Forest Resource Management

DISEASES OF FOREST AND SHADE TREES

Introduction

Types of tree diseases

Case studies

TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS: MAMMALS, BIRDS AND INVERTEBRATES

MINOR DOMESTICATED ANIMALS

Introduction: Minor Domesticated Animals

FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE : TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AQUATIC LIVING RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

The Role of Fisheries

An Outline of Fisheries

Fisheries Economic Outlook

Fisheries Issues

Perspectives

WORLD YIELDS OF MARINE ORGANISMS

World Fishery Production over the last Half of Century with Recent Trends

Profile of Catches by Geographic Areas

RATIONAL EXPLOITATION AND CONSERVATION OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

The Exploitation and Conservation of Natural Resources

Rationalization of Uses

Effects on Wealth Distribution

FORECAST OF YIELDS

A perspective on Fisheries Trends Offered by Estimates of Production per Shelf Area

Development Trends and Potential

El Nio: the Consequences for Fisheries

A Framework for Sustainable Fisheries

POLLUTION OF THE HYDROSPHERE AND QUALITY CONTROL IN NATURAL WATERS

Pollution Occurring in the Hydrosphere

Monitoring and Assessment

Water Quality Control and Environmental Management

MARINE ORGANISMS AS FOOD, FORAGE, INDUSTRIAL, AND MEDICAL PRODUCTS

Historical Perspective

The Current Picture of Food and Non-food Uses

Future Prospects

ALLOCATION OF USE RIGHTS AND ADJUSTMENT OF INSTITUTIONS

Exclusivity Systems

Allocation Mechanisms

Regulatory Bodies

SUBSIDIES TO FISHING

Why do Governments Subsidize Fisheries?

Subsidies and Their Classification

Effects of Subsidies

Subsidy Reform

FISHING PORT MANAGEMENT, THE FORGOTTEN SUBJECT

Historical Development of Service Functions of Fishing Ports

Definitions Applied

Key Functions of a Modern Fishing Port

Differentiation of Port Functions and Services

Fishing Port Management Planning

Basic Concepts of Management Structures

Introduction to Fishing Port Operation Management

Management Planning

Inventory Management and Control

Port Operation and Fishing Fleet Management

SCHOOLING FINFISH (CODS, HERRINGS, SARDINES, MACKERELS, AND OTHERS)

Peruvian Anchoveta (Engraulis ringens, Jenyns 1842)

Alaska Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma, Pallas 1811)

Chilean Jack Mackerel (Trachurus murphyi, Nichols 1920)

Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus, Linné 1758)

Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus, Houttuyn 1782)

Capelin (Mallotus villosus, Müller 1776)

South America Pilchard (Sardinops sagax, Jenyns 1842)

Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua, Linnaeus 1758)

Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus, Tilesius 1810)

Japanese Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus, Temminck and Schlegel 1846)

Sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792)

SCHOOLING FINFISH: AN OVERVIEW OF THE TUNAS, BILLFISHES AND SHARKS

An Overview of the Tunas, Billfishes and Sharks

Species by Species Overview and Discussion

Overview of Sharks

Billfishes

Recommendations

SHRIMPS AND KRILL

Shrimps

Krill

CRABS AND LOBSTERS

Species and Fisheries

Harvesting

Biology

Stock Assessment and Management Approaches

Issues for the Future

SHELLED MOLLUSCS

Species and Fisheries

Harvesting and Cultivation Techniques

Biology

Stock Assessment and Management Approaches

Issues for the Future

SQUID, OCTOPUS AND THE LIVING CEPHALOPODS

Taxonomy

Distribution

Life History

Ecology

Production and Biomass

Size Spectra

Fisheries Management

Aquaculture

ORANGE ROUGHY AND OTHER DEEPWATER BENTHIC FISHES

Foreword

The Deepwater Environment

Orange Roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus, Collett, 1889

Round Nose Grenadier, Coryphaenoides rupestris, Gunnerus, 1765

Black Scabbard Fish, Aphanopus carbo, Lowe, 1839

Alfonsinos, Beryx spp

Oreos, Allocyttus niger, James, Inada and Nakamura 1988; Pseudocyttus maculatus Gilchrist 1906

Black Cardinal Fish, Epigonus telescopus, Risso, 1810

Tooth Fish, Dissostichus eleginoides, Smitt, 1898; D. mawsoni, Norman, 1937

FLATFISHES AND SKATES

Plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, Linnaeus, 1758

Greenland Halibut, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Walbaum, 1792

The Yellow Fin Sole, Limanda aspera, Pallas, 1811

Common Sole, Solea solea, Linnaeus, 1758

Atlantic Halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, Linnaeus, 1758

The Other Flatfish

MARINE PLANTS: PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION

Foreword

Alginophyts and Alginic Acid

Agarophyts and Agars

Carrageenophyts and Carrageenans

COMMERCIAL SEA CUCUMBERS AND TREPANG MARKETS

The Commercial Sea Cucumbers

Collecting and Processing Methods for Trepang

The Main World Fisheries

The Main World Markets

Over-exploitation and Sustainable Management

THE IMPORTANCE OF NON-COMMERCIAL FISH

Importance of Non-commercial Fish in Terms of Global Harvests

Importance of Non-commercial Fish for Humans

Importance of an Ecosystem Approach for the Sustainability of the Resource

THE PROBLEM OF DISCARDS IN FISHERIES

Controversial Definitions

Reasons for Discarding

Variability in Discarding Practices

Case Studies

Impacts of Discards

Solutions

FISHERIES ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY; FISHING FLEET OPERATION AND ECONOMICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Evolution Regarding Fishing Technology and Equipment; the Effectiveness of an Individual Fishing Unit

Fishing Fleets: Technical and Economical Features; Capacity and Effort; Evolution

Alternative Methods for the Exploitation of Aquatic Resources

New Conditions for Fishing Operations; Context for the Development of Fishing Fleets; Opportunities

SUBSISTENCE HUNTING OF MARINE MAMMALS

Polar bears

Sirenians

Pinnipeds

Cetaceans

TRENDS IN WORLD YIELDS FOR INLAND WATERS

Global Trends in Catch

Regional Trends in Catch

Species Composition

Prognosis

SALMONID FISH: BIOLOGY, CONSERVATION STATUS, AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WILD AND CULTURED STOCKS

Nomenclature and Distributions of the Salmonids.

General Life History and Biology

Environmental Requirements

Human and Natural Environmental Influences on Salmonid Populations

A Detailed Life History Account of a Representative Salmonid Species, the Atlantic Salmon

Economic and Cultural Importance of Salmonids

COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT CATADROMOUS FISH

Generalities on the Anguillids

Atlantic Eels

Japanese Eels

Indo Pacific Eels

Status of the Species: A General Decline?

Baseline for Sustainable Management

SHAD OF THE NORTHEASTERN ATLANTIC AND THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN : BIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND HARVESTING

Systematic and General Characteristics

Distribution and Biology

Threats and Conservation

Harvesting

DAMS, POLLUTION AND OTHER IMPEDIMENTS TO MIGRATION AND SPAWNING

Impediments to Migration: River Obstacle Construction, Fishing, and Water Quality

Reproduction: Impact of pollutants and temperature, modifications of spawning habitat characteristics and danger of hybridization

Perspectives

FRESHWATER FISH: HARVEST TECHNOLOGY

Background

Choice of Fishing Method and Gear

Principal Types of Gear

Improved Technology

Social and Policy Implications of Fishing Technology

COLDWATER FISH: WHITEFISH AND SMELT

World Production of Smelt in Fresh and Brackish Waters by Capture

World Production of the Whitefish (whitefish) in Fresh and Brackish Waters by Capture and Aquaculture

WARM WATER FISH: THE CARP FAMILY

Biogeography

Morphology, Classification, and Systematics

Genetics

Habitats and Social Interaction

Tolerance to Environmental Changes

Food Regime and Growth

Reproductive Biology

Culture and Fisheries of Cyprinids

Introductions of Cyprinids Outside its Natural Range

WARM WATER FISH: THE PERCH, PIKE, AND BASS FAMILIES

The Perch family

The Pike Family

The Bass Family

THE TILAPIINI TRIBE: ENVIRONMENTAL, AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH

Taxonomy and Parental Behavior

Biology and Physiology of Reproduction in Tilapias

Growth Characteristics of Tilapias

OVERVIEW OF THE CATFISHES AQUACULTURE

Interest of catfishes for aquaculture

Technical bases of the aquaculture systems

Hybridization between different species

The production outlets

STURGEONS AND CAVIAR

General Morphology

Systematics

Biogeography and Way of Life

Reproduction

The Sturgeon Exploitation by Fishing and Farming

Threats to the Sturgeon

Caviar, Sturgeon Meat, and Gastronomy

EDIBLE FROGS

Historical Relations with Humans

Biology and Ecology

Harvesting and Trade

Decline in Wild Populations

Is Raniculture the Answer to Declining Stocks?

