ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HUMAN RESOURCES POLICY AND MANAGEMENT - Table of Contents

MAJOR ISSUES IN HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

The Seven Philosophical Foundations of HRD

Implementation of HRD

A HISTORY OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

In the Beginning: Survival through Labor and Learning

The Use of Tools and Mutual Cooperation

The Influence of the Greeks and Romans

Education and Training in the Middle Ages

Apprenticeship

Education and Training during the Renaissance

The History of Human Resource Development in Selected Countries

Twentieth Century Influences

HRD and Organizational Change

The Era of Computerization and Information Technology

Transformation of Contemporary Organizations

The Evolving Nature of Work

SOCIOLOGICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Breakdown of Traditional Institutions

Emergence of Multiple Perspectives

Shift to an Information-Based Economy

Increased Rate of Change

Inadequacy of Traditional Models

Changing Workforce

Impact on HRD Practice

Unanswered Sociological Questions

POLITICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Conceptual Framework

Politics and Power in Organizations

Organizational Power: Power and Influence of International Organizations

Limitations to Organizational Sustainability: Problems and Pathologies for Politics and Power in Organizations and Human Resources

Shifting to Ecocentric Human Resource Development

Closing Thoughts

GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

The Concept and Dimensions of human Resources Development

Global environment for human resources development

Emerging Global Market Economy

Information and Communications Technology (ICT)

Radical Transformation of World of Work

Emergence of the knowledge and Learning as a Companys and Countrys Greatest Assets

New Roles and Expectations of Workers

Agriculture

Medicine

Industry

Speed of Change - Moving from a Newtonian to a Quantum World of Chaos

FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Framework for Understanding Financial Aspects of HRD

Historical Framework

General Findings Related to HRD Financial Analysis Methods

Early HRD Financial Analysis Classics

From Financial Analysis of Methods (FAM) to Forecasting Financial Benefits (FFB)

Recent Financial Analysis Research in HRD

Financial Assessment of the HRD Function and Organization-wide Efforts

ECONOMIC FOUNDATION OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Defining HRD and Theoretical Foundations

Economic Theory as Theoretical Foundation of HRD

The Theories of Human Capital and of the Firm and the Human Resource Development Discipline

Human Capital and the Individual: Training and HRD

Human capital: a form of capital

Education and human capital formation

Human capital and training

The Theory of the Firm: Training and HRD

General training

Firm-specific training

Human Capital and HRD: The Organization Development Strand

Education and training

CULTURAL RESEARCH IN HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

Theoretical Framework

Ways of Studying Culture

Implications for the Future

NEEDS ASSESSMENT IN HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Major Theorists and Authors

What Are "Needs"?

The Purpose of Needs Assessment

Levels of Assessment

Framing the Needs Assessment

Steps to Needs Assessment

Steps Specific to Training Needs Assessment

Data Collection Techniques for Needs Assessment

Prioritizing Needs

The Link to Evaluation

Guidelines for Needs Assessment

Future Issues

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES

The importance of human resource development

The challenge of defining HRD objectives

A conceptual model of HRD objectives

The nature of HRD objectives

Change and maintenance objectives

Multiple levels of objectives

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

What are HRD activities?

Machine and ecological activities

HRD as training, development and education

Training for performance improvement;

Training as HRD activity for organizational growth

Designing HRD activities

Development as an HRD activity for individuals

The desired outcomes of HRD activities

Three dozen ways to polarize the conceptualization of HRD activities

Constructing HRD activities: an HRD activities development process

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLANS

Planning is an imperative

Planning as learning is the key skill for business success

Two planning strategies for HRD

Planning, a strategy of action plans

Fluency in implementing work plans

Essential elements of planning as a science

Learning, another important element of HRD planning

The planning-learning cycle

Four planning loops

RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS FOR HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Resource requirements for HRD: Competencies

HRD goals: Competencies

First Resource: HRD Professionals

Seven Challenges of Dave Ulrich for HR Professionals

HRD Competencies Checklist

HRD Structures

HRD styles and culture

HRD systems

Performance Appraisal

ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR HRD

Why Strategic Planning has become important in HRD

The Concept of Strategic Planning for HRD

Levels in strategic HRD Planning

Aspects of strategic HRD planning

An integrated method for strategic HRD planning

HRD effectiveness

HUMAN LIFE SYSTEMS, DIVERSITY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

GLOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE AND BIOSOCIAL SYSTEMS

Understanding Our World

Global Interdependence

Biosocial Systems

Future Trends and Perspectives

ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND MODERN HUMAN ADAPTATIONS

Global Patterns of Human Variation

Human Adaptation to Climatic Extremes

Adaptation to the Cultural Environment

Limits to Human Adaptation

DIVERSITY AND MULTICULTURALISM

Introduction to the Concept of Diversity

Multiculturalism and Cultural Diversity

The History of Diversity Efforts in the United States

The Civil Rights Movement in the U.S.

Equal Rights for Women

Organization Development

Group Process and the Personal Growth Movement

Current Thinking on Diversity Management

The Language of Diversity

The Message of Diversity

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND EQUITY

The Distribution of Goods Within and Between Societies

Gender, Equity, and Human Development

SPIRITUALITY IN THE WORKPLACE

Spirituality & Leadership

Spirituality in the Organization: Frameworks to Consider

Concerns about Spirituality in the Workplace

Future of Spirituality in the Workplace

WORLD POPULATION GROWTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Ethical and conceptual issues

Our uncertain knowledge of the environment

The Impact of population growth on the environment

What are the implications for population policy?

