ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC SCIENCES - Table of Contents

COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE AND TRADE POLICY

Comparative Advantage

Free Trade

Tariff and Non-Tariff Barriers

International Trade Policy

RESOURCES, TRADE, AND INTEGRATION

The Dutch Disease

Internal Migration and Unemployment

Economic Integration

ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND IMPERFECT COMPETITION

Economies of Scale and Imperfect Competition

Intra-Industry Trade and Love of Variety

Coexistence of Inter- and Intra-Industry Trade

Intra-Industry Trade and Income Distribution

Economies of Scale and Economic Geography

Preferred Variety and Intra-Industry Trade

National versus International Economies of Scale

INTERNATIONAL FACTOR MOBILITY

Labor Mobility

Capital Mobility

EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM

The Gold Standard

The Bretton Woods System

The Generalized Float

EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

The Market for Foreign Exchange

Exchange Rates and Macroeconomic Stability

Vexatious Issues in Adjustment

DETERMINANTS OF THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS AND EXCHANGE RATES

The General Equilibrium View of the Balance of Payments

Analytical Perspectives of the Balance of Payments

The Foreign Exchange Market and Exchange Rates

MACROECONOMIC POLICY AND THE EXTERNAL SECTOR

The Theory of Economic Policy

The Insular Economy

The Open Economy

THE INTERNATIONAL ARCHITECTURE (INSTITUTIONS AND POLICY)

The Banks

The Blocs

The Clubs

The Accords

THE BANKS: THE IMF, THE WORLD BANK, THE BANK OF INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS

The International Monetary Fund

The World Bank

The Bank for International Settlements

THE CURRENCY BLOCKS: THE EURO ZONE AND THE CFA FRANC ZONE

The Euro Zone

The CFA Franc Zone

THE CLUB: THEIR ROLE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DEBT

Implications for the IMF’s Role

The Evolution of Paris Club Terms

The Changing Clients

Emerging Economies and Bond Finance

THE ACCORDS

Summit Chronology 1975–2000

The Challenges

The G20 Countries

The Future

EMERGING CAPITAL MARKETS

Financial Markets in Emerging Market Economies

Emerging Capital Markets

Emerging Capital Markets and Investment

Global Capital Markets

THE GLOBALIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL SYSTEM

Market Systems and Intermediated Systems: Theory

Market Systems versus Intermediated Systems: International Experience

International Banks and the Macroeconomy

Limits to International Banking?

THE EVOLUTION OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKETS AND NEW FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

Analysis of Eurocurrency Deposit and Loan Pricing

Financial Innovation

Financial Product Life Cycle

Analyzing New Complex Financial Instruments

THE FUTURE OF MULTINATIONAL BANKING

The Changing Paradigm for Multinational Banking

Technical Progress and MNBs

Empirical Review of Technology Impacts

THE REGULATION OF INTERNATIONAL BANKING AND CAPITAL MARKETS

An Optimal Level of International Bank Regulation?

Principles of International Bank Regulation

Types of International Bank Regulation

How International Banks Have Reacted to Regulations

TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE INSTITUTIONS

Trade Composition

Global Economic Organizations

The Environment and International Trade Agreements

GLOBALIZATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF TRADE

Globalization and Regionalism

Regulatory Reforms and Trade Facilitation

Corruption and International Trade

STRATEGIC INTERACTION, TRADE POLICY, AND NATIONAL WELFARE

Game Theoretic Structure of Strategic Trade Policy

Export Subsidy in a "Third Market"

Subsidy Dollars versus Profit Dollars

R&D Subsidies

Timing of Strategic Policy Choice

Findings from Calibration of Strategic Trade Policy Models

LEGAL ISSUES IN TRADE AND INVESTMENT

International Trade and Investment and Legal Infrastructure

Foreign Investment

International Trade Disputes and Conflicts of Laws

Inter-Governmental Trade and Investment Rights and Obligations

International Economic Organizations and Law

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION AND INTENATIONAL TRADE

The Environment and Development

Institutions and the Environment

GROWTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

A Brief History of the Relationship between Growth and the Environment

The Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis

Trade and the Environment

Environmental Labeling

International Debt and the Environment

PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Property Rights

Management of Commons

The Environment and the Global Commons

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, AND TRANSBOUNDARY POLLUTION