CRUSTACEANS

Classification

Distribution

Morphology

Physiology

Adversity

Main Species

Exploitation

Management

RECREATIONAL SPORT FISHING IN FRESH WATERS

Status of Recreational Fisheries

Types of Recreational Fishing

Components of Recreational Fisheries

Assessment of the Status of Recreational Fisheries

Constraints on the Development of Recreational Fisheries

Recreational Fisheries beyond the Year 2000

MARINE SHRIMP FARMING

Penaeid Biology

History of Shrimp Farming and its World Production

Culture Methods

Processing and Packaging

Market

Problems

FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE AND POLYCULTURE

Brief Review of the State of World Freshwater Aquaculture

The Different Types of Freshwater Fish culture and Polyculture

The Main Cultivated Species in Freshwater Aquaculture

Freshwater Fish Farming Management

Freshwater Fish Farming Economics

ENGINEERING AND BIO-TECHNOLOGIES IN AQUACULTURE

Engineering Technologies

Bio-manipulation of Ecosystems

Bio-technologies

Technologies for Fish Processing and Marketing

Examples of Impact of Technologies on Aquaculture Development

DISEASES AND PATHOLOGY OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS

The Significance of Disease in Cultured Species

Host Pathogen Interactions

Disease Prevention and Control Methods

Towards the Future

FISH FARMING IN THE TROPICS

Definition and Brief History of Fish Farming

Principles of Fish Farming

Tilapia Farming: A Case Study

Induced Breeding and Genetic Improvement of Cultured Fishes

Production of Monosex Fishes for Culture

Parasites and Diseases of Cultured Fishes

Polyculture and Integrated Fish Farming Systems

Harvesting, Processing, and Marketing of Cultured Fishes

Profitability of Fish Farming

Future Outlook

MARINE PLANT AQUACULTURE

Foreword

Seeding with Elements from the Reproduction Cycle: The Example of Laminaria japonica

Seeding by Propagation of Cuttings: The Example of Kappaphycus alvarezii

Cultivation from Cuttings in Land Facilities: The Example of Chondrus crispus

ACCLIMATIZATION OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS IN CULTURE

Biological Characteristics of Aquatic Species

From the Wild to Domestication

AQUACULTURE MANAGEMENT

The Concept of Sustainability

National Aspects

International Aspects

Genetics

Production

Case Studies

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF AQUACULTURE

Biological Basis of Fish Production

Characterization of Discharge and Release

Environmental Effects and Impacts

Reducing the Impact: Towards Sustainability

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INTRODUCED ALIEN SPECIES

Trends in Introduction

Reasons for Introduction

Impact of Introductions

Codes of Practice

TRENDS IN AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT SUPPLY

Global Aquaculture Production and Food Supply

Global Finfish and Crustacean Production by Species Groups

Global Production by Feeding Habit and Nutrient Supply

Compound Aqua feed Production

Global Challenges to Nutrient Supply

A DYNAMIC THEORY OF FISHERIES INVESTMENT

Fish Stock Investment

Fish Stocks As Capital

Long-run Optimal Stock Levels

Transition to Long-run Optimum

Adjusted Transition Paths

SPATIAL BIOECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF MARINE FISHERIES

Introduction

Models of exploited populations incorporating spatial structure

Heterogeneous recruitment density in space and time

Spatial allocation of effort

Spatial management of fisheries and metapopulations

THE SITUATION IN WORLD FISHERIES

Recent Trends in Fisheries Production

Reasons for Production Growth

The Sustainability of World Fisheries

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT: BASIC PRINCIPLES

Introduction

The Fisheries Problem

The Fisheries Management Regime

Fisheries Management Systems

Monitoring, Control and Surveillance

The Fisheries Judicial System

Fisheries Management: Future Developments

COMMUNITY FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Perspectives on Community

The Economic Interest of Fishing Communities

Communities and the Sustainability Problem

Structure of Community Fishery Management

Performance of Community Fishery Management

Future Trends

MANAGEMENT OF STRADDLING FISH STOCKS: A BIOECONOMIC APPROACH

Introduction

Bioeconomic Modeling of Straddling Fish Stocks

Threats to Cooperative Management

The Northeastern Bluefin Tuna Fishery

The Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring Fishery

Conclusion

ECONOMICS OF AQUACULTURE

Introduction

An overview of World aquaculture

The role of aquaculture in food security and economic development

Environmental costs and sustainability

Conclusion

GAME THEORY AND FISHERIES

Non-Cooperative Games

Cooperative Games

ADAPTATIONS TO LIFE IN ESTUARIES

Salinity and sampling

Opportunism, tolerance and competition

Osmoregulation and other strategies

Sediments and turbidity

Hypoxia and anoxia

Fish and fisheries

Climate change

ADAPTATIONS TO LIFE IN MARINE CAVES

Introduction

Geological origins, age and distribution of anchialine habitats

Anchialine cave ecology

Biodiversity

Biogeography

Evolutionary origins

Adaptation to life in anchialine caves

Conservation

PHYTOPLANKTON AND PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Methodological aspects

Phytoplankton primary production in the oceans

Photosynthesis versus irradiance relationships: P vs E curves

Regenerated vs. New Production

Solar radiation and phytoplankton primary productivity

Other factors influencing primary production

MICROZOOPLANKTON, KEY ORGANISMS IN THE PELAGIC FOOD WEB

Main microzooplankton groups

Microzooplankton grazing impacts in marine ecosystems

Microzooplankton and the biogeochemical cycles

Microzooplankton as prey

Human and climate forcing of microzooplankton populations

LARGER ZOOPLANKTON, ITS ROLE IN THE PELAGIC FOOD WEBS

Food chains or food webs?

Zooplankton feeding habits: microphagy versus macrophagy

Quantitative role of zooplankton in pelagic food webs

FISH DISEASES

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DISEASES CAUSED BY FISH PATHOGENS

Prevention and Protection Against Infectious Diseases

Diagnosis of Diseases

Selection and Establishment of Disease-Resistant Fish

FISH AND SHELLFISH BIO-DEFENSE

Innate Immunity in Fish

Adaptive Immunity in Fish

Shrimp Bio-Defense

Shellfish Bio-Defense

DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIAL PATHOGENS IN INLAND WATER

INLAND WATER STREPTOCOCCOSIS

FURUNCULOSIS

BACTERIAL GILL DISEASE

COLUMNARIS DISEASE

BACTERIAL COLD-WATER DISEASE

RED SPOT DISEASE

EDWARDSIELLOSIS (EDWARDSIELLA ICTALURI)

MOTILE AEROMONADS DISEASE

DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIAL PATHOGENS IN SALT WATER

SALTWATER STREPTOCOCCOSIS

NOCARDIOSIS

MYCOBACTERIAL DISEASE

PASTEURELLOSIS

VIBRIOSIS

TENACIBACULOSIS

EDWARDSIELLOSIS (EDWARDSIELLA TARDA)

BACTERIAL HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE

DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRAL PATHOGENS

FRESHWATER FISH

Marine Fish

Salmon and Trout Viral Diseases

Shrimp Diseases

SYSTEMS OF FOOD QUALITY STANDARDS

History

Food Standards

Trends in Food Standardization

HISTORY OF FOOD QUALITY STANDARDS

Early History

The Middle Ages

Industrial Revolution in the Nineteenth Century

The Twentieth Century

The International Situation and Perspectives

BASIC CONCEPTS OF FOOD STANDARDS

Standardization in Food Production

What a Standard Should Contain

Types of Standards

NATIONAL STANDARDS

Preparation of National Standards

Relationship Between Standardization and Regulation

Basic Data About Some National Standards Bodies

Advantages of Utilizing International Standards

REGIONAL STANDARDS

Main Regional Standardization Organizations and Their Activity

Regional Codex Alimentarius Bodies

Future Trends

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF FOOD QUALITY STANDARDS

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program

Brief Information About Other International Organizations

FOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES AND SANITATION

Trends in the Development of Food Technology and Their Effect on Food Safety

Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

Sanitation

Future Trends

FOOD CHAIN MANAGEMENT

Good Agricultural Practice is the First Pillar of Food Safety

Good Veterinary Practice, A Tool for Improvement in Food Safety

Good Manufacturing Practice Contributes to Food Safety

Storage and Distribution of Foods

Sanitation and Safety in Food Services

Training, Education, and Food Safety

FOOD SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

Integrated Pest Management and Food Safety

Foodborne Diseases and the Environment

Air Pollution and Food Safety

Other Environmental Contaminants and Food Safety

Sustainable Agricultural Practice—The Way of the Future

FOOD LAWS AND REGULATION

The Structure of Food Law

Food RegulationWhat Should be Regulated?

Harmonization of Food Laws and Regulations at the International Level

PREDICTIVE MICROBIOLOGY

General Principles and Microbial Dynamics

Environmental Factors Studied

Classical Models

Using the Models for Prediction

QUALITY CONTROL OF RAW MATERIALS

Water

Raw Materials of Plant Origin

Raw Materials of Animal Origin

Other Raw Materials

Perspectives and Trends

IN-PROCESS QUALITY CONTROL

General Aspects of In-Process Control

Specific Aspects of In-Process Control

Perspectives and Trends

QUALITY CONTROL OF FINISHED PRODUCTS

General Aspects of Quality Control of Finished Products

Some Specific Aspects of Quality Control of Finished Products

Perspectives and Trends

FOOD QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR CHILDREN AND SPECIFIC DIETARY PURPOSES

General Issues about Special Foods

Dietary Foods for Special Medical Purposes

Baby Foods

Low Calorie Foods

Fortification (Enrichment) of Foods

Functional Foods

MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

Quality Indices of Carcass Meat

Quality of Cooked Meat

Quality of Meat Products

Poultry

Safety of Meat and Meat Products

FOOD QUALITY AND STANDARDS PERTAINING TO FISH

Species Identity

Freshness

Sensory Properties

Biological Contamination

Chemical Contamination

Nutritional Factors

Technological Suitability

Conformation to Product Standards

MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

Quality of Raw Milk

Pasteurized Milk

Flavored Milks

Cream

Manufactured Milk Products

Butter

Cheese

Cultured Milks

Cultured (Sour) Cream

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Quality Indices of Fruits

Quality Indices of Vegetables

Packaging and Labeling of Fruits and Vegetables

Conformity with Product Standards and Quality Inspection of Fruits and Vegetables

GRAINS, PULSES, AND OILSEEDS

Cereal Grains

Cereal-Based Products

Oilseeds

Legumes

COFFEE, TEA, AND SPICES

Coffee and its Products

Tea

Spices

QUALITY CONTROL OF PLANT GROWTH, PLANT PROTECTION, AND QUARANTINE

The Negative Effects of Chemical Plant Protection

How to Reduce the Negative Effects of the Use of Pesticides

Regulations on Plant Pesticides

QUALITY CONTROL OF ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT, ANIMAL PROTECTION, AND QUARANTINE

Negative Effects of the Use of Veterinary Drugs

How to Prevent or Reduce Negative Effects of Veterinary Drugs

Regulations on Chemical Residues

LEGISLATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF FOOD PRODUCTS

Legislation on Food Manufacturing and Trade

Quality Control of Food Products

Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Food Industry

LOCATIONS AND TASKS OF THE MAIN INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS FOR FOOD CONTROL SYSTEMS

Basic Data about Selected National Organizations

International Organizations

MICRO-ORGANISMS IMPORTANT IN FOOD MICROBIOLOGY

Molds

Yeasts

Bacteria

SPOILAGE AND PRESERVATION OF FOOD

Spoilage of Foods

Preservation of Foods

YEASTS

Properties of Yeasts

Classification of Yeasts.

