ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NATURAL RESOURCES POLICY AND MANAGEMENT - Table of Contents

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE UNIVERSE

Introduction to the Sciences of the Universe

History of Astronomy

How the World has Evolved after the Big Bang

Entering the Twenty-first Century

EARLY EARTH

Early Earth: Concepts

Early Earth Evolution

HISTORY OF THE SUN

Principal Characteristics

Biography of the Sun

Structure of the Sun

Solar Activity

Solar Variability

Solar Wind

Solar Irradiance

COSMIC INFLUENCES ON THE EARTH

Influences of the Sun

Near Earth Objects

Cosmic Rays

THE GEOSPHERE

The Crust

Seismic Waves

The Mantle

The Core

Formation of the Earth's layers

INTERNAL FORCES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE

The Earth's Interiors - Thermal and Compositional Structure

The Mantle Engine

Rheology of the Lithosphere

Stress in the Lithosphere and its Relaxation

TIME IN THE GEOLOGICAL PAST OF EARTH

Geological Time—A Summary

Reconstruction and Relative Dating of Earth History

Absolute Dating of Earth History

MINERALOGY

Minerals in History

Current Instrumental Methods

Mineralogical System

Origin of Minerals

Current and Near-Future Tasks

Teaching of Mineralogy

VOLCANIC AND MAGMATIC ROCKS

State of the Art

Origin of Igneous Rocks

Forms of Plutonic and Subvolcanic Bodies

Landforms of Surface Volcanic Products

Classification and Characteristics of Principal Igneous Rocks

Importance and Utilization of Igneous Rocks

METAMORPHIC ROCKS

Introduction: What are Metamorphic Rocks?

Controls on Metamorphism

Metamorphic Reactions

Metamorphic Textures

Classification of Metamorphic Rocks

Types of Metamorphism

Metamorphic Zones and Facies

Metamorphism and the Rock Cycle

Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Sediments and Methods of Their Study

Erosional Processes

Depositional Processes and Sediment Types

Depositional Environments

Sedimentary Basins and Their Types and Preservation

The Facies Concept and Multi-Story Sedimentary Packages

Post-Depositional Processes

Sediment Utilization

SOILS

Definitions

Soil-Forming Processes and Associated Soil Functioning

Soil-Forming Factors

Classifying and Mapping Soils

FLUIDS IN GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES

Principals of ground water flow and solute transport

Chemical processes and changes of water chemistry along flow path

Formation of ore deposits

Ground water and heat transport

Migration of hydrocarbons

Tectonic movements, earthquakes and landslide

ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE

Indicators of Past Climates

Milestones in Paleoclimatic Research

History of the Atmosphere

Climate Evolution

Causes of the Past Climatic Changes

The Fossil Record and Future Climates

NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES

Background

Definition and classification of resources and reserves

Role of technology

Non-conventional sources

Conservation and sustainability

Resources availability: scarcity views

Global models

PLATE TECTONICS AND LANDFORM EVOLUTION

Plate Tectonics and Orogeny

Tectonic Regimes and Provinces

COASTAL AND MARINE PROCESSES

Types of Coasts

Coastal Change

Coastal Conflicts—Examples from the United States

RIVERS AND LAKES

The Hydrological Cycle

Rivers

Rivers and the Hydrograph

Rivers and Time Scales

River Energy

Base-level Changes

Rivers and Sediment Transport

Rivers and Floods

Climate Change

Rivers as Ecosystems

Lakes

Lakes and Environmental Reconstruction

The Natural Evolution of Lakes

Lake Succession

The Annual Cycle of Lakes

Dams

GLACIAL AND PERIGLACIAL LANDFORMS, PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENTS

Glaciers

Glacial Landforms

Periglacial Landforms

Quaternary and Former Glaciations

Dynamics of Glacial and Periglacial Processes as Evidence of Global Change

WIND ACTION

Evidence of Wind Activity in the Geological Past

Dust Transporting Wind Systems

Aeolian Processes

Wind Blown Sediments

Economic Impact of Wind Action: Natural Hazards and Benefits

WEATHERING AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICALLY MATURE SOILS

Morphology and Classification of Chemically Mature Soils

The Processes of Weathering of Igneous, Metamorphic, and Volcanic Rocks

Pedoplasmation

Sesquioxide Aggradation and Degradation

Genesis of Subsurface Diagnostic Horizons in Chemically Mature Soils

Role of Erosion and Sedimentation in the Development of Chemically Mature Soils; Application to Landform Evolution on Cratons; Examples from West African Cratons

Chemically Mature Soils: Past and Present Landuse

PROTEROZOIC HISTORY

Overview

Changes from the Archean to the Proterozoic: Plate Tectonics

Characteristic Lithologies of Proterozoic Age

Sediments in the Proterozoic: A Reflection of Changes in the Composition of the Crust

Orogenesis in the Proterozoic: Phanerozoic-style Plate Tectonics

Life in the Proterozoic

Ore Deposits in the Proterozoic

End of the Proterozoic: Beginning of the Phanerozoic (Cambrian)