International Competitiveness and the Migration of Dirty Industries

Transboundary Pollution

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Multilateral Environmental Agreements

GLOBAL SCIENCE

The Lessons of History

Imperial Science

Global Science and Sustainability

NON-WESTERN SCIENCE - MINING CIVILIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE

Civilizational Knowledge

The European Classical Period

Arab and Other Transmissions

Independent "Modern" Discoveries

Mining: Illustrative Examples

Some Speculative Possibilities

Social Theory for New Technologies

Using Metaphors

Some Potentials

Some Estimates

GLOBAL MANAGEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS

Knowledge and Information

Operational Framework for Knowledge

TRANSFORMATIONS OF INFORMATION SOCIETY

Making Sense of Information Technology and Information Society

Evolutionary Stages of Information Society

E-commerce

FROM THE INFORMATION ERA TO THE COMMUNICATIVE ERA

The Great Leap Forward

Sharing Meaning or Watching Sit-coms

Cultural Perspectives on Immediacy and Distance

Access to Global Conversations

The Politics of Conversations and the Information Era

A Real Information Society

A Gaia of Civilizations

BUILDING "REAL" AND "VIRTUAL" HUMAN COMMUNITIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Back to the Futures: From Gemeinschaft to Global Village and a Lasting Nostalgia

The Challenge of Globalization: The End of "Local" Community, or the Reinvention of Space and Place?

The Challenge of the "Virtual Community": Does Technology Mean the Demise of "Real" Community?

The Challenge of the Commodification Imperative: Has "Community" Become "Commodity"?

Communities of the Twenty-first Century: Some Signposts for Multiple Realities in a Complex World

NAVIGATING GLOBALIZATION THROUGH INFO-DESIGN, AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING CYBERCULTURE

The "Big Picture" where Info-Design Makes Sense

A Culture of Design

Technology, Globalization, and the New World Order

Cultural Impacts of Cyberspace

The Internet and the Modern Project

Valuing Biodiversity and Local Knowledge

Giving Voice to New Actors

Info-Design and World-making Skills

Information and Communication Technology, Sustainability, and Community-making

Design Education and its Orientation towards the Future

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS

Definitional Problems

History

Current Size, Nationality, and Sectors

The Global Spread: National Ownership of Foreign Investment

Multinational Corporations and Theory

The Multinational Corporations in the Twenty-first Century: Power and Transformation

GLOBAL MOVEMENT OF LABOR

Internal Labor Migration

International Labor Migration

Forced Migration

UN Conferences and Plans on Migration

Themes and Theories

Regional Labor Migration

THE INTERNET AND POLITICAL ECONOMY

The Nature of Virtual Space

Horizontal versus Vertical Structures

Transnationalism

Information and Communication

States and Markets

ECONOMICS OF TRANSITION

Fundamental Problems and Challenges of Economic Policy

What Have We Learned in the Last Decade?

GLOBAL BUSINESS ETHICS

Framing the Questions

Change Drivers

Standards—But Which Ones?