Industrial Use of Yeasts

Production of Nutrients and Enzymes with Yeasts

Yeast Autolysates

LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

Classification of Lactic Acid Bacteria

Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria

Industrial Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria

Lactic Acid Bacteria and Health

Antibacterial Components from Lactic Acid Bacteria

Phages of Lactic Acid Bacteria

FOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS

Botulism

Staphylococcal Food Poisoning

Salmonella Infections

Listeria monocytogenes

Campylobacter jejuni

Shigella

Escherichia coli

Bacillus cereus

Other, Less Recognized Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

TESTING METHODS IN FOOD MICROBIOLOGY

Basic Microbiological Techniques

Enumeration of Microorganisms

Advances in Quantitative Methodologies

Identification and Typing of Microorganisms

Testing Methods for Quality and Safety

FOOD PROTEINS AND ENZYMES

Chemistry of Food Proteins

Food Proteins of Plant Origin

Food Proteins of Animal Origin

Other Proteins

Enzymes

FOOD LIPIDS

Chemical Composition

Lipid Sources

Lipid Processing

Lipids in Human Nutrition

Edible Lipid Foods

Future trends

CARBOHYDRATES

Classification

Chemistry of Carbohydrates

Thermally Induced Changes of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates in Foods

Dietary Utilization and Function of Carbohydrates

VITAMINS

Water-soluble Vitamins

Fat-soluble Vitamins

Vitagens

FLAVOR AND COLOR COMPOUNDS

Taste Substances in Foods

Volatile Flavor Compounds

Thermally Induced Flavors

Synthetic Flavors

Color Compounds in Foods

MINERALS AND OTHER MICROCOMPONENTS

Minerals in Foods

Other Microcomponents

ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS

Food Additives

Contaminants

DIETARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICALS IN FOOD

Introduction

Role of Risk Assessment

Dietary Exposure Assessment

Conclusions

HINDRANCES AND RESTRICTIONS TO FARMING

Quality of lands and productivity.

Factors influencing efficiency of land use.

Limitations of opportunity of application of agro-technical methods.

HISTORY OF LAND IMPROVEMENT

Land Amelioration in the Ancient World (Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, etc.)

Land Amelioration in Medieval Times

The Modern Period of Land Amelioration

Contribution of Land Amelioration to the Development of Agriculture and Food Supply

Scientific and Technical Progress in Land Amelioration

Land Amelioration and Economic Security

Land Amelioration in the Systems of Sustainable Development

GLOBAL NEEDS FOR LAND RECLAMATION

Introduction - why the necessity of land reclamation arises

Direction of land improvement and an agriculture in various native-climatic zones of the Earth.

Native-meliorative zoning.

EFFICIENCY OF USING RECLAIMED LANDS

Significance of Land Reclamation

Evaluation of Possible Expansion of Arable Lands

Peculiarities and Principles of Efficiency Evaluation

History of the Question

Expenses for Construction of Reclamation Systems and Land Development

Running Costs: Income.

Methods of Economic Efficiency Evaluation

Evaluation of Real Investments Efficiency

AGRICULTURAL RECLAMATION: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

Reclamation in the past. Retrospective reclamation development review

Trends in the Development of Agricultural Reclamation

Complex reclamation. Basic concepts

Adaptive landscape agriculture regulation systems of complex reclamation

Regulation system of complex reclamation

Features of automation of systems of complex reclamation regulation

Single factor automation systems and complex regulation automation

Development of reclamation in conditions of climate change

DISTRIBUTION OF IRRIGATED LANDS AND WATER CONSUMPTION

Irrigation Development from Ancient to Modern Times

Distribution of Irrigated Lands and Human Development

Provision of Agricultural Crops with Moisture

Moisture Shortage and Harvest

Calculating the Need for Water

Season and Single-Event Watering Norms

Irrigation Regimes

The Hydromodule and its Completion

Regulation of Water Distribution

Protection of Water Quality

Power and Metal Consumption for Irrigation

Ecologically Benign Irrigation Systems

Effective Utilization of Irrigated Lands

Irrigation during Stable Development

WATER RESOURCES QUALITY AND SUPPLY

Surface (Rivers, Lakes, Reservoirs) and Subsurface Water for Irrigation

Regulation and Territorial Redistribution of River Flow

Resources of Groundwater

Desalination of Water—Sewage

Requirements of Irrigation Water—Chemical and Heat Regimes

The Purification and Reutilization of Water used for Irrigation

Water Abstraction Hydrodevices with Dams and Without Them: Sedimentation Tanks

Factors in the Design of Valves, Gates and Artificial Channels

Regulations Governing Constructions

Influence of Water Abstraction and Water Passing Constructions on Environment

Technology for Irrigation

IRRIGATION SYSTEMS: MACHINERY AND TECHNOLOGY

Irrigation Systems

Irrigation Systems for Different Methods of Irrigation

Irrigation Network Design

Irrigation System Computation.

Rice Irrigation Systems

Irrigation Systems that Use Communal Wastewater and Livestock Sewage

Computerization of Irrigation Systems

Operation of Irrigation Systems

Introduction

DRAINAGE OF IRRIGATED LAND

Inundation and salinity of irrigation land

Reasons of secondary irrigated land salinity

Soil salinity types

Salt - resistance of crops

Need in drainage and its types

Drainage of irrigated lands

Washing of salinized lands

Water loss reduction in irrigated system

Biological drainage

DEVELOPMENT OF SANDY AND STONY DESERTS

Natural resources

Trees and shrubs of the arid zone

Complex use of deserts

Methods and technologies of melioration of degraded land

Agricultural development of arid territories

Reclamation of stony deserts

SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION UNDER IRRIGATION

The Current Situation of Agriculture under Irrigation

Environmental Changes Caused by Agriculture under Irrigation

Irrigation as a Contamination Source

Perspectives of Agriculture under Irrigation

How Agriculture under Irrigation Can Become a Sustainable Activity

THE ECONOMICS OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

Introduction. Background to the Economics of Irrigation Systems

Economic Features of Irrigation Systems

Operation Economics of Irrigation Systems

Tariff and Price Policies

Economics of Reconstructed and Newly Constructed Irrigation Systems

Business Plan

Special-Purpose Software

The Future Economics of Irrigation Systems: Internet-Based Decisions

TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGIES OF LAND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

Drainage Techniques

Drainage Calculations

Drainage Systems

Drainage Construction Technologies

Environmental Protection Issues

FLOODS AND HIGH WATERS, USING POLDERS FOR PROTECTING AGRICULTURAL LANDS FROM THE FLOODS

The reasons for floods and high waters.

Methods and ways of protecting land from floods.

Polders and their classification.

Non-flooding polders.

Flooded (summer) polders.

Flooded polders with the adjusted length of flood (spring) polders.

Self-leaking polders.

Managing soil water in polders.

Perspectives of perfection and polder using.

DEBRIS FLOWS AND ANTI-DEBRIS-FLOW MEASURES

Etymology of the Term

Types of Debris Flow

Occurrence of Debris Flows

Formation of Debris Flows and Factors Causing Them

Computation of Debris Flows

Destructive Force of Debris Flows

Prediction of Debris Flows

Methods Of Combating Debris Flows

The Future of Anti-Debris-Flow Protection

SOIL IMPROVEMENT

Kinds and Technologies of Agrotechnical Work

Removal of Trees, Shrubs, Stumps, and Buried Timber

Removal of Stones

Removal of Tussocks, Thick Sod, and Moss Cover

Surface Planing

Remediation of Disturbed Lands

Soil Amendment

Initial Soil Tillage

Liming and Fertilization

Crop Growing

Radical Improvement of Meadows and Pastures

Prospects for Soil Improvement

KINDS OF CHEMICAL AMELIORATION

Cation Exchange Complex of the Soil

Acidity and Alkalinity of Soils: Their Diagnostic Parameters

Acidity and Alkalinity as Properties Limiting Soil Fertility

Kinds of Chemical Amelioration: Chemical Amendments

Soil Reclamation Models

RECLAMATION OF ACID SOILS

Soil acidity and its indices

Natural reasons for increasing soil acidification

The reasons for anthropogenic acidification of soils. The phenomenon of environmental "Acidification"

Reasons for plants sensitivity to soil acidity

Liming as a major means of soil reaction optimization

Sorts of lime fertilizers.

Methods of application of liming material

The efficiency of liming.

Perspectives of soil reaction control in agroecosystems.