Political and administrative difficulties in developing a global environmental policy

HUMAN RESOURCES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

Institutions and Trust in Early Societies

Institutional Development

Democracy and Human Development

Economic Growth and Human Development in Nineteenth-Century Europe

The Twentieth Century

Political Systems and Human Development

The Twenty-First Century

The Moral Economy

WEB-BASED TRAINING

Web-Based Learning Environment

Web-Based Training Components and Features

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES

Introduction: Human Resource Development and Environmental Change

Global Environmental Change: The Response of Human Systems

The Intertwining of Human Resource Development and Environmental Management: Education for Environmental Sustainability and Business Profitability

Future Trends: A Strategic Partnership between HRD and Environmental Management

PEACE AND SECURITY

Peace

Security

International Development Assistance and Conflict

Peacebuilding

FINANCE AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

How Finance Works: Value, Risk and Confidence

Finance and Economic Growth

Structural Adjustment, Financial Reform and Human Development

Vulnerability in Financial Systems

CONSEQUENCES OF MARKET CHANGE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

Conceptual Issues and Challenges

Global Markets, Rise of the West, Imperialism and Industrialization

International Organizations, Market Change, Cold War and Decolonization

Globalization, Market Triumphs and Life Support System Perils

Consequences of Economic Globalization for Ecology and Human Development

Taming the Market? Sustainable Human Development Alternatives

THE CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL SOCIAL CHANGE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

The Nature of Global Social Changes

Consequences for Human Development

INFORMATION SYSTEM RESPONSE MODEL : AN EXTENSION OF THE TAM MODEL

Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)

EVLN

Information System End-Ser Responses

Implications For Practice

Directions For Future Research

VIRTUAL WORK: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN AND ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT

Introduction: The Nature of Virtual Work

Organizational Research and Virtual Teams: A Western View

Types of Virtual Organizations

Executive Leadership and Virtual Teams

HUMAN SECURITY:PERSPECTIVES FOR HUMAN RESOURCES AND POLICY MANAGEMENT

A Framework for Analysis

Environmental Insecurity

DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Motivation

Decision-making

Attitudes and behavior

Changing attitudes

Evaluating interventions

Organizational psychology

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE FAMILY

Differences between a Domestic Group and a Family

The Developmental Cycle of the Domestic Group

The Universality Function of the Family

Family Organization

Types of Families

The Nature of the Family

Social Development in Relation to the Family

The Family and the Nature of Change

Patriarchy and Women

Family Law and Women

Customary Law

SOCIAL ECOLOGY IN URBAN SETTING

Introduction: Human Ecology

Territorial Organization

Internal Organization of the City

Urban Symbolic Ecology

Urban Greenery and Agriculture

Mega-urbanization

THE CONTEXT OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLICY

Technology, Globalization, and Postmodernism

Towards an Urbanized World

Restructuring and Reinventing the Economies of Cities

Social Change

The Ecological Challenge

New Policy Paradigms

Two Urban Development Programs

THE CONTEXT FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY

The Emergence of Rural Life

The Characteristics of Rural Communities

The Classification of Rural Societies

Types of Agricultural Activities

Political Struggles and Land Ownership

Poverty in Rural Societies

Variations in Rural Society: Time and Space

Distinctions between Policy and Development

Survival of the Rural Poor: Poverty, Hunger, and Sustainable Development

How Green is the Green Revolution?

Approaches to Rural Development

The Nature of Agrarian Economies and Development Strategies

THE SOCIOLOGY AND ECONOMICS OF LABOR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The Urban Informal Sector

Developments in the Informal Sector

The Functioning of Labor Markets in Developing Countries

Labor Markets: Differentiation and Segmentation

The Functioning of Labor Markets

Regulation of Labor Markets

Challenges for Developing Countries

RURAL ISSUES IN DEVELOPED NATIONS

Definitions

The post-World War II years

Agriculture in the forefront of European integration: The ‘60’s and ‘70’s and the tragedy of success

Policy changes in the ‘80’s and ‘90’s: Economy and ecology

Prospects and issues in rural life in developed nations- towards a sustainable development of the countryside?

THE ROLE OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Introduction: Social Development and Ethnic Groups

Conceptual Framework

The Nation State and Ethnicity: Cases of Third World Societies

CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

RELIGIOUS BELIEF AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Introduction: Culture, Religious Belief, and Worldview

Examples of Religious Belief and Worldview: Three North American Indian Tribes

Religious Beliefs Translated into Action: North American Indian Resource Management

GENDER DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Gender Differences in Health Status

Gender Differences in Education and Labor Market Outcomes

Implications for Economic Growth and Policy

DRIVING FORCES OF CULTURAL CYCLES

USE OF RESOURCES AND SPACE

Cultural Processes, Resources, and Change

Resource Use in Domestically Organized Cultures

Domestically Organized Use of Space

Resource Use in Politically Organized Societies

Politically Organized Use of Space

Scale Limits to Political Power

Resource Use in Commercially Organized Societies

Domestic Space in Commercially Organized Societies

Current Trends and Examples

Significance of Trends in Relation to Current and Future Problems

Explaining Scale Trends

Key Issues/Problems

THE CONSUMER SOCIETY

CONSUMPTION IN AFFLUENT SOCIETIES

Round Up the (Un)usual Suspects

Materialism and Denial Strategies

CONSUMPTION IN DEVELOPING SOCIETIES

Basic Empirical Questions About Consumption

Households as Consumers

Beyond Households: Power Infrastructures and Other Linkages

The Politics of Consumption in Developing Societies

CONSUMPTION AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Ethical Arguments for Changing Consumption Patterns

Perspectives on the Shaping of Consumption Patterns

Policies for Changing Consumption Patterns

GLOBALIZATION AND THE CONSUMER SOCIETY

Theories of Globalization and the Consumer Society.