Global Initiatives for Global Business Ethics

Beyond the Usual Suspects

Ethical Futures

GLOBALIZATION AS IF THE ENTIRE GLOBE MATTERED: THE SITUATION OF MINORITY GROUPS

Globalization, Financial Liberalization, and Structural Adjustment

Framing the Issue of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination

The "Fundamentals" of Globalization and Impacts on Racial and Ethnic Minorities

Globalization as if the Entire Globe Mattered

STRATEGIES TO ERADICATE POVERTY: AN INTEGRAL APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT

Global Poverty and Inequality

Toward a Broader Definition of Poverty

Two Economic Myths

The Limits of the Development Paradigm

Toward Sustainable Economics

Economics as if All Living Beings Mattered

Beyond Poverty: Two Strategies toward Eradicating Poverty

NORTH-NORTH, NORTH-SOUTH, AND SOUTH-SOUTH RELATIONS

North–South Relations in Theoretical Perspective

A Historical Perspective on North–South and South–South Relations

North and South in a Globalized World

EPISTEMOLOGY AND METHODOLOGY IN THE STUDY OF THE FUTURE

Planning and Futures

Policy Analysis, Planning, and Futures Research

The Politics of Forecasting

Types of Futures Studies

Values

Chaos and Order

Complexity

Guiding Metaphors of the Future

Emerging Issues Analysis

Scanning

What-if Questions

Age-Cohort and Age-Grade Analysis

Causal Layered Analysis

Grand Theories of Social Change

Politics of Time

Futures and Post-structuralism

Scenarios

THE GRAND PATTERNS OF CHANGE AND THE FUTURE

Historical and Epistemic Context

Stages of History

Agency, Structure, and the Transcendental

Cyclical and Linear

Metaphors of Time

The Future from Macrohistory

Patterns in the Patterns

MULTILAYERED SCENARIOS, THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND GLOBAL MODELS

Multilayered Scenarios

Global Models—Worldviews, Forecasts, and Critics

Dealing with Complexity—the Scientific Method

Instability and Shift Points

Ordering the Complexity of the World System

The Next Generation of Scenarios

THE FUTURES OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE WORLD SYSTEM

Theoretical Assumptions

Specific Reforms

Perspectives on the United Nations

Main Trends

Policy Implications

The Long View

GLOBALIZATION AND INFORMATION SOCIETY-INCREASING COMPLEXITY AND POTENTIAL CHAOS

The Globalization Process

Information Society Equals Even More Complexity

What is Progress in a Complex World?

Chaos and Complexity Lead to an Evolutionary Perspective

GLOBALIZATION, GENDER, AND WORLD FUTURES

The Impact of Globalization

Women are Supporting Globalization but is Globalization Supporting Women?

Globalization Scenarios: Globotech versus Ecarmony

Redefining Global Priorities

NEO-HUMANISM, GLOBALIZATION, AND WORLD FUTURES

Neo-humanism

Global Society of the Twenty-first Century

SUSTAINABLE EDUCATION: IMPERATIVES FOR A VIABLE FUTURE

The Global Education Agenda

Educational Culture

Sustainability

Sustainable Futures

Educational Sustainability

Imperatives for a Viable Future

Educational Sustainability

HISTORICAL EVOLUTION AND LANDMARK WORKS CONCERNING SUSTAINABILITY

EARLY LOCALIZED ISSUES AFFECTING REGIONAL SUSTAINABILITY - THE CASE OF ONTARIO, CANADA'S NIAGARA ESCARPMENT

The Niagara Escarpment Study -- Precursor of Sustainability

The Niagara Escarpment -- A Unique and Vulnerable Environment

A Sustainable Development Strategy for the Niagara Escarpment

Forces Leading to the Strategy for the Niagara Escarpment

The On-going Struggle for Sustainability

MALTHUS' ESSAY ON THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION

The Education of Malthus

Debate on the Views of Godwin and Condorcet

Publication of the First Essay in 1798

The Second Essay, Published in 1803

Systems of Equality

The Poor Laws

Replies to Malthus

Ricardo's Iron Law of Wages; the Corn Laws

Acceptance of Birth Control in England

The Irish Potato Famine of 1845

The Impact of Malthus on Biology

The Importance of Malthus Today

Limits to the Carrying Capacity of the Global Environment

"THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS" BY GARRETT HARDIN, 1968

The Tragedy in Review

Research and Policy: Hardin’s Legacy

Looking Back, Looking Ahead

BEYOND BRUNDTLAND: THE EVOLUTION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 1990S

Building on Our Common Future

Measuring Sustainable Development

Moving Forward: The Public, the Private, and the Individual

MOVING TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE CHINESE CONUNDRUM

Symptoms of Systemic Malfunction

Towards a Greater Understanding of the Key Forces at Work -- Who is Responsible?