AMELIORATION OF ALKALI(SODIC/SOLONETZ) SOILS

Diagnosis of Alkali Soils: Concept, Indices and Criteria for Evaluation

Properties Limiting the Productivity of Alkali Soils

Amelioration of Alkali Soils

Control of the Moisture Regime of Alkali Soils Under Irrigation and Under Rainfed Conditions

Efficiency of Amelioration

Ecological Consequences of Amelioration

Examples of Objects for Amelioration

AMELIORATION OF ALKALI(SODA-SALINE) SOILS

Introduction: Diagnostics and Main Properties Limiting the Fertility of Soda-Saline Soils

Amelioration of Soda-Saline Soils

Complex Reclamation of Soda-Saline Soils in Irrigated and Dry-Farming Conditions

The Efficiency and Ecological Problems of the Development of Soda-Saline Soils

PARTICULAR FORMS OF LAND AMELIORATION DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL MARSHLANDS AND OTHER SALINE SOILS

Object of research. Geographical position, particular development and amelioration of soils in coastal areas

Polder meliorative systems. General position

Specific land use in coastal areas of different natural zones

Natural peculiarities and examples of land amelioration within coastal areas of South-Eastern Asia.

GOALS AND DEMAND

Greening of agriculture

Realization of biological and agro-technical land improvement

Use of the grounds without radical land improvement

Phytomelioration and forest reclamation

Combating erosion, use of eroded land, and recultivation

Soil protective systems and improvement of soils subject to erosion and deflation

Fertilizers

PHYTOMELIORATION

Phytomelioration: the concept and sphere of application

Phytoclimatic zones

Phytomelioration for protection of soil from water and wind erosion

Phytomelioration for reinforcing of ravines and gullies

Phytomelioration for fastening and uses of sand

Phytomelioration on irrigated and drained land

Phytomelioration for lowering of water table and reduction of infiltration

Use of afforestation for protection of agricultural crops from unfavorable climatic conditions

Phytomelioration with recultivation of the ground

Afforestation for aesthetic improvement

Halophytes - introduction and selection work

AGROTECHNICAL MELIORATION AND FERTILIZER

Agroeconomic estimation of landscapes and soils.

Organisation of agricultural crops cultivation.

Optimisation of crop rotation systems in agricultural landscape.

Optimum ratio between elements in landscape (meadow, plough-land, forest, water).

Agroecological principles and methods of soil processing.

Management of organic substance content in soil, regulation of microbiological processes.

Maintenance of soil with nutritious elements; systems of macro- and microfertilizers.

Peculiarities of processing of soil polluted with heavy metals and radionuclides.

Agrotechnical protection of plants from harmful organisms (weed plants, harmful insects and diseases).

Forecast of agrotechnical melioration development and fertilizers applications in the XXI century.

CONSERVATIONAL SOIL TREATMENT

Anti-Erosion Organization of Territory

Rational Placing of Agricultural Crops

Soil-Protecting Water-Absorbing Processing of Soil

Making Meadows

Forest Meliorative Measures

Strip Agriculture

Retention of Surface Flow

Full Processing of Soil with Stubbles

Regulation of Small River Flow and Surface Flow

Artificial Structure-Formers

Artificial Irrigation of Soil

EROSION AND DEFLATION CONTROL

Soil Erosion

Soil Deflation

Field-Protecting Anti-Erosion Forest Belts

Melioration of Gully-Ruined Lands

Anti-Erosion Hydrotechnic Constructions

Bed and Bottom Constructions

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

Experimental Data and Prediction Models

Density

Specific Heat

Thermal Conductivity

Thermal Diffusivity

Boiling Point Rise and Freezing Depression

Viscosity

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

Electrical Conductivity

Electric Permittivity

OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

Nature of Light

Physical Phenomena

Optical Properties of Materials

The Vision Process

Visual Appearance

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

Classification of Mechanical Properties

Density

Shrinkage and Expansion

Porosity

Volume and Surface Area

Morphological Properties

Applications of Density, Shrinkage, Porosity, and Surface Area

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FOOD POWDERS

Bulk Density and Compressibility

Angle of Repose

Flowability

Caking

Mixtures and Segregation

Disintegration and Attrition

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN FOOD POWDERS

Methods for Particle Size Measurement

Particle Size Distribution

Applications in Food Powder Field

FOOD MICROSTRUCTURE

Structure-Property Relationships in Foods

Examining Food Microstructure

Food Preservation and Microstructure

Perspectives

THERMODYNAMICS IN FOOD ENGINEERING

Thermophysics

Chemical Thermodynamics

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF FOODS

Ideal Solutions

Colligative Properties

PHASE TRANSITIONS

Phase and State Transitions

Phase and State Transitions in Foods

Phase Transitions and Food Structure

Transitions and Food Processing

Reaction Kinetics and Food Stability

SURFACE PHENOMENA

Colloidal Forces Between Particles

Flocculation

Food Emulsifiers

Competitive Adsorption in Mixed Emulsifier Systems

Interfacial Rheological Properties of Adsorbed Layer

KINETICS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN FOODS

Fundamental Concepts

Simple Reactions

Complex Chemical Reactions

Chemical Kinetics in Food Processing and Preservation

Enzyme Kinetics

CYCLES AND REFRIGERATION

Vapor Compression Cycles

Multistage Compression Cycle

Absorption Refrigeration Cycle

Components of Mechanical Refrigeration System

Other Refrigeration Systems

Refrigerants

Applications in the Food Industry

FOOD RHEOLOGY AND TEXTURE

Measurement

NEWTONIAN AND NON-NEWTONIAN FLOW

Stress and Deformation

Elastic Solids and Newtonian Fluids

Viscometric Functions

Rheological Classification of Fluids

Newtonian Flow

Non-Newtonian Flow

Viscoelasticity

Temperature Dependency

Effect of Concentration on the Viscosity

Rheological Measurements in Semi-Liquids Food Products

Determination of Yield Stress

Typical Applications

Final Remarks

VISCOELASTICITY

The Foundations of Viscoelasticity

Liquids, Solids, and Viscoelastic Materials

Linear Viscoelasticity

Experimental Methods of Measurement of Linear Viscoelastic Functions

Viscoelastic Properties of Food Biopolymers

SQUEEZING AND ELONGATIONAL FLOW

Squeezing and Elongational Flow in Fluid Foods

Foundations of Squeezing Flow Viscometry

Parallel Plate Viscometer

FOOD SUSPENSIONS

Rheological Behavior

Forces Acting on Particles

Measurement Techniques

Factors Affecting Viscous Behavior

Predictions of Rheological Properties Based on Structure

Flow Behavior of Solid-liquid Mixtures

Future Trends

FOOD EMULSIONS

Structure of Food Emulsions

Emulsion Stability. Destabilization Mechanisms

Interaction Forces Between Droplets

Emulsion Formation

Food Emulsion Rheology

CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR FOOD SYSTEMS

Linear Viscoelasticity

Dilute Solution Theories

Concentrated Dispersion Theories

Concentrated Solution/Melt Theories

K-BKZ Type Models

Differential Constitutive Models

Solid-Like Constitutive Models

SOLID FOODS

Rheological Properties of Solid Foods

The Deformability Modulus

Viscoelastic Properties of Solid Food

Final Remarks

TEXTURE IN SOLID AND SEMISOLID FOODS

Food Processing Affects Texture

Desirable and Undesirable Textures

Time of Day Affects Texture Preferences

Non-Destructive Test

How the Body Processes Food

Correlating Instruments with Sensory Evaluation of Texture

History of Development of Texture Measuring Instruments

FOOD TEXTURE: SENSORY EVALUATION

Physiological Perception

Elaboration and Interpretation of Sensation

Communication of the Sensation: Sensory Analysis

CONVENTIONAL THERMAL PROCESSING (CANNING)

Historical Perspective

Current Technology

Scientific Principles

Future Trends and Perspectives

OHMIC HEATING

Microbial Death Kinetics

Electrolytic Effects

Applications

FOOD FREEZING

History and Origin

Food Quality and the Freezing Process

The Freezing Process

Freezing Systems

CONCENTRATION OF LIQUID FOODS

Physical Properties of Liquid Foods

Concentration by Evaporation

Concentration with Membranes

Combined Technologies in the Concentration of Liquid Foods

Freeze Concentration

FOOD DEHYDRATION

Basic Concepts Associated with Drying

Drying Rate

Heat and Mass Transfer Controlling Resistances during Drying

Dehydration Techniques

Future Directions

FOOD FRYING

Physicochemical Changes in Foods during frying

Edible Oils Used in Frying Foods

Heat Transfer during Frying

Frying Systems

Future Studies

SEPARATION

Liquid-Liquid Extraction

Solid Liquid Separation

Mechanical Separation

Membrane Processing

Column Chromatography

Distillation

SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

Concepts of Supercritical Fluids

Solubility Measurement Techniques

Solubility Measurements

Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Other Applications of Supercritical Fluids

FOOD EXTRUSION

Extruded Products

Extrusion Equipment

Extrusion Variables and Process Parameters

Process Modeling and Scaling

Scale-Up

Physico-Chemical Changes During Extrusion

Flavor Formation and Loss During Extrusion

Effect of Extrusion on Nutritional Quality

Other Applications of Extrusion Processing

CRYSTALLIZATION

Crystallization Principles

Controlling Crystallization in Foods

Factors Affecting Control of Crystallization

NONTHERMAL PROCESSING OF FOODS AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

High Hydrostatic Pressure

Ultrasound

Food Irradiation

Light Pulses

Pulsed Electric Fields

Oscillating Magnetic Fields

Nonthermal Methods as Hurdles

Final Remarks

HURDLE TECHNOLOGY

Principles of Hurdle Technology

Basic Aspects of Hurdle Technology

Applications of Hurdle Technology

Food Design by Hurdle Technology

FOOD FERMENTATION

Definitions

Microbial Ecology

Groups of Fermenting Organisms

Fermented Products

Fermentation as a Source of Chemical Compounds for Foods

Industrial Fermentation

FOOD POWDER PROCESSING

Introduction: Applied Powder Technology to Food Materials

Comminution

Attrition

Mixing

Separation and Classification

Agglomeration and Growth

Drying and Reconstitution

FOOD MIXING

Special Features of Food Mixing

Assessment of Mixedness

Types of Food Mixers

FOOD PACKAGING

Metal Containers

Glass Containers

Paper and Paperboard Packages

Plastic Containers

FOOD PROCESS DESIGN

A General Approach to Food Process Design

Categories of Food Processes

Future Directions in Food Process Design

FOOD PROCESS MODELING

Modeling and its Various Uses

Types of Process Modeling

Other Models Used in Food Plant Design and Operation

Computational or Numerical Models

Observational (Empirical) Models

PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL

Background

The Control Problem

Instrumentation

Computer-Controlled Systems

Future Trends

Future Directions

SOFTWARE FOR FOOD ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

Software Sources

Software Tools

AUTOMATION OF FOOD PROCESSING

Why Automate?