Consumption and global ecological pressure

Solutions/Looking towards a sustainable future.

EQUITY

Equity and inequity defined.

Relations of Inequity: Poverty, Hunger, and Health.

Theories about inequity.

Equity and Human Rights: Economic, Social, Cultural, Civil and Political Rights.

Equity, Inequity, and global ecological pressure.

Equity and Sustainable Development: Providing for Environmental Balance and Basic Human Needs.

HEALTH - SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

A Framework for Core Indicators

Historical Perspective

Impact of Poverty on Health

North–South Perspective and the Debt Crisis

Impact of Population Pressure on Health

Major Causes of Mortality

Recent Trends in Health Thinking

Global Burden of Disease Study 1992–1994, published 1996/7

Cost-effectiveness of Health Interventions

DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS: HUMAN ASPIRATION AND SUSTAINABILITY

Human Aspiration and Sustainability

Sustainability Indicators and Accounting

Economic Basis for Human and Social Development

Global Governance

ESSENTIAL OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION

Different Aspects of "Being Suited for Life"

Meeting Needs and Reducing Barriers to Learning

Action—Reflection—Action

Ways of Expressing the Objectives of Education

The Significance of Structures

The Objectives of Education

EDUCATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

The Twentieth Century in the Context of World History

The Twentieth Century -- the Century of Education

Problems of the Development of Modern Education

Main Directions of the Reformation of Education

FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION

Origins of education

Science and education

Education as a political and economical goal of a modern state

Education in global politics

International cooperation in the field of education

Education in the post-Industrial world

Development of human Aspects as a goal of modern education

PLANNING, ORGANIZATION, AND ADMINISTRATION OF EDUCATION

Planning

Organization

Administration

Trends

Climates and Ethos

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES OF EDUCATION

Social and Cultural Issues in Education

Types of Social and Cultural Education

HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE. NATURE AND MAN: ORIENTATIONS TO HISTORICAL TIME

Division of Emphasis

Historical Knowledge and ‘Sustainability’: Part 1

The Dilemma of Values

Historical Knowledge and sustainability: Part 2

Cultural Sustainability as primary focus.

METHODOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

Scientific Research

Applied Research

The Tools of Research

Training versus Education

The Deployment of Scientific Research Tools

Patrons

FUTURE ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE: LESSONS OF THE FIRST NUCLEAR AGE

The Road to Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Nuclear Weapons and the "Lessons" of History

Containment and Nuclear Weapons

The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Curious Lessons of the Carter Administration

President Reagan and Nuclear Weapons

The Nuclear Debate

CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE

Culturology

A Typology of Culture

KNOWLEDGE OF THE ENVIRONMENT

Environmental Knowledge

Knowledge of Energy and Information

Knowledge of Environmental Stability

Knowledge of the Natural Biota of the Earth

Knowledge of Human-Biota Interaction

BIO-SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE: HUMAN ADAPTATION IN DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL NICHES OF THE WORLD

Patterns of Geographic Variability of the Human Physique and Metabolism

Relationships of Human Adaptive Types with Ecological Forms of Animals and Plants

Ecological Variation in Human Urban Populations

KNOWLEDGE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Biophysical and Ecological Knowledge

Socioeconomic Knowledge

THE IMPORTANCE OF EARLY EDUCATION

What is Early Education?

Goals and Objectives of Early Education

Children’s Health

Contemporary Education and Society

The priorities of Early Childhood

Children in the Family

A Model of Education: "Authoritarian" or "Democratic"?

Children and Nature Today

Children in Urban Environments

Educational Systems and Technologies

Prospects for Early Education.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

Educational Data

Purposes of Secondary Education

Global Secondary Education Today

TERTIARY OR POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION

Relevance of Tertiary Education

Quality of Tertiary Education

Management and Financing of Tertiary Education

Cooperation and Tertiary Education

Some Tertiary Education Statistics

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

The Main Purposes of the Education System

Professional Education

GRADUATE LEVEL EDUCATION

Peculiarities of Graduate and Postgraduate Education Systems in Western Europe and the USA

Graduate and Postgraduate Education Systems in Eastern/Central Europe

New Models of Interdisciplinary Graduate-Level Education in Russia

GOING THE DISTANCE IN EDUCATION : TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY IMPERATIVES

Preface: An International Survey of Distance Education and Teacher Training: From Smoke Signals to Satellite

A few years later a second report saw the light of day (Cornell, R., & Murphy, K. (eds.). (1995). Preface

And more recently, in Cornell. R. & Ingram, K. (Eds.) (1997), its preface stated

Implications for the Future

Implications for Taiwan and Other Nations

LIFETIME LEARNING

Principles of Higher Education and Lifetime Learning

"Academic Lifetime Learning"—Definitions and Positions

Educative Aspects

Social Aspects

Regional Aspects

Lifetime Learning and the Reform of Higher Education

New Information and Communication Technology

EDUCATING CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA

Organization of Education

Current Issues

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS: EDUCATIONAL INDICES: CENTRAL AMERICA

Historical Background

Educational Indices in Central America and the Caribbean

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS: CASE STUDIES AND EDUCATIONAL INDICES: SOUTH AMERICA

Historical Background

Educational Indices in South America

Case Studies: Bolivia, Chile, and Brazil

THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

Organizational Patterns and Management

Higher Education

Examples of Curricula and the subjects Comprising Them

Evaluation of student Performance

Russian Engineering School: From the Technocratic Approach to Education for Sustainable Development

THE SYSTEMIC REFORM OF SCIENCE EDUCATION IN JAPAN - PRESENT AND FUTURE

What Is Scientific Literacy?