Sustainable Development Integrating Social Equity, the Economy and the Environment

INSTITUTIONS AND LANDMARK REPORTS CONCERNING SUSTAINABILITY

WORLD CONSERVATION STRATEGY OF THE INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES (IUCN)

Background to the World Conservation Strategy

The World Conservation Strategy

Case Study: The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy

Case Study: Northwest Frontier Province Conservation Strategy

Caring for the Earth: the World Conservation Strategy Revisited

CONTEMPORARY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ISSUES

URBANIZATION

Urban Centres and Urbanization

Urbanization: North and South

Macro Trends, Urban Impacts

Consequences of Traditional Urbanization

Towards Sustainable Urbanization

A Vision of the Sustainable Urban Centre

GLOBALIZATION, INTERDEPENDENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY

The Roots of Globalization

Globalization and Interdependence

Sustainability

Globalization and the Challenges to Sustainability

Some Potential Environmental and Sustainability Benefits of Global Interdependence

Environmental Sustainability and the Structures of Globalization

Guiding the Global Economy: Toward More Democratic Global Governance

PERSPECTIVES ON SUSTAINABILITY

NATURAL RESOURCE PERSPECTIVES ON SUSTAINABILITY

Renewability, Non-Renewability, and Sustainability

Capture and Sustained Yield in Modern Resource Management

Maximum Sustained Yield

Optimum Sustained Yield

Towards a New Paradigm

Adaptive Ecosystem Management

A Glance Back in Time

SUSTAINABILITY, KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND THE INTERNET

Language = Communications + Informatics

Social Class and Media

Electric and Electronic Media

The Sixth Language: The Internet

Knowledge Networking

THE POLITICS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Problematique

Current Context

Barriers to a Politics

A Canadian Experiment

Retrospective

Building on the Canadian Experience

CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES AND SUSTAINABILITY

A Conceptual Framework for Analysis

Cultural Monism and Spiritual Balance

Traditional Ecological Knowledge

Slash and Burn Cultivation: Miombo Woodland

Institutional Development of TEK and Resilience in EVI.

SUSTAINABILITY IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

Origins of Sustainability in International Law

Sustainability as Optimal Exploitation of Living Resources

Sustainability as Respect for Ecological Limits

Sustainability as Sustainable Development

The Future of Sustainability in International Law

LAW AND SUSTAINABILITY: THE CANADIAN CASE

Introduction

The Canadian Legal System and Sustainability

Legal Mechanisms and Reforms for Promoting Sustainability, 1995-2007

Other Sustainability Initiatives

Current Sustainability Challenges Facing Canada

Sustainability on an International Level

Conclusion

CARRYING CAPACITY AND SUSTAINABILITY: WAKING MALTHUS GHOST

Introducing Carrying Capacity

Dueling Paradigms: The Debate Goes On

The Biological Roots of the Problem: Humans as Patch Disturbers

Why Cultures Collapse: The Revenge of Carrying Capacity

Is Carrying Capacity Relevant to Humans?

Epilogue: On Becoming Truly Human

DIVISIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON SUSTAINABILITY

EGALITARIAN PERSPECTIVES ON SUSTAINABILITY

Sustainability and Equity Linkages

Toward Fair Shares of 'Environmental Space'

The Politics of Equity and Sustainability

BIOREGION, ECO-POLIS, AND ECO(NOMIC)-FEDERATION: LEFT - LIBERTARIAN MODELS OF SUSTAINABILITY

Introduction: Left-Libertarian Ecopolitics and the Issue of Ecological Sustainability

The Anarcho-individualist Bioregionalism of Kirkpatrick Sale

The Anarchocommunist Libertarian Municipalism of Murray Bookchin

The Anarchosyndicalist Ecoregionalism of Graham Purchase

FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON SUSTAINABILITY

Why Should Feminists Have Anything to Say About Sustainability?

Connecting Feminism and Environmentalism

Feminist Approaches to Sustainability

ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Environmental Trade-Offs

Intertemporal Allocation of Exhaustible Resources

Environmental Market Failure

Substitution and Sustainability

SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

The Unsustainability of Present Economic Systems

Features of Sustainable Economic Systems

From Consumption to Fruition: The Final Ring

Barriers to Optimal Utilization

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL INDUSTRY

Sustainable Industrial Development

Sustainable Production

Eco-Efficiency and Factor-X Strategies

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND LOCAL INDUSTRY

Quality of Living through Local Solutions

Sustainable Product Development

Sustainable Process Development

Sustainable Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Societal Context of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Internet

INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Nature and Functions of Indicators

Sustainable Development

A Conceptual Framework for Indicator Development

The Role of Metrics and Indicators in Sustainable Development Management, Processes and Products

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCE CAPITAL

Natural Resource Capital and Sustainable Development

Weak Natural Capital Theory

Strong Sustainability and Critical Natural Capital

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE CAPITAL

The Nature of Capital, Especially Human Resource Capital

Human Resource Capital and Sustainable Development

Sustaining and Adding to Human Resource Capital

Some Relatively Direct Connections between Human Resource Capital and Sustainable Development

Improved Global Use of Human Resource Capital

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGICAL RESOURCE CAPITAL

Coevolutionary Development of the Economy and its Environment

The Technology Spiral

Setting the Stage for Sustainable Development of Technological Resource Capital

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF FINANCIAL RESOURCE CAPITAL

Development Needs Financial Resources, but do these Resources Fit with Sustainable Development? The Case of the Dependent Economy

Development of Financial Systems

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONAL AND INFRASTRUCTURE RESOURCE CAPITAL

The Problem

The Institutional Structure of Society

Developing Institutional and Infrastructure Capital

Sustaining Institutional and Infrastructure Capital

INTERGENERATIONAL EQUITY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND ETHICS ISSUES IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Ethical Dimensions in the Supply and Demand of Sustainability

Endowments and Equitable Intergenerational Consumption

John Stuart Mill on Reciprocity and Coexistence

Hospitality and Respect for Diversity

Deliberative Democracy and Tolerance of Contradictions

Outlook

INTRAGENERATIONAL EQUITY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND ETHICS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Economic Analysis of (Unequal) Ecological Distribution

International Trade and Environmental Load Displacement

From Property Rights to Symbolic Reciprocity

ASSESSING HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

Hazard Identification

Dose-Response Estimation

Exposure Assessment

Risk Characterization

Assessing Risk Assessment

HUMAN AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO ENDOGENOUS ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

Introduction: Choice Matters

Who Likes Separability?

Modeling Endogenous Risk

Risk Valuation

Broadening the Vision: Human Capital Formation

Broadening the Vision: Endogenous Risk Preferences

MANAGING FINANCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL RISK, AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Origins of Financial Risk

The Investment Process

The Role of Institutions to Manage Risk

Managing Environmental Risk

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Social Development Information

Knowledge about Social Sustainability, Possibilities and Limits

CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Introduction: Culture and Development

Land, Labour Power and Economic Progress in the "West"

Doubts about "Development" as the Universal Destiny of Humanity

Culture and the "Informal"

Outlook: Hopes for Humanity

FUNCTIONALISM VERSUS CONSUMERISM DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

The Interaction between Consumers and their Life Support Systems

The Consumer’s Interest in Innovation for a more Sustainable Pattern of Consumption

An Example of a Common Resource: the Sustainable Management of Sea Fisheries for Consumers

Climate Change: Influencing Consumer Demand for Energy

GM Foods and the Consumer

Some Limitations of the Market Mechanisms for Meeting the Needs of Consumers

The World Population of Consumers and Public Health

ECOSYSTEM AND ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Being and Knowing about Nature

Natural Capital and the Monetization Frontier

A Structural Ecological Economics Perspective

Greening the National Accounts

The passage from Information to Deliberation

NATURAL NONRENEWABLE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Theories of Depletion

Availability, Costs and Prices

From Environmentally-Corrected Prices to Sustainable Prices of Natural Resources

WATER-BASED LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Sustainability and Water’s Transformation Cycles

Water’s Value—a Problem of (Unequal) Distribution

European "Integrative" Water Resources Governance Experiments

ENERGY-BASED LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Energy from a Technical Perspective

Environmental Issues in Energy Supply

Energy Consumption and Resource Depletion

The Character of Technological Change

FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Contrasts in Agricultural Food Production and Consumption—Past and Present