Uniqueness of the Food Industry

Tools of Automation

THE SANITARY DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FOOD PRODUCTION FACILITIES

Programs

The Product

Site Selection and Plant Design

Plant Layouts

Equipment

The "Enemy": Bio-Films

Placement of Equipment

Valves

Pumps and Piping

Thermal Processing Equipment

Conveying Systems

Containment Vessels

A Perspective

FOOD WASTE

Wastewater Parameters

Characteristics of Food Processing Wastewater

Regulatory Issues

Management and Treatment Processes

EXPENDITURES AND RETURNS

Direct Machine Expenditure

The Effect of Labor and Cropping on Machinery Expenditure

AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT: CHOICE AND OPERATION

Importance of Agricultural Equipment Choice and Operation

Methods of Obtaining Access to Equipment

Equipment Costs

Equipment Selection

Equipment Operation

Automation of Agricultural Equipment Operation

The Future of Agricultural Equipment Choice and Operation

MAINTAINING WORKING CONDITIONS AND OPERATION OF MACHINERY

Maintaining Working Conditions

Operation of Machinery

Tillage

Distribution of Nutrients

Crop Protection

Irrigation

Forage Harvesting and Preservation

Grain Harvesting and Preservation

Harvesting, Handling, and Storage of Potatoes

Harvest and Handling of Sugar Beet

Risks of Accidents and Health Hazards

HUMAN AND ANIMAL POWERED MACHINERY

Human Powered Operations and Equipment

Animal Powered Operations and Machinery

Future Perspectives in the Use of Human and Animal Power in Agricultural Production

ENERGY SOURCES: NON RENEWABLE AND RENEWABLE

Definition of Energy

Forms of Energy and Energy Retention

Energy Transformation, Energy Definition, Energy Supplies

Energy Transformation of Fossil Fuels

Energy Transformation from Atom Splitting and Atomic Fusion

Energy Transformation from Renewable Energy Sources

Perspectives and Future Energy Policy

AGRICULTURE AND AUTONOMOUS POWER SUPPLY

Power Production and Aspects Concerning the use of Renewable Sources

Technologies for Electricity Production at Farm Level From Renewable Energy Sources

Internal Combustion Engines Combined with Generators (IC Generator-sets)

External Combustion Engines/Turbines Combined with Generators (EC Generator-sets)

Hydraulic Engines Combined with Generators (Water Wheels and Turbines)

Photovoltaic Solar Plants

Wind Generators

Combined Production of Electric and Thermal Energy (Co-generators; CHP)

TRACTORS AND TRANSPORT VEHICLES

Mechanization, Tractor Development and Tractor Performance

Thermodynamics and Cycles for Internal Combustion Engines

Fuels and Combustion

Engine Components

Electrical Systems for Tractors

Carburetor Engines and Ignition Systems

Diesel Engines

Engine Cooling, Coolants, and Cooling Systems

Lubricants and Lubrication Systems

Mechanics of the Tractor Chassis and Tractor Safety

Tractor Hydraulics, Hitches, and Steering Systems

Power Trains

Ergonomics and the Operator Environment

Traction Modeling and Tractor Draft Performance

The Transportation of Farm Produce

TILLAGE AND SEEDING MACHINES

Tillage Machines

Primary Tillage Implements

Secondary Tillage Implements

Seeding Machines

FERTILIZER APPLICATORS AND PLANT PROTECTION EQUIPMENT

Dry Fertilizer Application Methods and Equipment

Liquid Fertilizer Applicators

Granular Pesticide Applicators

Sprayers

Dusters

Future Trends

HARVESTERS

Classification of Crops

Seed Harvesting Machines

Root Crop Harvesters

Green Plant and Leaf Harvesters

Fruit Harvesters

Fiber Crop Harvesters

Timber

EQUIPMENT FOR POST-HARVEST PRESERVATION AND TREATMENT OF PRODUCE

Historical Perspective

Science, Engineering, and Technology

Field-based versus Shed-based Operations

Receipt of Produce

Conveying

Cleaning

Sorting and Grading

Treatment

Packaging and Labeling

Unitization

Storage

Dispatch

Transport

Wholesaling

Retailing

Consumption

Policy

Post-harvest Systems Management

Future Directions

PLANNING AND BUILDING OF STOCK-RAISING FARMS

Site selection considerations

Space and distance requirements

Topography

Climate

Utilities

Safety and security

Biosecurity

Malodors from livestock facilities

Combining buildings into a production system

Developing a site plan

Building a production facility

EQUIPMENT FOR CATTLE PRODUCTION

Types of cattle production

Methods of feeding

Cattle housing

Cattle health and welfare

Milking equipment

Management tools

New developments and discussion

EQUIPMENT FOR PIG PRODUCTION

Environmental Impact of Pig Production

Equipment to Minimize Environmental Impact

EQUIPMENT FOR SHEEP PRODUCTION

Sheep production options

Equipment for pasture systems

Watering troughs

Feeding equipment

Lambing equipment

Confinement production

Handling facilities

Buildings for sheep production

EQUIPMENT FOR POULTRY PRODUCTION

Types of poultry

Types of chicken housing systems

Economic Impact of Poultry Production

Housing Systems

Feeding Equipment

Watering Equipment

Medication Equipment

Ventilation and Heating

Lighting

Harvesting

Waste from Poultry Systems

AUTOMATION AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

Automation

Automatic Identification of Animals

Automatic Feeding

Automatic Monitoring of Physiological Yield Parameters

Software

Robotics

Milking Robot

ECOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY

Interconnection of Human Beings and the Natural Environment

Designing with Ecological Constraints

The Issue of Sustainability

What is an Ecosystem Service?

Ecological Engineering – the Merging of Ecology and Technology

Key Technologies for Sustainable Ecosystems

Implementing Ecology and Technology

EROSION CONTROL EQUIPMENT

No-Till Systems

Ridge Tilling

Cultivators for Heavy Residue

Fall Strip-Till Systems

Mulch-Till Systems

Controlled Traffic

Wind Erosion

HEALTH AND SAFETY OF PERSONNEL IN AGRICULTURE

Tractors

Other Farm Machinery

Animals

Confined Spaces and Storage Structures

Slips and Falls

Overhead Power Lines and Electricity

Chain Saws and Woodcutting

All-Terrain Vehicles

Fires

Chemicals

Respiratory Hazards

Noise

Skin Cancer

Repetitive Motion and Back Injuries

Maintenance, Repair, and Construction

Child Safety on the Farm

Stress and Depression

Regulations and Management

AGRICULTURAL-RELATED FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS

Fundamentals of Fires and Explosions

Fires in Stored Agricultural Crops

Agricultural Machinery Fires

Fuel Storage

Agricultural Chemical Fires

Grain Dust Explosions

Fire Detection and Suppression Systems

RECOVERY AND USE OF WASTES AND BY-PRODUCTS

STORAGE, HANDLING AND DISPOSAL OF ANIMAL SLURRIES

Composition

Storage

Transport

Treatment

Application and utilization

Environmental and legal aspects

ANIMAL SOLID MANURE: STORAGE, HANDLING AND DISPOSAL

Solid Manure Characteristics

Solid Manure Handling Alternatives

Collection and Transfer Systems

Storage

Treatment

Land Application

BALING, TRANSPORTATION, AND STORAGE OF STRAW

Baling

High Pressure Compaction

Transport and Handling

Storage

Logistic Chains

COMMERCIAL USES OF STRAW

Animal Feeding

Electrical Power and Fuel Generation

Composting and Mushroom Cultivation

Building Construction and Structural and Paper Product Manufacturing

Environmental Mitigation and Farm Use

Other Uses

ANIMAL WELFARE AND HUMANE SLAUGHTER

Comparisons of electrical stunning and CO2 stunning

Electrical Stunning

Captive Bolt Stunning

Carbon Dioxide Stunning

Assessing Insensibility

Insensibility in Poultry and Gas Stunned Animals

Ritual Slaughter

Objective Scoring of Animal Welfare

Stunning Methods and Blood Splash

THE ROLE OF SLAUGHTER HYGIENE IN FOOD SAFETY

Animal cleaning and washing

Chemical dehairing

Knife-trimming and steam-vacuuming

Carcass decontamination by spraying, rinsing or exposure to steam

Carcass chilling

Carcass cutting and meat storage

Further processing and preparation for consumption

Overview

PROCESSING AND MARKETING NON-MEAT PRODUCTS FROM LIVESTOCK

Historical background

Physicochemical, ecological and economic background of the utilization of non-meat products from livestock

Mass balance of world meat production and non-meat products from livestock

Non-meat products from fallen stock and emergency culling

Ethical consideration in the utilization of non-meat products from livestock

Animal raw materials versus plant and "synthetic" raw materials

Total quality management in non-meat products from livestock

Outlook

PHYSIOLOGY OF GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION IN LIVESTOCK

Growth

Reproductive Physiology

Conclusions

EVOLUTION OF LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT

MONOGASTRIC NUTRITION

Pigs

Poultry

Horses

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND MODELING IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