How Scientific Literacy Can Be Developed (Part A: Theory)

How Scientific Literacy Can Be Developed (Part B: Practice)

Presentation of Results

Interpretation and Discussion

Need for Systemic Change

EDUCATION AS AN INTEGRAL ASPECT OF AFRICA'S EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS

Educational Reforms: Efforts and Results

Challenges for the Immediate Future

EUROPE: INTRODUCING CHEMICAL CONCEPTS USING ENVIRONMENT CONTEXTS

Salters Chemistry and Science Projects

Salters Advanced Chemistry Project

Education in Global Change Project

A University Course

EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA

Australia

Aotearoa/New Zealand

EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Aspects and Concept of Development

Pressing Factors

Role of Education

Humanistic Ideals, Education, and Development

Basic Education and Development

Developmental Aspects of Higher Levels of Education and Lifelong Learning

Education for the Dissemination, Sharing, and Advancement of Knowledge

EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

A Historical Perspective

A Political Perspective

A Conceptual Perspective

A Curriculum Perspective

EDUCATION POLICIES AND GENDER

Gender Terminology

Gender Asymmetry

Dynamics of Women’s Status

Feminization of Professions

Illiteracy and Functional Illiteracy among Women

Education and Population Health

Biological Determinism and Discrimination against Women

Gender and the Sciences

What Next?

EDUCATION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES

Rights and responsibilities

Inclusive Education and School Reform

Access to General Education Curriculum

Instructional Techniques

Professional Education

The Future

THE MASS MEDIA AND NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN EDUCATION

Education for Sustainable Development

The Information Society

TRANSFERRING KNOWLEDGE OF SUSTAINABILITY

Strategies for Sustainability

Transferring Knowledge of Sustainability

EDUCATION AND THE CONSUMER SOCIETY

A Context for Education in the Twenty-First Century

Global Consumption Patterns

The Consumer Society

Advertising, Television, and Consumption

The Central Role of Monetary Systems

Alternatives to the Consumer Society

Education and the Consumer Society

Educating to Achieve a Sustainable Future

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, EDUCATION AND GLOBALIZATION

Agenda 21: Its Vision and Some Obstructions

Towards a Theory of Sustainable Development

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION

Technology in Education: Historical Perspective

Desktop Computing

The Internet

Issues/Obstacles

KNOWLEDGE FOUNDATION : EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Meaning of education for sustainable development

Sociological foundations: sustainable society and use of environmental strategies to achieve sustainable development

Philosophical foundations: tensions between anthropocentrism and biocentrism

Psychological foundations: from behaviourism to constructivism

Economics foundation: from neoclassical and weak and strong sustainability paradigms

Approaches to curriculum and instructional design in environmental education

Alternative perspectives in education for sustainable development

Greening the curriculum in the tertiary education sector

Non-formal and adult environmental education

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND AWARENESS

Contents of Education and Awareness

Preschool

Primary and Secondary School

Graduate Level

Professional Education

Ecology and Sustainable Development Course as a Part of Environmental Education

HUMAN RESOURCE SYSTEM CHALLENGE : POPULATION

DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES

SYSTEMS OF INFORMATION IN DEMOGRAPHY

Place and History of Observation in Demography

A General Classification of Systems

The Continuous Registration Systems

Censures

The Surveys

Recent Tools: Aerial Photography and Remote-Sensing

Neglected Sources: Administrative Informations

Some Remarks about the qualitative Approaches

Private Life and Collection of Data

Some Final Remarks

DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

Basic concepts

The key variable: time

Basic descriptive and analytical tools

MORTALITY

The persistence of large disparities

A new geography of mortality

The stages of health transition

What assumptions for the future?

MIGRATION

Is spatial mobility inherent to human life?

The state of art

Basic past trends

Present trends

Policy challenges

Can future migration be predicted?

DEMOGRAPHIC MODELS

Modeling and demography

Mortality models

Nuptiality models

Mathematical models of conception and birth

Migration models

Models of population growth

THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY

Harsh criticisms, at times unwarranted

The main ingredients

A false dichotomy

Some real weaknesses

Three central propositions

ECONOMIC MODERNIZATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC MODERNIZATION

European transitions : from Malthus to Pincus

The diversity of underlying circumstances

A diffusionist model of innovation

Contemporary transitions : the strenght of the model

Demographic precursors

The transition : the ninth dimension of development

POPULATION AND ECONOMIC INEQUALITY

World population and output

The international poverty line

The human development index

A massive health improvement

The state of literacy by major region at the end of the 20th century: Breakthroughs and slumps

ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES

Two theories

Economic progress and demographic transition in poor countries: fifty years of experience, 1950-1999

Secular growth in the industrial world

Demographic aspects of modern economic growth

Economic breakthrough in poor countries

POPULATION, URBANIZATION AND MIGRATION

Two centuries of urbanization 1800-2000

About 2.8 billion city dwellers in 2000

The emergence of megacities

Cities and slums in the third world

A further proliferation of megapolises : recent past and future

The future of urbanization; a skrinking occupation of space

The migratory transition

Ethnic diversification in the West

MODERN DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES AND THE FAMILY

Family and the demographic approach

Western Family through History

Today, a Waning Nuclear Family

POPULATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Human Rights

Population Trends

Human Rights and Population

Some Population and Human Rights Issues for the Future

POPULATION AND GEOPOLITICS

POPULATION AND INTERSTATE CONFLICTS

The Demographic Price of War

Numeric and qualitative population strength

Factor of aggression

DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES, NATIONALISM AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS

Nations and demography

Ethnic conflicts

POPULATION GROWTH AND GLOBAL SECURITY

Security, order and disorder

Population growth and security

POPULATION POLICY

THE HUMAN RIGHTS APPROACH TO REDUCING MALNUTRITION

The Human Rights Context

Malnutrition

Causes of Malnutrition

Food and Nutrition Rights in International Law

International Standards

Objective 7.4 of the World Food Summit

National Framework Legislation

INVESTING IN THE FUTURE:POPULATION EDUCATION FOR YOUTH

Today’s Young People: Issues and Challenges

Education, Population, and Development

Empowering Young People through Education and Participation

Moving Beyond Cairo and into the next Century

Increasing Investment in Young People

IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AT AN EARLY AGE

Approaches to early childhood education

Importance of education at an early age

Psychological perspectives on parenting, motivation and learning

Socio-cultural and related issues

ENVIRONMENTAL CURRICULA DEVELOPMENT FOR EACH AGE GROUP

Some affective factors of personality

Basic criteria for curriculum development

Curriculum development

Mechanisms to introduce environmental curricula into secondary schools

METHODS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

Some psychobiological factors influencing teaching and learning

Teacher personality and effective teaching

Guidance for effective teaching and learning

PARTICIPATION IN COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN AND OUT OF SCHOOL

Children’s play and related issues

Design and implementation of common environmental activities

SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR THE LEARNING DISABLED

Key Features of a Special Educational Environment

Working with the Environment

Principles of the Environmental Curriculum

Curriculum Content and Approaches

Using Resources

CURRICULA DEVELOPMENT FOR UNDERGRADUATE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

Basic criteria for curriculum development

The "Content" Element Of Environmental Curricula

Development of the "pedagogic" element of environmental curricula

Quality control

Some practical difficulties

INSTILLING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS IN UNDERGRADUATE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

What is it that undergraduate students should be aware of?

Instilling environmental awareness in undergraduate students

SOME PRESSING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF OUR TIME AND STRATEGIES FOR MITIGATING THEIR IMPACTS

Global Warming and Climate Change

Acidification of the Oceans

Poverty Eradication

Observations

CURRICULA DEVELOPMENT FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS

Lack of Progress towards Agenda 21 Objectives

Sustainable Development and Environmental Sustainability

Proposal for a Unique Operational Definition of Sustainable Development

Science, Technology and Environmental Sustainability

Proposed Environmental Subjects for Students in different Disciplines

CONSTRAINTS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE WORK OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGER

What is an Environmental Manager?

Constraints External to the Enterprise

Constraints Internal to the Enterprise

Future Trends

NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

How did we get here? Evolution of the "consumption culture"

Cause-Effect Relationship

Criteria for Research

Suggested Areas of Environmental Research

MODERN AND INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

NATURAL HISTORY FILMS

Brief Historical Background to Natural History and Naturalism

Evolution of Natural History films

Pre-eminent Pioneers of Modern Natural History films

Observations

INTERACTIVE WORKSHOPS, GAMES, AND SOFTWARE: EXERCISES IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

The draining accident

The Production Capacity Enlargement Exercise

The Greenhouse Effect Exercise

Environmental Pollution Unit (EPU) Exercise

How to produce 20 MWE?

Not making Tea: an Energy Waste?

PREPARATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNERS

The Nature of Work of the Environmental Planner

Career Opportunities and Job Description

Case Studies Showing the Participation Of The Environmental Planner

PREPARATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGERS

Skills and knowledge requirements for the environmental manager

Typical requirements of professional education and training for environmental managers

Case Studies of Professional Education and Training

Future Trends

PREPARATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT EVALUATORS

Objectives of Environmental Impact Assessment

Nature of EIE’s Work

Career Opportunities and Job Description

Education/Training

Cases in which the Environmental Impact Evaluator Would Participate

Conclusion

PREPARATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING CAREERS INCLUDING ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF DATA

Sampling

Chemical Analysis of Samples

Reporting Analytical Data

CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR DECISION-MAKERS INCLUDING POLITICIANS, SENIOR GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, AND CHIEF EXECUTIVES IN INDUSTRY

Human Knowledge and Some of its Salient Characteristics

Continuing Education

Suggestions for the Curricular Content for the Continuing Education of Leaders of Society

Some Other Issues that Leaders of Society ought to be aware of with a view to addressing them

Need and an Innovative Mechanism for Certification

CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR UPDATING TEACHERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Starting the education process

Reasons for staff education

The strategy of staff education

After the starting process

Example exercise

MECHANISMS FOR THE CONTINUING EDUCATION OF THE PUBLIC

Mechanism for continuing public education

Continuing education of the public and for informing them on specific issues

Observations

INFORMAL MECHANISMS FOR RAISING PUBLIC AWARENESS AT NATIONAL AND GLOBAL LEVELS AND IMPORTANT RELATED ISSUES

Why public awareness of environmental issues and problems is important, and the difficulties

Primary objectives of raising public awareness

Strategies for raising public awareness

Informal mechanisms for raising public awareness

Observation

THE VOLUNTARY SECTOR AND INITIATIVES IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Expansion of Voluntary Sector

Individuals

NGOs

Current and Future Trends

IUCN COMMISSION ON EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION (CEC)