Development of Agricultural Technology in Industrial Nations

Developing Nations and their Double Bindings

Lookout

HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

International Attention for Human Settlements

Sustainable Human Settlements Development

Social Aspects of Sustainable Human Settlements

Economic Aspects of Sustainable Human Settlements

Environmental Aspects of Sustainable Human Settlements

Community Development and Capacity Building for Sustainable Human Settlements

Planning, Decision-Making and Managing Human Settlements

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

NICT and the Knowledge-based Economy

Information and Coordination

ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

The Lessons of Experience

The Debates of the 1990s

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Information and Communication

The Internet and the Varied Forms of Public Good

Information and Communications Technology in the Service of "Our Common Problems"

Web Linkages, Governance and Knowledge Quality Assessment

INSTITUTIONAL AND INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

Roles of Infrastructure and Institutions

Interrelationships among Institutions, Infrastructure, and Knowledge

Urban Institutions, Infrastructure and Sustainability

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS (ISO 9000 AND ISO 14000) DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

ISO 9000

ISO 14000

Use of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000

ROLE OF PERFORMANCE ENGINEERING IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Generic Causes of Accidents

Performance Engineering

Reliability

Quality

Maintenance

Life Cycle Costs

Internalization of Environmental Costs

Methodologies for Performance Engineering

WEAK AND STRONG SUSTAINABILITY

Neo-classical Growth Theory

Welfare Criteria

Optimal Economic Growth in the Benchmark Model

Sustainability: Non-renewable Natural Resources

Sustainability: Pollution

Weak and Strong Sustainability

Endogenous Growth Theory

ENDOGENOUS GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

Endogenous Growth and Sustainability

Welfare Gains and Long-run Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

The Parable of Sustainable Steady States in an Unsteady World: A Discussion

INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS, TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY

Environmental Business Strategies: towards the Creation of Sustainable Businesses

Business Approaches to Environmental Technological Innovation Designed to Achieve Competitiveness within Sustainability

Internal and External Organizational Structures for Win-win Strategies

Global Competitiveness and Environmental Globalization

LEGAL ISSUES AND INCENTIVES FOR SUSTAINABILITY

The Problem

Getting the Rules Right

Property Regimes

Law and Economics

Resource Management Regimes

THE FUTURE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Demographic Transition

Agricultural Revolutions

Energy Futures

SOCIAL CAPITAL RESEARCH: A CONTESTED STATE-OF THE-ART

Conceptual Debate

The Empirical Record

One or Many Social capitals?

ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT: STRATEGIES FOR COPING WITH CHANGE AND UNCERTAINTY

Principles and Practice

HEALTH ECONOMICS

ISSUES IN RESOURCE ALLOCATION TO HEALTH CARE

Financing Health Care through the Insurance System

A Health Insurance Loan Program

The Single-Payer System

Employer Mandates

COSTS OF HEALTH CARE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD

Costs of Health Care

Demand Factors Influencing Health Care Costs

Supply Factors Influencing Health Care Costs

Public Policies

SOURCES OF HEALTH CARE FUNDING THROUGHOUT THE GLOBE

A Model for Health Care Financing

Risk Sharing and Payment

The Rationale for Government Intervention

Health Care Funding across Nations

HEALTH ECONOMICS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Introduction: Conceptual Issues in Health Economics

Determinants of Health in Developing Countries

Resource Allocation Methods in the Health Sector

The Economics of the AIDS Epidemic in Developing Countries

Market Reforms and Health Care in Developing Countries

MAXIMIZING HEALTH IMPACT THROUGH RESOURCE ALLOCATION

Definitions and Models of Health

Global, National, and Personal Approaches to Health

Definition and Measurement of Health Resources

Decision Rules for Optimum Allocation of Health Resources

Health Impact of Medical Technology

Market-Guided Resource Allocation and the Question of Efficiency

Government Insurance and Public Health Programs

ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND SUSTAINABLE HEALTH: A REVIEW OF THE CONTENDING ISSUES

The Interconnection between Community Values, Ecology, and Human Health

Lifestyle Choices, the Environment, and Health Profiles: The Case of Hunter-Gatherer Societies

Colonialism, Materialism, and Environmental Degradation

Consumerism, Lifestyles, and Health

EXTERNALITIES, EFFICIENCY AND EQUITY

Efficiency

Equity

Will Material Growth Increase Welfare?