PALEOZOIC HISTORY

General Characteristics

Paleozoic Systems

MESOZOIC HISTORY

Mesozoic Paleogeography

Mesozoic Endogenic Processes

Mesozoic Exogenic Processes

Mesozoic Environmental Changes

TERTIARY HISTORY

General Characteristics of the Tertiary

Tertiary Epochs

QUATERNARY HISTORY

Records of Quaternary Climate Change

Causes of Quaternary Climate Change

Introduction

ORIGIN AND ESTABLISHMENT OF LIFE ON EARTH

The Playground

The Source of Organic Carbon

Descent of Enzymes

Origins of the Genetic Code

Complexity

Emergence of Cells

The Conquest of the Planet

EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS AND PROCESSES

The Main Mechanisms of Biological Evolution

Natural Selection

Genetic Drift

Evolutionary Drives

Speciation

Extinction

The RNA World

Cultural Evolution

GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY AND ITS VARIATION IN SPACE AND TIME

Scale Dependence of Species Diversity

Factors Affecting Local Diversity

Regional Diversity and its Origins: Speciation and Extinction

Large-scale Biodiversity Patterns

Global Biodiversity and its Changes

The Value of Biodiversity

PAST GLOBAL CRISES

Introduction to Past Global Crisis

Processes and Effects Connected with Crises

General Aspects of Natural Global Crises and Interest of Mankind

TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS

Present- day Tropical Rain Forests

Geological Evidence for Tropical Rain Forests

Geological History of Tropical Rain Forests

Today's Oldest Tropical Rain Forests

EVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF EARTH'S BIOMES: TEMPERATE FORESTS

Present-day Distribution of the Temperate Forest Biome and Conditions Determining Growth

Geological Evidence for the First Temperate Trees

Temperate Forests of the Quaternary

Interglacial Temperate Forest Dynamics

BOREAL FOREST, TUNDRA, AND PEAT BOGS

Characteristic Features of Tundra, Boreal Forests and Peat Bogs at the Present-day

Development of Tundra, Boreal Forests, and Peat Bogs in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene

Anthropogenic Impacts on these Northern Ecosystems, the Situation in the Past and Prospects for the Future

ARID LANDS: CHALLENGES AND HOPES

Definitions

Paleoperspective

People and Land Use in Arid Regions

Geomorphology of Arid and Semiarid Lands

Biological Diversity in Arid Lands

Climatic Change

Soil Degradation

Water Resources and Use in Arid and Semiarid Lands

Human Impact on Arid and Semiarid Lands

Development in Arid and Semiarid Lands: Past, Present, and Future

MOUNTAINS

Physical Environment

Diversity of Life

Geoecological Pattern

Human-induced Impact

GRASSLANDS AND SAVANNAS

Evolution

Distribution

Ecology

Temperate Grasslands

Selected Grasslands and Savannas

Introduction

Conclusion

OPEN OCEANS

Basic Parameters and Function of Oceans

Sources of Data for Paleoceanography

History of Earth's Oceans

SHELF SEAS

Environmental Controls

Biotic Subdivision

Habitats

General Diversity Trends on Continental Shelves

Controls on Diversity

Temporal Diversity Trends

Estimates of Diversity

The Impact of Humans on the Shelf

MAJOR COASTAL AND TIDAL ECOSYSTEMS

Introduction to Coastal and Tidal Ecosystems

Classification of Coastlines

Geologic History of Coastal Ecosystems

Major Coastal Geomorphic Features and Associated Ecosystems

Coasts and Global Change: The Changing Shoreline

EVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF CORAL REEF ECOSYSTEMS

Environmental requirements for coral reef growth

Coral reef organisms and their many roles

Origin and evolution of reef biotas

Modern reefs: their origins and forms

Coral reefs and anthropogenic change

EVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS

Freshwater in the Global Hydrological Cycle

Age of Freshwater Ecosystems and Evolution of their Biota

Freshwater Bodies: their Origin, Forms, and Basic Ecological Processes

Important Freshwater Ecosystems during the Late Quaternary Period

EPEIRIC SEAS: A CONTINENTAL EXTENSION OF SHELF BIOTAS

Overview

The Environment of Epeiric Seaways

Origin and Evolution of the Epicontinental Sea Biota

MASS AND ENERGY: INTERACTIONS OF THE EARTH SYSTEM

The Earths Internal Heat Source

The Earths External Heat Sources

Interaction between Internal and External Energy Sources

Recycling in the Earths Surface Layers

Carbon Biogeochemical Cycle

Energy and Life

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING OF MACRONUTRIENTS

The Elemental Compositions of the Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Lithosphere

Life’s Need for Elements—Logic of Life on Earth

Elemental Compositions of Humans, Sea Animals, and Plants

Correlation in Elemental Composition between the Environment and Humans

Geochemical Cycling of Elements and the Contribution of the Biosphere

Biogeochemical Cycling of Carbon

Biogeochemical Cycling of Oxygen

Biogeochemical Cycling of Sulfur

Biogeochemical Cycling of Nitrogen

Biogeochemical Cycling of Phosphorus

Biogeochemical Cycling of Calcium

Biogeochemical Cycling of Sodium, Potassium, and Magnesium

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING OF MICRONUTRIENTS AND OTHER ELEMENTS