The CEC — Its Vision, Mission and Objectives

Organization of The CEC

CEC Involvement in IUCN Work Programmes

Observations

INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR CONSERVATION EDUCATION

International Centre for Conservation Education and Its Major Activities

Current Projects of ICCE

ICCE's Educational Resource Base

Other Services Provided by ICCE

Observations

ENVIRONMENTAL LIAISON CENTRE INTERNATIONAL

The Environmental Liaison Centre International — Its Vision, Mission and Objectives

ELCI’s Links to and Relationship with International Organizations

Major Activities of ELCI

Observations

OTHER INTERNATIONAL NGOS

Greenpeace

WaterAid

Worldwatch

THE INTERNATIONAL EARTH DAY

The "International Earth Day"

Observance of the "International Earth Day"

Observations

Conclusion

NATIONAL AND LOCAL NGOS

Sustainable Development Higher Education Program

Support for Schools

Demonstration Project

Local Action

INITIATIVES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES

International NGOs

Local NGO-International NGO Collaboration

Community Initiatives

Performance education

Individuals

NGOS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF AFRICA’S WILDLIFE AND THEIR HABITATS

Some of the Major NGOs for the Conservation of Africa’s Wildlife and their Habitats.

Observations

THE FOREST IN INDIGENOUS CULTURE : FESTIVALS AND PLANTS AMONG THE ADIVASI PEOPLE OF BASTAR, INDIA

Geography and Climate

Vegetation

Plants and the Adivasi Calendar

Work and the Adivasi Year

Plants Outside the Festivals

TRIBAL AUTONOMY AND LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

The Debate on Tribal Autonomy and Life Support Systems

The Report on Tribal Self-rule

The Backdrop to the Debate on Self-rule

Restoring Life Support Systems: an Experiment in Self-rule

EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FOR INDIGENOUS PEOPLES IN NORTHERN AUSTRALIA

Science Fictions

Pre-settlement Aboriginal environmental impact

Re-implicating Aboriginal people in landscapes

GENDER, MEN, AND MASCULINITIES

Men and Gender

The New Research on Masculinities

Globalizing Masculinities

Reforming Masculinities

WOMEN AND FAMILY, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Women and Their Life Cycle

Women and Family

Women and the Environment: a Short History

Women, Family, and the Environment

GENDER AND ENVIRONMENT: LESSONS TO LEARN

Gender Differentiation in Resources Use and Management

Women’s Work Faces Environmental Problems

Coping Strategies of Women

Other Actions Needed

WOMEN AND WORK

Womens Disadvantage

Differences and Similarities

Dynamics of Change

Womens Work in Agriculture

Agency and Resistance

ENVIRONMENT AND NEW GENERATIONS: AN OPPORTUNITY FOR A NEW SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Environment and New Generations

The Mountains

The Mediterranean

Epilogue

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN ITALY: TRAINING SUPPLY AND POSSIBLE SCENARIOS

Sustainable Development and the Culture of Prevention: Challenges and Opportunities

The Reality of Environmental Education in Italy: Analysis of the Channels of Institutional Education

Employment Opportunities Created by Environmental Training

YOUTH TOWARDS THE THIRD MILLENNIUM: A RISK AND A PROMISE - THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA FOR AN ECOLOGICAL AWARENESS

Youth and Environment in the Third Millennium

The Duty to Inform and the Right to be Informed

Mass Media and the Environment

Youth and Media

THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD: CREATING A NEW GLOBAL ETHIC FOR CHILDREN

The Convention on the Rights of the Child

State of the World’s Children

Future Challenges

EDUCATION AND CHILDREN'S RIGHTS: CHALLENGES AND CHOICES FOR THE FUTURE

Aims of Education

Access and Participation

Introduction

Conclusion

IMMUNIZATION AND CHILDREN'S HEALTH

Expanded Program on Immunization

Poliomyelitis Eradication

Introduction of Newer Vaccines

Research for New and Improved Vaccines

An End-to-End Mission: From the Bench to the Bush

INTERNATIONAL REGULATION OF CHILDREN'S RIGHTS

The Historical Context of Human Rights

Rights for Children

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

Objections to the Convention

Future Prospects for International Regulation of Children’s Rights

ANTHROPOLOGY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

The Ways in which Anthropology Considers Issues of Development

Human Development and Agriculture: An Anthropological Analysis

The Hope for the Future: Counter-corporatization with a Human Face

MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND MORAL EDUCATION

Nature of Moral Value

The Cognitive Developmental Approach

The Social Learning Approach

Moral Development and Moral Education

SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: CONNECTING THE SCIENTIFIC AND MORAL DIMENSIONS

The Natural Context of Human Development

The Cultural Context of Human Development

Connecting the Natural and Human Contexts

ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Sustainable Human Development in Economic Development Thinking

Nation-State Building and Enhanced Stainable Development

Development Crisis and Structural Adjustment

Declining Human Development and Rising Poverty

Globalization and Sustainable Human Development

DIVERSITY AND HISTORICAL PROCESSES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Historical roots of diversity

Human diversity in recent times

IMPACT OF NEUROSCIENCE IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Neuroscience Before the Twentieth Century

Neuroscience in the Twentieth Century

Neuroscience Towards the Twenty-First Century

EQUITY, GROWTH, AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Equity and Growth: Exposing the Grand Theories to Data

Global Trends in Inequality

The Double Misfortune of the Poor

Growth and Human Development: Learning from the Outliers

Asset Distributions and Growth

Empirical Relationships and Policy Levers

GLOBAL INTERDEPENDENCE, PRIVATISATION OF RISK, AND HUMAN INSECURITY

Global Interdependence: a New Global System?