Future Trends and Perspectives

DESIGNING INSTRUMENTS FOR RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

The need for policy instruments

The Range of Policy Options

The Selection and Design of Policy Instruments

INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND POLICY CO-ORDINATION

Trade and Environmental Policies with Competitive Markets

Strategic Environmental Policy

International Environmental Problems

Empirical Evidence

Policy Implications

Directions for Further Research

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, GROWTH THEORY, ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVES, AND DISCOUNTING

Introduction and Overview

Theory of Economic Growth, Natural Resources and Environment Quality

The Environmental Kuznets Curve

Future Trends and Perspectives

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Impacts of Climate Change

Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction

Efficient Climate Control

Cost-effective Climate Control

Uncertainty and the Applicability of Models

Policy Instruments

Current Status of National and International Climate Policy

Introduction

ECONOMIC VALUATION AND COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

Benefits provided by public goods

Market based measures of environmental impacts

Benefit based valuation methods

Future directions in contingent valuation

Benefit transfer

Meta-analysis

Cost-benefit analysis

Introduction

AN ECONOMIC THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE ON GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE NATIONAL INCOME

National income

Welfare interpretation of national income

Green national income

Sustainable national income

Green accounting in practice

NATURAL RESOURCE ECONOMICS

ON THE ECONOMICS OF NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES

Introduction: Renewable Versus Non-Renewable Resources

The Hotelling Model of Resource Depletion

Variations on the Basic Hotelling Model

On Discount Rates

Case Study World Oil

ECONOMICS OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES

Dynamic Optimization

Investment under Uncertainty

Scale, Resilience, and Sustainability

THE ECONOMICS OF LAND-USE CHANGE

Land in the History of Economic Thought

Land and the Economic Process

Efficient Allocation of Land Resources

Driving Forces of Land-Use Change

The Search for an Interdisciplinary Approach

ENVIRONMENTAL STOCKS AND FLOWS

The Economic Sphere and the Natural Environment

Physical Flows and Their Linkage to the Economy

The Quantitative Decline in Natural Assets

The Qualitative Decline in Natural Assets

THE VALUATION PROBLEM AND NON-MARKET VALUATION THEORIES

The Range of Relevant Environmental Values

Methods for Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis

ENERGY AND THE MACROECONOMY

The Role of Energy in Economic Activity

The Macroeconomic Relation between Economic Activity and Energy Use: Empirical Analyses

Energy Use and Economic Fluctuations

Policy Implications

NEXUS OF ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS AND ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

Elements of Ecological Economics

Elements of Ecosystem Management

Nexus of Ecological Economics and Ecosystem Management

Implications for Natural Resource Management and Policy

Implementation of Ecosystem Management

Introduction

IDENTIFICATION OF ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS ISSUES

Conceptual Issues

Practical Issues

Introduction

PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Participatory Development Model: a base for Sustainable Resource Management

Search Conference (SC): A Participatory Development Model

Sustainable Resource Management in México

INDICATORS OF HUMAN CONSEQUENCES FOR ECOLOGICAL ECONOMIC PLANNING AND POLICY

Quality of Life

Indicators

Human Indicators

Human Indicators for Planning and Monitoring Sustainable Development: Conceptualization

Indicator Framework Development

FEMINIST ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS

Theoretical Foundations of Feminist Ecological Economics

Theoretical Contributions of Feminist Ecological Economics

Applications of Feminist Ecological Economics

Future Trends and Perspectives

POLITICAL ARITHMETICK: PROBLEMS WITH GDP AS AN INDICATOR OF ECONOMIC PROGRESS

Background economics

Kuznets to Keuning

The Arithmetical Dimension: Is GDP a Satisfactory Measure of Current Economic Activity?

The Diagnostic Dimension: Is GDP a Satisfactory Measure of Future Beneficial Economic Activity?

The Political Dimension: is GDP a Satisfactory Measure of Economic Justice?