AN OVERVIEW OF THE FOOD SYSTEM

Food System

Topics of Concern in World Agriculture

ENERGY USE IN PRODUCTION OF FOOD, FEED, AND FIBER

After the 1973 Oil Embargo

Overview of Energy Use and Food Production

Agriculture and Alternative Energy

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

Soil Bio- diversity in Agricultural Food Production

Water Use and Water Pollution

Energy

Climate Change

Food Safety and Biotechnology

Use of Chemicals

Desertification

ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING OF AGRICULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY USING EMERGY ANALYSIS

Environmental Decision-making with Emergy

Food Production

Biofuels

Aquaculture

Forestry

SOCIAL AND POLICY ISSUES OF AGRICULTURE AND FOOD

Stages Underlying Contemporary Social and Policy Issues of Agriculture

Food Supply and Demand

Market Structure in Food Industries

Coping with Excess: The Problem of Obesity

Coping with Scarcity: Underdevelopment and Food Insecurity

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

Systems Definition and Systems Theory

SPATIAL FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL DATA

Precision Agriculture

Spatial Data and Geographical Information System (GIS)

Food and Agricultural Product Traceability Systems

Infrastructures for Building, Upkeep and Use of Spatial Data

DATA ASSIMILATION SYSTEMS

Physical Properties of Biomaterials

Sensors and Data Acquisition Systems

Database and Data Utilization

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS DESIGN INCLUDING BIOSTATISTICS

The Need for Statistical Data Analysis

Principles of Statistical Analysis

Strategies for Statistical Data Analysis

Biostatistics

DATA PRESENTATION SYSTEMS

Data Flow

Tools for Data Presentation

Conclusion

CROP MODELS - IN OPEN FIELD

Brief history

Crop modeling components

Case Studies

CROP MODELS - WITHIN CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

Crop Modeling

Model Applications

FOOD PROCESSING MODELS

Modeling Basic Transport Process and Kinetics

WATER RESOURCE MODELS

Watershed-Scale Models

Flow-Governing Equations

Mathematical Bases of Watershed Models

AGRICULTURAL METEOROLOGICAL MODELS

Approaches in Developing Agricultural Meteorological Models

Models of Weather Variables not commonly measured

Derived Weather Variables

Models Linking the Microclimate to Atmospheric Forcing

Crop, Livestock, Insect, and Disease Weather Response Models

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS METHODS FOR DATA FROM FIELD EXPERIMENTS

Data Collection

Methods for Data Analysis

TELECOMMUNICATIONS FOR DATA COLLECTION AND DISSEMINATION IN AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION

Data Collection in Agriculture Production

Wired Data Communication in Agriculture

Wireless Data Communication in Agriculture

Data Telecommunication Technology in Agriculture

The Future of On-farm Data Telecommunication

FOOD RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Non-destructive Quality Assessment of Foods

Prediction of Microbial Growth in Foods

Issues of Food Development in the 21st Century

WATERSHED MODELING FOR WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

SWAT Applications

HSPF Applications

DWSM Applications

METEOROLOGICAL FORECASTING FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Application of Agricultural Meteorological Forecasts

Meteorological Forecasts

Forecast Users

CURRENT USE AND PROSPECTS OF INFORMATICS IN MODELING, ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Web-based Environmental Modeling System: A Case Study

Future Works

MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL, FORESTRY, AND FISHERIES ENTERPRISES

Challenge of Food and Fiber Production

Natural Resource Sectors

Natural Resource Enterprises

Future

COMMUNITY-BASED NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Benefits of Community-Based Natural Resource Management

Characteristics of Sustainable Community-Based Natural Resource Management

TRADITIONAL AND SMALL FARMS

Some Concepts and Definitions

Historical Background

The Present Situation

Strategies for Dealing with Small Farms

State of the Art Approaches

INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES

Cooperatives in Japan

Agricultural Cooperatives in Israel

Agricultural Cooperation in the Former Soviet Union

Agricultural Cooperatives in Canada

Agricultural Cooperatives in India

Agricultural Cooperatives in China

MARKETING BOARDS: AN INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW

Introduction and Overview

The Functions of Marketing Relative to the Roles of Marketing Boards

Marketing Boards and Other Institutions of Market Intervention for Farm Products

Development, Focus, and Evolution of Marketing Boards

Types of Marketing Boards

Supply Management Marketing Boards

Some Examples of Marketing Boards and Government Boards for Agriculture

A Summary and Overview: Marketing Boards in the Future

COLLECTIVE AND STATE ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURE

Definitions and Delimitation

Collective Enterprises in Agriculture: a Historical Overview

Examples of Common/Collective Enterprises

An Evaluation of Collective Enterprises in Agriculture

State Agricultural Enterprises

CORPORATE CONCENTRATION AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBAL FOOD INDUSTRY

Globalisation of Grocery Retailing

Food Manaufacturing - The Clash of the titans

Supply Chain Partnerships for a Global Food Industry

PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

Importance and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources

International Approaches to World Plant Germplasm Conservation and Use

Patterns of Plant Germplasm Use and Adoption

Collecting, Preserving, and Cataloguing Plant Genetic Resources

The Application of Plant Genetic Variation to Achieve Genetic Gains in Plants

Ownership and Access Issues in Plant Germplasm Conservation and Use

WATER MANAGEMENT

Importance of Water and Its Global Distribution

Cropping Systems for Sustainable Water Use

Irrigation

Drainage

Degradation of Water Resources

PLANT NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT

Macronutrients for Crop Production

Removal of Nutrients by Crops

Replacement of Soil Nutrients

Precision Farming

Future Concerns

MULTIPLE CROPPING SYSTEMS

Cropping Systems Terminology

Conservation Tillage

History of Multiple Cropping

Multiple-Cropping Systems in Less-Developed Countries

Multiple Cropping in Developed Countries

GREENHOUSE AND HYDROPONICS SYSTEMS

History

Definitions

Greenhouse Tomatoes

United States Greenhouse Tomato Demographics

Global Greenhouse Tomato Demographics

Market Saturation

Essential Equipment for Growers

Pollination

Variety Selection

Cluster Harvest

Greenhouse Cherry Tomatoes

Tips for New or Prospective Growers

Information for New Growers

GENETIC RESOURCES FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

Animal Variability and Diversity

Threats to Animal Diversity

Steps Towards Better Management and Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources

Management of Animal Genetic Resources

EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION: GRAZING MANAGEMENT ON RANGELANDS

Grazing Intensity

Grazing Studies in the United States

Range Vegetation and Grazing System

Livestock Performance and Grazing System

Financial Returns and Grazing System

Grazing Systems Versus Grazing Intensity

Season of Use Versus Grazing Intensity

Grazing Studies by Vegetation Type

Consideration of Grazing Systems

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN FEEDLOTS/LANDLESS SYSTEMS

Animals

Health

Nutrition

Growth Manipulation

Marketing

Waste Disposal/Nutrient Management

LIVESTOCK DIVERSIFICATION: ISSUES AND TRENDS

Emergence

Status of Farmed Wildlife

Products and Markets

Issues

Future

INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

Agricultural Industry and Land Use

Integrated Systems

Systems Analysis Methodology for Integrated Production Systems

BIOPARKS: INTEGRATED PRODUCTION/RECREATIONAL SYSTEMS

Processes

Components

Concepts

TRENDS IN RESOURCES PROVIDED BY FORESTS

What is a Forest Resource and Why

History of Different Uses and Causes of Change

Present Condition and Future Trends of Resources and Its Value

TRENDS IN OWNERSHIPS AND POLICIES RELATIVE TO FOREST RESOURCES

Trends in Forest Ownership

Issues and Trends in Forest Planning, Policies and Institutions

ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR PROVIDING SUSTAINABLE FOREST RESOURCES

Forest Management Systems

Forest Management Organizations

Forest Management Approaches

Classification of Management Systems

Assessment and Emerging Concerns

SILVICULTURE AROUND THE WORLD: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE TRENDS

Where Are We Coming From? An Abridged History of Silviculture

Where Are We? More Recent Trends in Silviculture

Where Are We Going? The Future of Silviculture

ABORIGINAL FISHERIES ISSUES: THE WEST COAST OF CANADA AS A CASE STUDY

First Nations: Culture and Identity

Impact of Modern Industrial Fisheries on First Nations

A Proposal for Conservation and Restitution

THE FISHING ENTERPRISE AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

Introduction: The Economic Dimension of Fisheries

What is an Enterprise and How Does an Enterprise Behave?

How Does the Behavior of Enterprises Affect Fishery Resources?

Challenges to Fisheries Management

PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN FOREST MANAGEMENT

FOOD FOR THE FUTURE: DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABILITY

Persistent and New World Food Problems

The Development of Ideas about Agricultural Sustainability

What is Agricultural Sustainability

The Environmental Challenge

Does Sustainable Agriculture Work

Soil Health Improvements

Improved Water Efficiencies

Minimum-Pesticide Farming

Getting the Policies Right

Areas of Debate and Disagreement

REGENERATIVE FOOD SYSTEMS

Development of the Concept of Regenerative Food Systems

The Socionatural Framework

Regenerative Societies and Food Systems

Regenerating Local and Regional Food Systems

ORIGINS OF PLANT AGRICULTURE AND MAJOR CROP PLANTS

Principal Attributes of Agricultural Origins and Crop Domestication

FARM PRICE AND INCOME SUPPORT MECHANISMS

Evolution of Farm Price and Income Support Mechanisms

Support Mechanisms

INSTITUTIONS, ORGANIZATIONS, AND POLICIES AFFECTING AGRICULTURE: PRESERVING FARMLAND

Soil Conservation

Farmland Preservation

INSTITUTIONS, ORGANIZATIONS, AND POLICIES AFFECTING AGRICULTURE: PROTECTING FAMILY FARMS, SPECIES, AND FOOD AND WATER SAFETY

Regulating Genetically Enhanced Organisms (GEOs)

Regulating Chemicals

Regulating Pathogens

Protecting Endangered Species

Saving Family Farms

INSPECTION, QUARANTINE AND QUALITY CONTROL

The Nature of the Problem

Policy Responses

Future Challenges

VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

The Food Safety/Public Health Paradigm

Economics of Veterinary Public Health

Origins of disease

The development of hygiene inspection

Country experiences

Process and procedure

International co-ordination

International trade

INTERNATIONAL POLICIES TO CONTROL PLANT AND ANIMAL DISEASES

Impact of Diseases and Mechanisms for their Control

Empirical Evidence of Trade Implications of Disease

The Use of Risk Analysis in the Process of Altering Trade

Non-tariff Barriers: Some U.S. Examples

Discussion

INTERNATIONAL FOOD INSPECTION

Overview of Food Inspection in an Era of Freer International Trade

Food Inspection Systems

Common Principles for Operating Food Inspection Systems for Imports and Exports

Current Challenges in Operating International Inspection Systems

Future Challenges

AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AS BARRIERS TO SUSTAINABILITY

What is Sustainable Agriculture?