Finance and the Privatization of Risk

Governance: the Changing Roles of National Authorities

Prospects for Human Development in the Emerging Global Village

POPULATION TRANSITION

Demographic Transition

Population Growth Before 1950

Population Change 1950 to 2000

Twentieth Century Migration

Urbanization

Changing Age Profiles

Population Prospects 2000 to 2050

Economic Development and Environment

Perspectives and Responses to Population Growth

ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

Legislative History

Sources of Pollutant Emissions and Emission Controls

Implementation and Enforcement

Protection of Ecology

Tools for Decision-Making

HEALTH, SANITATION, NUTRITION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Health and Economic Development

The Effect of Development on Disease - Some Negative Consequences

Health, Nutrition and Education

Water Supply, Sanitation and Health

Water and Economic Development

Nutrition and Development - Macro Considerations

Nutrition and the Efficiency Wage Hypothesis

BELIEF AND ATTITUDE CHANGE IN THE CONTEXT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

The Belief Construct

The Attitude Construct

Belief and Attitude Formation

Theories of Belief and Attitude Change

Implications of Attitude and Belief Change for Human Development

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION AND EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Education and Fertility

Education’s Impact on Morbidity and Mortality

Education and Development

POLICY-MAKING IN A GLOBALIZING WORLD ECONOMY

Globalization Trends

Policy-Making in A Globalizing World Economy

INEQUALITIES IN EDUCATION: INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

Measuring Educational Outcomes and Household Wealth

The Wealth Gap in Educational Attainment and Enrollment

The Gender Gap in Educational Attainment and Enrollment

The Interaction of Wealth and Gender

International Correlates of Education Gaps

NATURAL RESOURCE AVAILABILITY

Availability and Scarcity

Concepts and Classifications

Resources and Classical Economics

The Neoclassical Contribution

The Empirical Evidence

Market Failures

The Environmentalists’ Role

The Problem of Scale

Substitutability

Sustainability

Green Accounting

International Conflicts

POVERTY: DIMENSIONS AND PROSPECTS

Poverty Measurement

Dimensions of Poverty

Prospects for Achieving the IDG on Poverty

Prospects: Growth and the Income of the Poor

GLOBAL POPULATION AGING

Global Trends in Population Aging: Inequality of Aging Pace, Timing, and Initial Social and Economic Conditions

Consequences of Population Aging: Adjusting to "the Crisis"

Consequences for Developing Countries: Social Sector Reforms -- Pension and Health Care Systems

Beyond the Economic and Social Sector Reforms: Culture and Laws, and the Special Case of Vulnerable Women

Global Interaction of Populations and Economies: Migration as a Special Case

PLANNING STRATEGIES FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES

Physical and Behavioral Objectives

Labor Quantity, Job Content, and Performance Quality

Environment for Change

Stakeholder Perspectives

Directions for the Twenty-first Century

INEQUALITY AMONG WOMEN AND ITS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF MENA

Gender Gaps

Status of Women

Inequality Among Women

The Impact on Economic Growth

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS AND THE WORLD: STRUGGLE AND CONNECTION IN CONTEXTUAL DEVELOPMENT

THE AIMS OF EDUCATION IN AN AGE OF STASIS AND CHANGE

The Role of Theory in the Aims of Education

The Liberal Tradition

Competing Analysis of Educational Aims

Interdependence of Educational Aims

EDUCATION, SUSTAINABILITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS

Utilitarian and Duty-Oriented Approaches to Environmental Issues

The Ecological Problem

The Limits of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a Measure of Well-Being

Sustainable Economies

Moving to a Steady-State Economy

THE POLITICS OF LEARNING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Technocratic Perspective

The Paradigm Shift Perspective

Task-based Perspectives: Social, Environmental and Educative

The Globalisation Perspective

The Segments Perspective

The Metaphorical Perspective

The Pragmatic Perspective

Some Commonalities

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN EDUCATION

Education as the Transmission of Culture

Formal Education: The School

Literacy and the Nation-State

Potential of Education Systems and the Future

POLICY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS: ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IN THE ACHIEVEMENT OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY

Policy

Planning

Management

PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF EDUCATION

EDUCATION, TRADITION, HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE AND SUSTAINABILITY

What is the role of tradition in the creation of a sustainable culture and educational system?

What is the role of historical knowledge?

What is the relationship between tradition and history?

What should be the role and function of history and tradition in the educational system?

KNOWLEDGE OF THE FUTURE AND THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS IN CREATING ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY

Global Protests

Individualism and Ethnocentrism

Rights of Future Generations

Energy Sustainability

Paying for Externalities

Shifting to a New Mode of Agriculture

Implications for Schools

Students as Citizen Planners

Designing a World Future

CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE

Cultural knowledge

Educating for dominant cultural knowledge

Community

Ecological solution finding

ESSENTIAL EARTH LEARNING CONCEPTS FOR TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

Essential Concepts

FORMAL STRUCTURES OF MODERN EDUCATION

EARLY EDUCATION: CRITICAL LITERACY, PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND RESOURCES FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

Introduction

From Nurturing Parents to the Education of All Children

Early Education for Sustainability: A North American Overview of Literacy Education

Subject Matter for Individual and Collective Responsibility: The Development of the Whole Person and Critical Literacy

What Should be Taught?