Biogeochemical Cycling of Silicon

Biogeochemical Cycling of Iron

Biogeochemical Cycling of Manganese

Biogeochemical Cycling of Copper

Biogeochemical Cycling of Zinc

Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury

Biogeochemical Cycling of Lead

Biogeochemical Cycling of Arsenic

Biogeochemical Cycling of Other Elements

A Historical Perspective on the Biogeochemical Cycling of Elements

Impact of the Human Species on the Global Cycling of Elements—General Consideration

TRACE ELEMENTS AND CONTAMINANTS

Trace Elements

Organic Contaminants

Recommendations

EARTH AS A SELF-REGULATING SYSTEM

History and foundations of the concept

The basis of environmental regulation

Case studies of regulation of biogeochemical cycles

Other areas of recent research

Future directions

MINERAL RESOURCES FOR LIFE SUPPORT

The Sustainability Concept and Economic Thought

The Balance between Supply and Demand in the Next 100 Years

The Production and Consumption Trends of Poor Countries

The Impact of Recycled Metals on Mining Operations

Protecting the Environment Regarding the Extraction of Minerals and Disposal of Hazardous Wastes

The Concept of Biocomplexity: A Holistic Approach

Improving the Quality of Life of Present and Future Generations

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: EARTH SYSTEM

Atmosphere

Hydrosphere

Cryosphere

Lithosphere

Pedosphere

Biota or Living Matter

Cycle of Energy on the Earth

Cycle of Matter

Geosphere

VLADIMIR VERNADSKY:COSMOS, EARTH, LIFE, MAN, REASON - FROM BIOSPHERE TO NOOSPHERE

A Russian Genius

A Brief Life Story

A Person

Naturalist and Thinker

Biocosmos

Spiritual Manifestation of the Cosmos

Anthropocosmos

Noosphere

Planetary Cosmic Synthesis

The Fortune of Russia/USSR

Our Contemporary: The Man of the Noosphere

BIOGEOCHEMISTRY

Ancient Biogeochemistry

Modern Biogeochemistry

The COSFE Cycles

CLIMATE CHANGES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON HUMAN HISTORY

Climate Changes in Prehistorical Times and Before Recent Age

Climate Variation and the Second World War

The Largest Population Density on Earth and the Climate

Carbon Cycle in the Earth-Atmosphere System and the Climate

ANTHROPOGENIC CLIMATE INFLUENCES

The Climate and Climate System

Greenhouse Gases and Atmospheric Aerosols

Anthropogenic Influence on Land

THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

The Formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Its Task

The Historical Background

The First IPCC Assessment Gets Under Way

Scientific Input to the Negotiations about a Framework Convention

Reorganization of the IPCC

The Second Assessment Report

Heading for a Third Assessment

Lessons to Be Learned.

POTENTIAL LARGE-SCALE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON WETLANDS

Global Warming

Wetlands

Effects of Global Warming on Wetlands

THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON MOUNTAINS

Impacts of Global Warming on Natural Systems in Mountains

Impacts on Socioeconomic Systems

Policy Response

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON FORESTS

Controls on Forest Distribution

Impacts of Past Climate Changes

Projected Trends

Possible Early Warnings

Policy Challenges

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

The Ocean and Global Climatic Trends

Marine Ecosystems

Marine Organisms

Hydrological Fronts and Ice Cover

Evolution of Ocean Ecosystems

Marine Environment and Biological Resources

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON WATER RESOURCES AND SUPPLIES

Climate and Hydrological Cycle

Climate Change and Hydrological Cycle

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : AN AREA WITH MANY KNOWLEDGE GAPS

Introductory Observations

The Problem of Indirect and Direct Effects

Climate-change Interactions With Biogeochemical Cycling

A Few Examples

PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS TOWARD GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

GLOBAL WARMING, POVERTY, AND ETHICAL ISSUES

Who Bears the Burden of Global Warming?

The Moral Imperative to Act

Justice in International Politics

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON HUMAN CULTURAL DIVERSITY

Global Warming, Agriculture, and Cultural Diversity

Environmental Refugees

The Cultural Impacts of Human Disease Associated with Global Warming

Effects of Climate Change on Indigenous Peoples and Island Cultures

Relationships between Global Warming and Social Violence

Policy and Research Priorities, with Intervention Principles

GLOBAL WARMING AND HUMAN MIGRATION

The Problem and the State of the Art

Preventive Action

Mitigation

Rehabilitation

Policy Guidelines and Roles of Different Actors

THE IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL WARMING FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

Energy Options for Carbon Abatement

Transportation

Sustainable Cities: An Integrated Approach

CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE

Agriculture and Climate

Climate Change Impacts on Crop Yields and Livestock Performance

Role of Human Response and Adaptation to Climate Change

Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Production, Prices, and Welfare