Symptoms of Unsustainable Agriculture

Major Threats / Challenges to Agricultural Sustainability

Barriers to Adopting Sustainable Agriculture

Attaining Sustainable Agriculture in the Future

Introduction

LAND OWNERSHIP AND PROPERTY RIGHTS

Introduction: Definition and Importance of Land Tenure

Historical Discussion of Land Tenure

Land Tenancy Policies of the Late Twentieth Century

Advantages of Property Rights in Land

Rural Land Markets and the Access of Poor People to Land

Various Land Titling Projects

VALUATION AND OWNERSHIP OF GENETIC RESOURCES IN AGRICULTURE

Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Agriculture

Ownership Issues

Genetic Valuation: Theory

Genetic Research models

Empirical Valuation

Key Future Issues for Agricultural Genetic Resources

PATENTS AND OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

A Brief Taxonomy and History

IPRs for Agricultural and Life Sciences

Why Intellectual Property Rights?

Some Economics of IPRs

Alternatives to Patents

Some Open Policy Issues

EXCHANGE RATE IMPACTS ON THE COMPOSITION OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE

Comparative Static Results

The Simulation Model

Simulation Results

PRICE, IMPORTS, EXPORTS, AND TAXATION POLICIES

Price Policies

Import Policies

Export Policies

Tax Policies

Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement

FOOD SECURITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY FOR INDIA

Factors Affecting Future of Indian Food Demand and Supply

Simulation Results

IRON NUTRITION IN MAN: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES ON IRON DEFICIENCY AND MALNUTRITION

Two Concepts of Malnutrition

Iron Deficiency- A Global Problem of Public Health Importance

Iron Forms in the Body

Studies on Iron Nutrition – A Methodological Challenge

Iron Deficiency Tests

Physiologic Effect of Iron Deficiency.

Bioavailability

The Iron Intake Paradox

Iron Malnutrition - A Result of Deteriorating Nutrient Density or Energy Density?

Iron Deficiency and Excess - A Public Health Dilemma

Dietary Diversification, Changes in Food Preparation or Food Supplementation?

Calcium-Iron Interaction

GLOBAL IMPORTANCE OF ZINC DEFICIENCY IN HUMANS: ITS RELATIONS TO MALNUTRITION AND STRATEGIES FOR ITS PREVENTION

Etiology of Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries

Prevalence and consequences of zinc deficiency

Strategies to Prevent Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries

GLOBAL IMPORTANCE OF SELENIUM AND ITS RELATION TO HUMAN HEALTH

Metabolic Roles of Selenium

Selenium in Food Systems

Global Variation in Selenium Status

Selenium and Human Disease

Selenium as an Anti-Carcinogen

Selenosis

Enhancing Selenium in Food Systems

GLOBAL IMPORTANCE OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN HUMANS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO MALNUTRITION

Definitions

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD)

The present situation of VAD globally

Malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency in infancy

Vitamin A and childhood mortality and morbidity

Vitamin A and morbidity

Maternal VAD

Global commitment

EXPERIENCE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SUPPLEMENTATION OF IODINE IN IRRIGATION WATER AS A PRACTICAL AGRICULTURAL APPROACH TO REDUCE IODINE DEFICIENCY

Basic Pathophysiology and Manifestations

Geology and Geography of Iodine Deficiency

Monitoring and Measurement: Indices of Iodine Deficiency

Methods of Iodine Supplementation

Iodine and Livestock

Agricultural Approach to Iodine Supplementation

An Experiment in Environmental Supplementation of Iodine Through Irrigation Water

Results of Iodate Dripping into Irrigation Water in Southern Xinjiang

Effect of Iodine Supplementation on Infant Mortality

A proposal for iodination of animals in pastoral economies

IMPROVING THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF MAIZE AND WHEAT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION

Micronutrient Malnutrition in Maize and Wheat Growing Areas

The Potential Role of Micronutrient-Dense Maize and Wheat Staples

Education

Technical Appendix: Breeding Strategies for Micronutrient-Dense Maize

IMPROVING MICRONUTRIENT VALUE OF RICE THROUGH BREEDING

Rice and Micronutrients

Effect of Soil and Climate on Grain Mineral Content

Optimal Growing Conditions and Mineral Content

Effect of Milling on Grain Iron Content

Improved Rice with Enhanced Fe and Zn in the Grain

Bioavailability Tests

Mapping and Genetics of high-Fe Trait in the Grain

Breeding Strategy

The Future

IMPROVEMENT OF COMMON BEAN FOR MINERAL NUTRITIVE CONTENT AT CIAT

Consumption of Legumes

Genetic Resources of Bean

Aspects of Mineral Nutrition as Applied to Bean

Genetics of Mineral Concentration

Implementation in Breeding Programs

CLASSICAL BREEDING TO IMPROVE VEGETABLE VITAMIN AND PROVITAMIN CONTENT

Breeding Efforts to Improve Vitamin or Provitamin Content in Vegetable Crops

Future Directions and Conclusion

THE ECONOMICS OF PLANT BREEDING AS AN AGRICULTURAL STRATEGY FOR REDUCING MICRONUTRIENT MALNUTRITION

Micronutrient Malnutrition: Extent, Costs, Alternative Interventions

Will A Breeding Strategy Work? Five Key Questions

INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF STAPLE FOOD CROPS

Selected Examples Demonstrating the Influence of Mineral Fertilizers on Nutritional Quality of Crops

AGRONOMIC APPROACHES FOR INCREASING IRON AVAILABILITY TO FOOD CROPS

Introduction - The Origin and Scope of the Problem

Agronomic Methods for Correction of Iron Deficiency

AGRONOMIC APPROACHES TO INCREASING ZINC CONCENTRATION IN STAPLE FOOD CROPS

Variation in Zn Concentration in the Grain

Variation in Zn Concentration in Root Crops

Effects of Macronutrient Fertilizers in Increasing Zn Concentration in Staple Food Crops

Effects of Zn Fertilizers in Increasing Zn Concentration in Staple Food Crops

Cropping systems

Soil Mining: Fact or Fallacy

Remobilization of Zn from Vegetative Tissues for Loading into the Grain

AGRONOMIC APPROACHES TO INCREASE SELENIUM CONCENTRATION IN LIVESTOCK FEED AND FOOD CROPS

Geographic distribution of Se

Se uptake by plants

Field treatment with Se

Bioavailability of Se

AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES TO MINIMIZE NITRATE ACCUMULATION IN EDIBLE PARTS OF CROP PLANTS

Hazards of Nitrate to Health

Nitrate in Plants

Control of Nitrate Content of Plants

PLANT BASED SOURCES OF PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS IN RELATION TO HUMAN HEALTH

Protein Quantity

Difficulties in Defining Amino Acid Requirements and Protein Scoring Patterns

Adequacy of Plant Based Diets in Developing Countries for Children.

Health Implications of Plant Protein Diets

MOLECULAR GENETIC APPROACHES TO IMPROVE THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF STAPLE FOOD CROPS

Crop Improvement

Major Biotechnological Advances in Nutritional Improvement of Plants

MOLECULAR GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF PROTEIN QUALITY OF MAIZE

Maize Seed Proteins

Genetic manipulation of maize kernel protein fractions

MOLECULAR BREEDING OF VEGETABLE CROPS FOR IMPROVED PROVITAMINE A CAROTENOID CONTENT

Molecular Approaches to Improve Carotenoid Content in Vegetable Crops

The Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway: Enzymes, Genes and Gene Regulation

Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chloroplast and Chromoplast Development

Future Directions and Conclusions

GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF CEREALS WITH LOW PHYTIC ACID CONTENT

Phytic acid Genetics

Breeding and evaluation of "low phytic acid" crops

The Use of Near-Isogenic Crop Lines in Studies of Dietary Phytate in Human Health

IMPROVING THE PROTEIN CONTENT AND QUALITY OF TEMPERATE CEREALS: WHEAT, BARLEY AND RYE

Increasing Total Grain Protein

Improving Grain Amino Acid Composition

DEVELOPMENT OF IRON-RICH CROPS BY GENETIC ENGINEERING

Overview of the Genetic Improvement for Iron Content in Crops

Research Approaches to Understand Molecular Mechanisms Ensuring the Store of Excess Iron in Plants

The Advantage of Using the Ferritin Molecule to Store Iron

Overproduction of Ferritin in Rice Grain Regulation of Specific Expression

A Practical Way to Improve Iron Accumulation Based on Ferritin

Future work - To Store More Iron in Ferritin and Ensure the Bio-Availability of Iron

ENGINEERING OF SEED QUALITY CHARACTERS IN LEGUMES

The Context Principle

The Engineering of High-Methionine Grain Legumes

Quantitative Lowering of Nutritionally Adverse Compounds and the Elimination of Toxins

Phytofarming for Improved Quality Characters of Grain Legumes Seeds

INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL FARMING SYSTEMS ON NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF FOOD