Conclusion

SECONDARY EDUCATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

Major Issues in Secondary Education

The Neo-liberal Ideology

Human Capital Development

Sustainable Development and Education

The Human Capability Approach: A promising initial path to Education for Sustainable Development

Conclusion

EARTH ETHICS, EARTH LITERACY, AND THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE

The Community College Context

The Obligations

The Case of Miami Dade College

Earth Literacy

Earth Ethics

Earth Ethics Institute

The Next Steps

SUSTAINABILITY AND UNIVERSITIES

Promotion of Sustainability in Universities

Progress in Campus Operations

Progress in Curriculum

Engagement with the local community

Research in the Field

THE RED QUEEN EFFECT: ROLES FOR ADULT EDUCATION IN SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY

The Learning Connection

Existing Demands for Learning

Learning for Sustainability

Differential Demand and Differential Sustainability

Provision of Learning Opportunities

Harnessing the Red Queen

EDUCATION, LIFELONG LEARNING AND LEISURE

Aims of Education

Ancient Origins of Education and Leisure

Modern Conceptions of Education and Leisure

Education for Leisure

Cultural Continuity

Barriers to Education for Sustainability

Leisure, Education and Sustainability

HOLISTIC EDUCATION

HOLISTIC EDUCATION: LEARNING FOR AN INTERCONNECTED WORLD

Historical Roots of Holistic Education

Holistic Learning

Examples of Holistic Education

COMPLETING THE HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE: EMOTIONS AND PSYCHE IN EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ECOSYSTEMIC CONSCIENCE

Introduction

The Psycho-emotional Dimension and Its Avoidance in Environmentalism

Ecological, Cultural and Psycho-Emotional Dimensions of Environmental Problems

Ecological, Cultural and Psycho-Emotional Dimensions of Human Development

Behaviour as Expression of the Desire for Well-Being

Psycho-ecological Bad Habits

The Emotional and Psychological Challenge for EfS/ESD

Enhancing EfS/ESD with Attention to Emotions and Psyche

Remembering the Experiential Origins of EfS/ESD

Conclusion

THE ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSIONS OF THE HOLISTIC CURRICULUM

The nature of curriculum

Paradigm tensions

The ecological dimension

Curriculum schemes

Curriculum as part of the whole

Reorienting curriculum

A connective pattern - curriculum, learning and sustainability

EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: CHALLENGING THE PRINCIPLES OF MODERNIZATION

EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND PRACTICE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

From Environmental Education to Education for Sustainability: A Troubled History

Education for Sustainability: A Troubled Present

Worrying Evidence

Reorienting Schools for Sustainability

DEVELOPMENT, EDUCATION AND GRASSROOTS MOVEMENTS FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE

The Genocidal Nature of Development

The Rise of the Alien National Pattern (and Genocide) in Europe

The State and the Market Function of Compulsory Schooling

Compulsory Schooling as Cultural Genocide

EDUCATION POLICY AND GENDER ISSUES: A SUSTAINABILITY PERSPECTIVE

Exclusion from Education

Policy

History of International Conferences and Conventions Related to Education

Education and Development

Gender and Education

Equity and Equality

The Link between Education and Sustainability

Thresholds of Education and Sustainability

What is Education for Sustainability

Societal Barriers to Literacy and Schooling

Women and Adult Literacy Programs

Recent Progress and Lessons Learned

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CULTURAL CONSERVATION AMONG MINORITY GROUPS : THE BASQUES AND SUSTAINABLE ETHNICITY IN AN AGE OF GLOBALIZATION

The Fluid Nature of Nationalism and the Creation of the Rural

The Case for the Basque: Globalization and the Struggle for Rural Identity

Economic Backwardness – The Basque Example

Modernization: the Basque Response

Schooling and Politics – Preserving the Basque Language

Lessons for and perhaps from Present Basque Nationalism

INDIGENOUS AND NEOTRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND THEIR ROLE IN CREATING AND MAINTAINING ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY

Indigenous and Neotraditional Knowledge

The Development of Alternative Knowledge Systems

Sustainable Development

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Effects of Globalization on Indigenous and Neotraditional Knowledge Systems

Valuing and Protecting Alternative Knowledge Systems

The Role of IKS in Development and Education

EDUCATION, THE INDIVIDUAL, AND CONSUMERISM

Technology in Education Reinforces Consumerism

Consumerism Targets Students

Globalization of Consumerism

Individualism Leads to Consumerism

MASS MEDIA AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION

Communication and Development

Electronic Media and Open and Distance Education

Challenges for Media Use in Open and Distance Learning

Concluding Considerations: Comparing Media Use in Differing Contexts

HUMAN RESOURCE SYSTEM CHALLENGE : POVERTY

CONCEPTS AND MEASUREMENTS OF POVERTY

CYCLICAL POVERTY IN MATURED WELFARE STATES

Definition and Measurement of Poverty and Social Exclusion

Cyclical and Persistent Poverty: Poverty Profiles

Poverty Dynamics: Evidence from Panel-Data in Affluent Societies

Challenges for Social Policy

UNDERSTANDING THE MEANING OF POVERTY

CAUSES OF POVERTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Situating Contemporary Poverty

Some Historical Roots of Mass Poverty in the Third World

Dialectics of the Structural and the Conjunctural

GLOBAL DIMENSIONS OF POVERTY

POVERTY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN CAMEROON

Introduction and Background

Methodology

The Cameroon Environment

Poverty in Cameroon

Causes of Poverty Leading to Environmental Degradation

POVERTY ALLEVIATION

SOCIAL PROGRAMS OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION

Programs of Poverty Alleviation: An Overview

From Poverty to Social Exclusion: The New Agenda for Program Evaluation

A Framework for Program Evaluation

Individuals and Households

Individuals and Communities

Individuals, Communities and Countries