Environmental Effects on Agricultural Production

Mitigation of Greenhouse-Gas Emissions

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON TOURISM

Tourism in the Future

Climate and Its Components

Climate and Weather Impacts on Humans

Winter and Summer Tourism

Mountains

Health Resorts

City Tourism

Seasonal Migrations

EFFECTS OF POTENTIAL SEA-LEVEL RISES

EFFECTS OF SEA-LEVEL RISE ON COASTAL CITIES AND RESIDENTIAL AREAS

Impacts of Sea-level Rise on Coastal Urbanized Area

Urban Planning for Sea-level Rise

EFFECTS OF SEA-LEVEL RISE ON CORAL REEFS

Coral Reefs in Earth’s History

Coral Ecology and Reef-Building Processes

Sea-Level Rise and Human Activities

Future Management and Research Needs of Coral Reefs

EFFECTS OF SEA-LEVEL RISE ON SMALL ISLAND STATES

Regional Climate

Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise

Assessment of the Vulnerability of Small Island States to Sea-Level Rise

Adaptation Options

Implementation Considerations and Constraints

ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE FOR AGRICULTURE

Economics of Climate-Change Mitigation in Agriculture

The Costs of Climate-Change Impacts

COST IMPLICATIONS FOR FORESTRY

Study Overviews

Future Priorities Regarding Cost Analyses

THE COST IMPLICATIONS(OF POTENTIAL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE) FOR INDUSTRY

The Costs to Industry of Damage from and Adaptation to Climate Change

The Costs to Industry of Attempts to Mitigate Climate Change

COST IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES

Impacts of Climate Change on Fish

Direct Impacts on Fisheries

Indirect Impacts of Fish and Fisheries

Valuing Fisheries

Managing the Costs of Climate Change

COST IMPLICATIONS OF STORMS, FLOODS, AND DROUGHTS

Windstorms

River Floods

Droughts

Insurance

Disaster Relief

SHARING THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Introduction—the Costs of Climate Change

Sharing the Burden

Flexibility Reduces Costs

Fairness in Future Climate Change Negotiations

ENERGY POLICIES FOR CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

Sources of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Focus of Energy Policies

The Challenge Facing Energy Policies

Technical and Non-Technical Measures for the Reduction of Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

National Policy Instruments for Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction from Fossil Fuel Combustion

International Cooperation Mechanisms

ENERGY SAVINGS THROUGH CHANGES IN LIFESTYLES AND ECONOMICS

Energy System Models and Concepts

The Effect of Energy Savings on Lifestyles and Economics

End-Use Efficiency Savings

Renewable Energy Supply Options

Overall System Integration

METHANE EMISSION REDUCTION AND WORLD FOOD SUPPLY

Effects of Methane Accumulation in the Atmosphere

Factors Contributing to Methane Accumulation in the Atmosphere

Mitigation of Methane Accumulation in the Atmosphere

Food Security Issues Affecting the Agriculture, Forestry and Waste Management Sectors

Uncertainties and Future Research Needs

NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION AND AGRICULTURE

Emission of Nitrous Oxide from Agricultural Lands

Food Production and Fertilizer Consumption.

Fertilizer Consumption and Nitrous Oxide Production

Fertilizer Nitrogen Use Projections and Nitrous Oxide Emissions

Mitigation of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Intensive Crop Production Systems

Effects of Mitigation Techniques on Nitrous Oxide Emission

CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS AND THEIR SUBSTITUTES

Refrigeration, Refrigerants, Ozone Depletion, and Global Warming

Refrigerant Numbering

Identification of Chlorofluorocarbon Substitutes

The Options

The Consequences

CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENTS

The IPCC’s First Assessment Report, 1990, and the 1992 Supplementary Report

The IPCC Second Assessment Report, 1995

The Third Assessment Report

DECISION MAKING AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS FOR ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE

The Dimensions of the Climate Change Issue

The Climate Change Decision Process

Decision Analysis in Climate Change

Review: Synergies and Prospects

CLIMATE ENGINEERING : CONCEPTS, EXAMPLES, AND RISKS

Introductory Examples and Concepts

Concerns About Climate Change

Categories of Responses to Climate Change Risks

Basic Ideas of Geo-engineering

Responses to the Geo-engineering Option

CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION OPTIONS

Mitigation Options

Adaptation

USING EMISSIONS TRADING TO REGULATE GLOBAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

Emissions Trading Models

The Initial Allocation of Permits and Competitiveness Concerns

Banking and Borrowing

The Liability Rules for Non-Compliance

Bubbles

DEFINITION, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEPLOYMENT OF TRADABLE PERMITS

The "Production" of Permits: Allowance Trading and Credit Trading

The "Consumption" of Permits

Environmental Integrity and Allocative Equity

Fostering Environmental Integrity: The Administrative System

Fostering Economic Efficiency: The Market Institutions

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT CARBON TAXES? AN INQUIRY INTO THEIR IMPACTS ON COMPETITIVENESS AND DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME

Energy taxes versus carbon taxes

The treatment of the carbon tax revenues

Distributive implications

International competitiveness

EQUITY AND SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLIMATE CHANGE

Equity Principles and Burden Sharing Rules

Equity in the FCCC and the Kyoto Protocol

Proposals for Burden Sharing and Differentiation

Towards a Framework for Equity and Differentiation among Countries

DISCOUNTING, EQUITY, AND COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

The Impact of Alternative Choices of a Discount Rate

The Determinants of the Discount Factor

The Social Return on Capital

The Intertemporal Welfare Function

Long-Term Aspects and Sustainability

GENERIC ASSESSMENT OF THE COSTS OF RESPONSE STRATEGIES

Definition of Key Concepts

Decision-Making Framework

Adaptation and Mitigation Costs and the Linkages between Them

Basic Issues Related to Climate Change Cost Concepts

Main Issues in Adaptation Cost Assessment

Main Issues in Mitigation Cost Assessment

Mitigation Cost Estimates

INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO COMBAT CLIMATE CHANGE

The Modules of Integrated Assessment Models

Damage Assessments

Valuation of Non-Marketable Impacts

Uncertainty

THE CLIMATE SYSTEM

Earth’s Climate

Past Climates

Climate Models

Human Impact on Climate

Sustaining Climate

GLOBAL CLIMATE AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES

The Science of Climate Change

The Impacts of Climate Change

The Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC)

The Mitigation of Climate Change

CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL RESOURCES POLICY AND MANAGEMENT

Climate change, climate variability and the greenhouse effect

Observed climate variability and change

Future climate projections

Climate change — natural resources linkage

Climate change and natural resources policy and management

NATURAL RESOURCE SYSTEM CHALLENGE: OCEANS AND AQUATIC

Introduction: water on earth

The Oceans

Lakes and Rivers

Wetlands

Estuaries

Oceanic Islands

SHALLOW LAKES: EFFECTS OF NUTRIENT LOADING AND HOW TO REMEDY EUTROPHICATION

The Eutrophication Process

Resistance to Increasing Nutrient Loading

Triggering Factors for the Loss of Submerged Plants

Resistance to Decreasing Nutrient Loading

How to Break the Chemical Resistance

How to Break the Biological Resistance

Perspectives

ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RIVER REHABILITATION METHODOLOGIES APPLIED IN EUROPE

European Watercourses—Ecological State and Pressures on the Riverine Environment

River Rehabilitation in Europe

River Rehabilitation in Lowland Streams—Danish Examples

Case Studies

Challenges in the New Millennium

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLIED TO THE ANALYSIS OF RIPARIAN BUFFER ZONES AND LAKES

Analysis of Riparian Buffer Zones

Analysis of the Aquatic Ecosystem

PRE-RESERVOIRS FOR REDUCING NUTRIENT INPUTS FROM DIFFUSE SOURCES - A CASE STUDY

Introduction: The Objective

Description of the System

Operation of the Kis-Balaton Reservoirs

Recovery in Basin 1 of Lake Balaton

Discussion

DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION-MAKING TOOLS FOR EUTROPHIC LAKES

Dynamic Lake Models

Mixing Models

Biogeochemical Models

Water-Quality Models

Future Studies

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF RESERVOIRS: ISSUES AND MITIGATION

Impacts of Reservoirs

Responding to these Impacts

Trends in Future Planning

Future of Dams

DYNAMICS, THREATS, RESPONSES, AND RECOVERY OF RIVERINE-RIPARIAN FLORA

Riparian Forests

Aquatic Macrophytes

Riverine Algae

Natural and Human Induced Disturbances

Monitoring River Environments

System Recovery

COASTAL REGIONS

BIODIVERSITY OF COASTAL-REALM WATERS

The Coastal Realm

Coastal Realm Life

THE VEGETATED LITTORAL: MANGROVES AND SALT MARSHES

Ecosystem Structure

Ecosystem Function

Usefulness of Mangroves/Salt Marshes

Sustained Use Management

COASTAL EROSION AND DEFENSES AGAINST EROSION

Sea Levels and Frames of Reference

Coastal Processes and Erosion

Quantifying Coastal Erosion

Signatures of Coastal Erosion

Coastal Erosion Defenses

RESOLVING RESOURCE USE CONFLICTS IN COASTAL ZONES

Conflicting Uses

Dimensions

Natural Hazards

Commons

Conflict Resolution

Unified Coastal Management Framework

Tools

Some Essentials

Engagement and Integration

The Professional Challenge

Coastal Zone Management Case History: Negombo Lagoon, Sri Lanka

THE OCEANS AND SEAS

MARINE BIODIVERSITY: RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION

Introduction: What is Biodiversity?

The Human Impact on Biodiversity

Marine Biodiversity

FISH STOCKS AND FISHERIES IN RELATION TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND EXPLOITATION

State of Fisheries

Why Fish Stocks Vary?