Undesirable Ingredients Food Safety

Desirable Ingredients

Holistic Quality Assessment

Models

Effects on Well-being other than Physical or Chemical

DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIOECONOMIC AND NUTRITIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ASIA

General Information

Vegetable Production Systems

Diversification of Cereal-based System with Horticultural Crops

Vegetable Research Focus

Successful Examples

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

INTRODUCTION TO SOIL PHYSICS

The beginning of soil physics

Contemporary soil physics

The future of soil physics

SOIL BIOLOGY

Soil organisms

Soil biological processes

State of the art in soil biology

SOIL GENESIS, CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING

The soil profile

The catena

History of pedology

Soil classification

Soil Mapping (also known as Soil Survey)

SOIL CLIMATOLOGY AND METEOROLOGY

Radiation

Soil heat flux and soil temperature

Water

Oxygen and other gaseous materials

Wind and atmospheric transport

Practices to modify the soil microclimate

State of the art in soil microclimate

CROP SCIENCES

PLANT PROPAGATION

Sexual propagation

Asexual propagation

Somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seeds

Automation and robotics in propagation

THE DAIRY INDUSTRY

Overview

Information Sources

Nature of The Dairy Industry Today

Influential Factors

Increasing Efficiency

Marketing

WORLD BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION

History

Breeds

Worldwide Distribution

Production Systems

Areas of the World

Yield of Animal Products

Advantages and Disadvantages of Product compared to Competitors

By-Products Useful to Humans

SHEEP PRODUCTION

History

Breeds of Sheep

Worldwide distribution

Other Breeds, Breed Types and Recent Developments in Sheep Genetics of Interest in Specific Localities.

Production Systems / Areas of the World

Yield, Product and Consumption

Advantages and Disadvantages of Product Compared to Competitors

By-Products Useful to Man

Other Products Useful to Man

OVERVIEW OF WORLD SWINE AND PORK PRODUCTION

History

Geographic Distribution

Breeds

Genetic Improvement

Feeding Programs

Production Systems

Harvest, Consumption and Trade

Production Trends and Efficiencies

By-products and Other Uses for Swine and Swine Products

Challenges for the Future

POULTRY PRODUCTS AS FOOD

Domestication And Development Of Breeds

Production Systems

Marketing And Preservation

Worldwide Distribution

Yields Of Product From Poultry

Composition Of Products

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Poultry

By-Products

UNDOMESTICATED FOOD ANIMALS HUNTED AND USED FOR FOOD

Alligators and crocodiles

Amphibians

Insects

Mammals

Birds

Reptiles

Eels

OTHER DOMESTICATED AND FARMED ANIMALS

Undomesticated animals

Domesticated Animals

VETERINARY MEDICINE: PREVENTING LIVESTOCK DISEASES, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE USA

Disease control in the USA

International Disease Control Programs

Public Health Issues

Concerns of Today

THE ROLE OF MEAT IN THE HUMAN DIET

Population versus food supply

Vegetarianism vs omnivory

Land Use

The Purpose of Food

Protein Source

What Food to Produce?

Economics and meat consumption

The relationship between food and health

New concerns over pathogens

Animal rights

The future of meat

SOIL-PLANT-WATER-AIR RELATIONS

WATER UPTAKE BY PLANTS

Water in the root environment

Water absorption through roots

Determining water uptake

Dynamic growth responses

NATURE OF MINERAL NUTRIENT UPTAKE BY PLANTS

Nutrient uptake by plants

Plant responses to soil nutrient supply

Nutrient uptake from extreme soil environments

TRANSPORT OF WATER AND NUTRIENTS IN PLANTS

Source-Sink Relationships

Phloem Loading and Unloading

Driving Gradients and Transport Processes

Carrier Molecules and Sequestration

CAPACITY OF SOILS FOR SUSTAINING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION - A GLOBAL OVERVIEW

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF NORTH AMERICA'S SOIL RESOURCES

Retrospective – The Perils of Projecting into Unknown Futures

A World View – Ratcheting Up Demands on the Land

Can Global Cropland Yield More Food Sustainably?

North America’s Agricultural Production: Character and Nemesis

Capacity of North America’s Agricultural Productivity

What Production and Demand Scenarios Would Test the Limits of North America’s Agricultural Production Capacity?

Concluding Thoughts and Summary

SUSTAINABLE SOIL USE IN TROPICAL SOUTH AMERICA, WITH EMPHASIS ON BRAZIL

Soil functions and sustainability

Tropical South America

AGRICULTURAL SOILS IN EUROPE - SPECIAL DEMANDS RELATED TO INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE IN AN INDUSTRIALIZED ENVIRONMENT

Soil Changes Caused by Intensive Agriculture

Soil Changes Caused by Urbanization and Industrialization

Alternatives and Solutions

Problems and Opportunities Arising out of the Transition of Agriculture in Eastern Europe

Prospects

CAPACITY OF AFRICA'S SOILS TO SUSTAIN OR EXTEND CURRENT CROP AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION

Current agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa

Soils

Mixed farming systems

Strategies for soil fertility management

Integrated soil fertility management in practice

CAPACITY OF SOILS TO SUSTAIN OR EXTEND CURRENT CROP AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION: NEW ZEALAND AND SOUTH PACIFIC ISLANDS PERSPECTIVES

New Zealand

South Pacific Islands

CROP PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN NORTH AMERICA

Past Trends in Demand

Past Trends in Crop Production

Projections of Future Trends

Policy Challenges

Research Challenges

CROP PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN EUROPE

Europe in the Aggregate

Western Europe Dominated by the CAP

Eastern Europe in Transition

Transition in Russia and Neighboring Countries

CROP PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN AFRICA

Past Trends in Demand

Past Trends in Crop Inputs and Production

Projections of Future Trends

FERTILIZER USE: TYPES AND AMOUNTS

FERTILIZER USE IN NORTH AMERICA: TYPES AND AMOUNTS

History of Fertilizer Use

Fertilizer Use and Crop Production

Fertilizer and Environmental Issues

Future Trends in the Fertilizer Industry

FERTILIZER USE IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE : TYPES AND AMOUNTS

Central Europe

Eastern Europe

The Baltic States

FERTILIZER USE IN WESTERN EUROPE: TYPES AND AMOUNTS

Crops

Fertilizers and Their Types

The West European fertilizer industry

Fertilizer Consumption

FERTILIZER USE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: TYPES AND AMOUNTS

History of Fertilizer Use in Sub-Sahara Africa

Factors Influencing the Growth of Fertilizer Use

The Effect of Fertilizer Use on Crop Production and the Environment

Future Trends Anticipated

FERTILIZER USE IN SOUTH ASIA

Fertilizer use in South Asia

Elements of fertilizer use in South Asia

Fertilizer use and sustainability of agriculture

FERTILIZER USE IN CHINA: TYPES AND AMOUNTS

Background

Factors Influencing Fertilizer Consumption Growth in China

Factors Affecting Fertilizer Use and Crop Production

Environmental Issues

Future Trends and Forecast

FERTILIZER USE IN OCEANIA: TYPES AND AMOUNTS

The region

Geology and soils

Agricultural production and changes in fertilizer consumption in the last 10 years

Environmental consequences of fertilizer usage in Oceania

PEST CONTROL: INSECTS AND OTHER ARTHROPODS

Insecticidal control

Biological control

Insect growth regulators

Sterilants

Semiochemicals

Plant resistance

Mechanical and physical control

Cultural control

Plant products

Fumigants

Novel insecticides

Regulatory control

PEST CONTROL: HERBACEOUS WEEDS

Review of Current Management Strategies

PEST CONTROL: FUNGI, STREPTOMYCETES, AND YEASTS

Crop losses due to fungal diseases

Traditional disease control practices

Evolution of using microorganisms for plant disease control

Biological Control with Fungi

Biological Control with Streptomycetes

Biological Control with Yeasts

PEST CONTROL: RODENTS

Characteristics of Rodents

Rodent populations

Types of Rodent Problems

Control Methods

URBAN SOILS

HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL AREAS

Street tree patches

Container gardens

Impervious and pervious pavement, sealed areas

Rooftop planting

Roof run off infiltration area

SOILS IN LOW DENSITY RESIDENTIAL AREAS

Nightsoil: human waste disposal on soils

Ponds

Location and design criteria

Riparian corridors

SOILS IN LANDSCAPED PUBLIC AREAS

Parks

Playgrounds

Burial Grounds

LANDSCAPED COMMERCIAL AREAS: GOLF COURSE AND ATHLETIC FIELD SOILS

Soil Compaction

Root Zone for High Traffic Areas

Examples of Root Zones for High Traffic Areas

Putting Greens, Tees, and Athletic Field Soil Properties

The Continuum of Soils for High Traffic Areas

The Relation between Agronomic Quality and Play for High Traffic Areas

The Establishment of Playing Quality Standards

Interactions between Player and Surface

Interactions Between the Ball and the Surface

Agronomic Reliability, Playing Quality and Level of Use

BIOPHYSICAL FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD SUPPLY FROM LAND

STRESSES OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS CAUSED BY ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS

SOIL DEGRADATION AND MANAGEMENT

FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION TECHNOLOGY

THERMAL PROCESSING

Pasteurization

Blanching

Sterilization

Cooking and frying

Electro-technology in thermal processing

Future trends

DEHYDRATION IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION

Drying methods

Thermal drying

Pretreatments

Quality changes during drying

Future development of food dehydration

FOOD STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:NATURAL RESOURCES AND FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

INTERDISCIPLINARY AND SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES

WASTE MANAGEMENT ISSUES, INCLUDING RECOVERY, AND SUSTAINABLE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

Farm Operation Waste

Feedlot Waste

Food Processing Waste

Pulp and Paper Waste

Land Application of Waste Water and Health