The Relations between Recruitment and Spawning Stock

The Spatial Context of Fish Stocks

Long-term Changes: "Regime Shifts" and "Biomass-flips"

The Barents Sea Ecosystem: Fish Stock Dynamics during the Twentieth Century

The Overfishing Problem

Scientific Advice for Fisheries Management

TRANSFER OF NON-INDIGENOUS AQUATIC SPECIES CONCERN TO AQUATIC RESOURCE USERS

Modes of Transfer of Aquatic Species

Case Histories of Successful Introductions

Recent Activities to Reduce the Risk from Transfers and Introductions

CULTIVATION OF MARINE ALGAE

Cultivation of Microalgae

Cultivation of Macroalgae (Seaweeds)

OCEANIC ISLANDS

OCEANIC ISLANDS: INTRODUCTION

Classification of Islands

HISTORY OF INSULAR ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY

Ancient and Medieval Concepts: the Birth of Insular Biogeography

Darwin and Wallace: the Dawn of the Modern Era

Genetics and Insular Biogeography

MacArthur and Wilson: the Equilibrium Theory of Insular Biogeography

Documenting and Testing the Equilibrium Theory

Modifying the Equilibrium Theory

Determinism versus Stochasticism in Insular Communities

Insular Energetics and Trophic Structure Stability

PATTERNS OF SPECIES RICHNESS, ENDEMISM, AND DIVERSIFICATION IN OCEANIC ISLAND FLORAS

General Characteristics of Oceanic Island Floras

Factors Influencing Oceanic Island Floras

Evolutionary Trends

PATTERNS OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: ANIMALS

Island Faunas

Evolutionary Trends

Ecological Trends

ALIEN SPECIES AND THEIR CONTROL

Introduction of Alien Species

Characteristics of Islands that Make Them Susceptible to Ecological Invasion

The Nature of Alien Species Problems on Oceanic Islands

Solutions

DISPERSAL OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS TO OCEANIC ISLANDS

Introduction: Dispersal across Marine Barriers

Dispersal Mechanisms

Case Studies

Rates of Dispersal and Immigration

CONSERVATION OF ISLAND PLANT POPULATIONS AND COMMUNITIES

The Threats to Island Plants and their Communities

Conservation in Practice

A Case Study: An Integrated Approach to Conservation of Pitcairn Island

What Future for Conservation of Island Plants?

NATURAL AND HUMAN INDUCED HAZARDS

Natural Hazards

Human -Induced Hazards

Hazard Reduction

EARTH'S INTERIOR

Structure of the Earth’s interior

Dynamic Systems in Earth’s Interior

Earth as the Basis of the Life Support Systems

SURFACE PROCESSES

Introduction to Earths Surface Process

Dynamics of River Systems

Mass Movement Process

Process of Coast Formation

Wind as a Geological Agent

Glacial Systems

NATURAL WEATHER-INDUCED HAZARDS: FLOODS, STORMS, FIRES, AND DROUGHT

Flooding

Storms

Fires

Drought

GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS: EARTHQUAKES, LANDSLIDES, AND TSUNAMIS

Earthquakes

Tsunamis

Landslides

CASE STUDIES OF NATURAL DISASTERS

1998 Yangtze River floods in China

1995 Kobe earthquake of Japan

1992 Andrew hurricanes in US

1991 Volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in Philippine

Tsunamis (1998, Papua New Guinea; 1960, Chile)

Vaiont Reservoir landslide in 1963, Italy

NATURE OF EARTHQUAKES

Basics of Seismology

Significant Earthquakes

Triggered Earthquakes

Seismic Zoning

Earthquake Prediction

GEOGRAPHY OF VOLCANIC ZONES AND DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE VOLCANOES

Volcanoes of the Pacific Ocean Island Arcs and Alaska Continental Rim

Volcanoes of the East Pacific Continental Rim

Volcanoes of Alpine-Indonesian Mountain belt

Volcanoes of East AfricanArabian Belt

Volcanoes of Rifts and Mountains of Eurasia

Volcanoes of the West Indies Island Arc

Volcanoes of Ocean Floor

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

Influence of Volcanic Eruptions on Humans

Influence of Volcanism on Vegetation, Soil, and Groundwaters

Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

DEBRIS FLOWS AND PYROCLASTIC FLOWS

Definition and Fundamental Mechanism of Debris Flows

Characteristics of Stony Debris Flow and Modeling as a Dilatant Fluid

Characteristics of Turbulent Mudflow

Unified Modeling of the Inertial Debris Flows

Characteristics of Viscous Debris Flow and Modeling as a Newtonian Fluid Flow

Definition of Pyroclastic Flow

Characteristics of Pyroclastic Flows Observed at Mt. Fugen, Unzen Volcano, Japan

A Mechanical Model for a Merapi-Type Pyroclastic Flow

Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Merapi-Type Pyroclastic Flow at Unzen Volcano

SNOW AVALANCHES, ICE AVALANCHES AND GLACIER SURGES

Snow avalanches

Ice Avalanches

Glacier surges

TSUNAMIS

Causes of Tsunamis

Hydrodynamics of Tsunami from Generation to Coastal Effects

Damages Caused by Tsunamis

Mitigation of Tsunami Hazards

Needs in the Near Future

PRECIPITATION AND LIGHTNING

How do clouds form?

Stormy weather

TROPICAL CYCLONES

Classification of tropical cyclones

Typhoon Mechanisms

Typhoon activity

Typhoon activity and global warming

Disasters due to typhoons

FIRES

Patterns of fire: A global zonation of fire

Vulnerable ecosystems: Wildfires in tropical rain forests

Woodland fires in the seasonal tropics: Benefits versus destructiveness

Burning of agricultural residues, control of bush and weeds on grazing and croplands

Fire in the temperate zone of Europe and North America

The boreal coniferous zone of Eurasia and North America

Spaceborne systems for detection and monitoring of fires

Fires at the wildland/residential interface: Increasing disaster risks

Impact of fire-generated smoke on human health and safety

Fire emissions, atmosphere and climate

Management of Wildland Fires

Outlook: Fire management in a changing global environment

HUMAN-INDUCED HAZARDS

RADON HAZARDS

What is Radon?

How is Radon Produced?

The Radon Progeny

What are the Units of Radon Measurements?

What are the Health Effects of Radon?

Factors that may Influence the Dose of Radon to Target Cells

What are the Acceptable Levels of Radon?

Measurement Methods

How Does Radon Enter the Home?

Factors Affecting Indoor Radon Concentration

Mitigation

SALINE WATER INTRUSION

Problem Description: Analytical Solutions

How can a Saltwater Intrusion be Detected?

Saltwater Intrusion Numerical Modeling

Prevention and Control of Saline Water Intrusion

Management and Regulation

What can be Expected in the Future: Climate Change and Seawater Intrusion

SELECTION, CATEGORIZATION, SIZE AND ZONING IN THE WORLD'S PROTECTED AREAS

Selection Process

Categorization and Denomination of Protected Areas

Size of Protected Areas

Zoning and Differential Use in the Protected Areas

A Case Study: the Protected Areas Network in Madagascar

PROTECTED AREAS AND ENDEMIC SPECIES

Endemic Species and Ecological Islands

Protected Areas and Nature Reserves

Case Studies

Perspectives

RESEARCH, MANAGEMENT, AND MONITORING IN PROTECTED AREAS

Research in protected areas

Natural Ecology

Human Ecology

Integrating human and natural ecology

Management of protected areas

Monitoring in protected areas

RETENTION OF OLD FOREST STANDS AND INDIVIDUAL OLD TREES

A Perspective on Forest Tree Biodiversity Conservation

Old Forest Stands

Individual Old Trees

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL CONTINUITY IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

The concept of forest succession

Stability of forests

MAINTENANCE OF DIVERSITY IN FOREST HABITATS

Beyond the Forest Biodiversity Crisis: The Influence of Humankind in Forests

Deforestation Rates Monitoring

What to Do?

NATURAL REGENERATION IN WOODLAND MANAGEMENT

Importance and Potential of Natural Regeneration

Planning and Implementing Natural Regeneration

Requirements and Constraints to Natural Regeneration

INFLUENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF HERBIVORES IN FORESTS

Introduction to the Problems: the Tropical Forests

The Deciduous Forests of the Temperate Regions

The Coniferous Forests

Wildlife Management in Tropical Forests

Deer and Forestry in Great Britain

The Regeneration of Tree Species under Browsing Pressure of Ungulates

Conservation of Herbivores via Predators

RANGELAND MANAGEMENT

Rangeland utilisation and degradation

Management solutions

The pastoral systems: some examples discussed in detail

GRAZING AND CUTTING REGIMES FOR OLD GRASSLAND IN TEMPERATE ZONES

Grasslands in the Temperate Zone: Distribution and History

Characteristics of Old Temperate Grassland Ecosystems

Present and Future Policy to Manage Old Temperate Grasslands

MANAGEMENT OF SAVANNAS AND MAMMALIAN POPULATIONS IN AFRICAN PROTECTED AREAS

African Savannas: The Introduction

Origin and Conservation of Savannas

The Herbivores

The Impoverishment of Pastures

Management of Conservation Areas as Ecological Baseline Controls

Case Studies

The Effect of Creating Additional Water Supplies

Burning Strategy for a Semiarid Savanna

Baobabs and elephants management (Barnes, Barnes & Kapela, 1994)

Savannas of Uganda and Kenya

MANAGEMENT OF SEASONALLY FLOODED GRASSLANDS

The History of Seasonally Flooded Grassland

Why are Seasonally Flooded Grasslands a Target for Biodiversity and Nature Protection?

What is the Right Way for Grassland Conservation?

Different Ways of Management—-New Management Strategies as an Activity for Nature Conservation

MANAGEMENT OF GRAZING IN WETLANDS

Wetlands as Grazing Grounds

Grazing in Wetlands: Should this Threat be Prohibited?

Integrated Grazing Management in Wetlands: New Approaches

CONTROL AND REGULATION OF FRESHWATER FISHERIES

History of Fishing

Fishing and Biodiversity: An Additional Source of "Selection"

Repopulation Strategies: Applications of Artificial Insemination

Introduction of Allochthonous Species

Management of Fish Populations and Fisheries

The Need for Control and Regulation

Present Trends

Pacific Salmon Fishing

HARVESTING OF CROPS IN INLAND WETLANDS

Introduction—Rice: The Globally Dominant Crop in Inland Wetlands

Classification of Rice Culture

Historical, Present, and Future Policy to Manage Rice Crops in Inland Wetlands with Respect to Biodiversity, Exemplified with a Case Study of Irrigated Rice Terraces in the Philippines

Ifugao Land-Use System and General Perspectives for Biodiversity Maintenance within Crop Production in Inland Wetlands

CONTROL OF POACHING AND THE MARKET FOR PRODUCTS SUCH AS IVORY, RHINO HORN, TIGER AND BEAR BODY PRODUCTS

General considerations

Killing of wild animals to remove obstacles for possible alternative land developments

The illegal taking or destroying of marine animals

Poaching animals for food

Killing of wild animals to protect crops or properties

Poaching animals for profit

General strategies for the control of poaching

Control of international and local trade

IMPACT OF TOURIST RESORTS ON RARE PHYTOCOENOSIS

Rare Coastal and Riparian Phytocoenosis

Development of Tourist Resorts along the Northern Tyrrhenian–Ligurian Coast

Trends in Tourist Demand, Civil Society, and Nature Protection Policy

PROGRESS WITH CONSERVATION STRATEGIES OF SELECTED THREATENED ANIMALS

Selecting Species for Conservation Strategies

Diagnosing the Decline

Treatment of Declines

Conservation by Sustainable Use of Wild Animals and Plants

Uncertainty, Risk of Failure, and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

Introduction

INITIATIVES FOR THE CONSERVATION OF MARINE TURTLES

Sea Turtle Life Cycle

Nesting Beach Conservation

At-Sea Turtle Conservation

Other Conservation Practices

Education

PROGRESS IN SPECIES ACTION PLANS

Species Action Plans

Progress in Species Action Plans since the Rio Earth Summit

Case Study: Species Action Plan for white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes)

Case Study: Progress with species Action Plan for white-clawed crayfish

POPULATIONS TRANSLOCATION EVENTS AND IMPACT ON NATURAL HABITATS

Different Types of Translocation

National, International, and Scientific Implications of Translocations

A Review Is Needed of the Scope, Content, and Effectiveness of Existing Legislation Relating to Introduction.

Preproject Activities

Postrelease Activities

Case Studies

Towards the Future

AMPHIBIANS: THREATS AND CONSERVATION MEASURES

Wide-Scale Reclamation of Wetlands

Intensive Farming and the Change in the Use of Farmland

Expansion of Urban Areas

Roads

Canals

Logging

Introduction of Fish Species

Use of Agrochemicals

Other Large-Scale Impact Factors

TRANSLOCATIONS OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA - HISTORY AND IMPACTS

Introduction and Translocation Issues

Comparative History of Introduced Terrestrial Animals in Western Australia

Status of Introduced and Translocated Aquatic Organisms in Western Australia

Translocation Issues and Concerns within Western Australia

Future Considerations for Translocation in Western Australia

CAPTIVE BREEDING OF MAMMALS

Captive breeding of mammals. The domestic species.

Selective Breeding

Captive breeding of non-domestic species as a conservation strategy.

Captive breeding of threatened species

Captive breeding of threatened micromammals

Captive breeding and reintroduction of carnivores

Case studies

Perspectives

CAPTIVE BREEDING OF BIRDS

Typologies and Aims of Captive Breeding in Birds

Conservation Through Captive Breeding

Case Studies

CAPTIVE BREEDING OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES

Amphibians

Reptiles

Breeding Techniques

REINTRODUCTION SCHEMES FOR CAPTIVE-BRED ANIMALS

Planning a Reintroduction Action

Examples of Reintroduction Projects

ERADICATION OF RODENTS AND FERAL CATS ON ISLANDS

Planning the Control and Eradication

Feral Cats

Rodents

ERADICATION OF GOATS AND OTHER FERAL HERBIVORES

Negative Aspects of Alien Herbivore Presence

Positive Aspects of Alien Herbivore Presence

Management Options

Case Studies

Perspectives

CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF INVASIVE AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES

Vector Management: An Ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure

Control and Eradication Efforts

Case Histories

Summation

ALIEN PLANT MANAGEMENT

Foreword: Plant Invasions: Not Only a Scientific Problem

Present Knowledge of Invasion Biology

Control, Eradication, or Exploitation? Three Alternative Ways of Managing Invasive Plants

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF HABITATS IN EAST AFRICA

Introduction

Factors Driving the Dynamics of Savanna Ecosystems

Conservation of Savannas

Management of Savannas

Management Concerns

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN EAST AFRICA

Introduction

Eastern Africa Forest Types

Collaborative Forest Management (CFM)

Conclusion

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS IN EAST AFRICA

Introduction

Types of Freshwater Ecosystems

Functions

Conservation Challenges

Management Challenges within the East African Region

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS IN EAST AFRICA

Introduction

Marine and Coastal Habitats

Management of Marine and Coastal Habitats

Conclusion

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS IN EASTERN AFRICA

Introduction

Management of Protected Areas in Diverse Ecosystems

Conclusion