NATURAL RESOURCE ECONOMICS

Non-renewable Resources

Renewable Resources

Protecting Biodiversity

Climate Protection

Non-market Valuation

NATURAL RESOURCES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABILITY: A NEOCLASSICAL PERSPECTIVE

Neoclassical Models of Economic Growth

Resource Amenities

Intergenerational Equity and Social Welfare Functions

PERSPECTIVES ON DISCOUNTING THE FUTURE

Derivation from Investment Economics

Behavior and Discounting

Pure Time Preference

Technological Advance and Diminishing Marginal Utility

Threat, Risk and Uncertainty

ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF FUTURE ETHICS

Terminology

No-Obligation-Arguments

Ethical Theories and Posterity

Egalitarian and Non-egalitarian Standards

Approaches and Criteria in the Long-Term Assessment of Risk and Uncertainty

The Bequest Package Problem and Conceptions of Sustainability

Essential Components of Future Ethics

PROGRESS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sustainability Models

Indicators of Weak Sustainability

Indicators of Strong Sustainability

THE MISALIGNMENT OF STANDARD NATIONAL ACCOUNTING AGGREGATES WITH SUSTAINABILITY OBJECTIVES

A History of National Accounts

The Issue of Sustainability

Aligning Standard National Accounts and Sustainability Objectives

ON "GREEN NATIONAL PRODUCT": THEORIES AND A COMPARISON AMONG DIFFERENT APPROACHES

Introduction

The Model

The SEEA and ENRAP Approaches and the Green NNP

Conclusion and a Brief Discussion of the Use of Models

THE EVOLVING SYSTEM OF INTEGRATED ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTS

Why Build Environmental Accounts?

History of the Development of Environmental Accounts

The Revised SEEA

Will the SEEA meet expectations?

INTERNATIONAL TRADE, THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The impact of international trade on economic welfare

The interaction between international trade, the environment and sustainable development: traditional theoretical approaches

The interaction between international trade, the environment and sustainable development: alternative theoretical approaches

The interaction between international trade, the environment and sustainable development: empirical studies

The interaction between international trade, the environment and sustainable development: some relevant policy and institutional issues

NORTH-SOUTH TRADE, CAPITAL FLOWS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

An Overview of North-South Economic Interactions

North-South Trade and Investment: Policy Issues and Models

Some Empirical Evidence

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO RESOLVE INTERNATIONAL POLLUTION PROBLEMS

Coalition Models

Factors Influencing the Success of Cooperation

Issues of Treaty Design Influencing the Success of Cooperation

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND THE CASE OF GLOBAL WARMING

An Integrated Assessment Model for Transboundary Stock Pollution Problems

The Theory of International Environmental Externalities

Confronting Theory and Reality for the Case of Global Warming

ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS AND REGIONAL CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Environmentally Induced Conflicts

Environmental Conflict Management

THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

A Framework for Analyzing the Welfare Implications of Environmental Policy

Institutions and Environmental Policy

FREE MARKET ENVIRONMENTALISM VERSUS ENVIRONMENTAL MARKET SOCIALISM : AN AUSTRIAN PERSPECTIVE ON INSTITUTIONAL CHOICE

Austrian versus Neoclassical Economics: The Socialist Calculation Debate

Environmental Policy and the Socialist Calculation Debate

Free Market Environmentalism, the Evolution of Property Rights and Sustainable Development

SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING : MODELS AND INSTITUTIONS

Introduction: Land Use Planning Systems and Institutions

Models of Urban Planning For Sustainable Development

Approaches and Indicators for Sustainable Development

HEDONIC PRICE MODELLING OF ENVIRONMENTAL ATTRIBUTES: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND A HONG KONG CASE STUDY

Air pollution and property values

Noise and property values

View and property values

Neighbourhood facilities and property values

Zoning regulation and property values

Hedonic price modelling of environmental attributes on urban values in Hong Kong

ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN FISH CULTURE

Characteristics of Indicators for Sustainable Development

Economic Theorisation of Fishing

Total Factor Productivity and Relative Labour Productivity Approaches

Micro and Institutional Economic Indicators of Sustainability in Fish Culture

SUSTAINABILITY AND RESILIENCE IN NATURAL RESOURCE SYSTEMS : POLICY DIRECTIONS AND MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS

Sustainability and Resilience

Policy Directions for Sustainable and Resilient Resource Systems

Institutions

SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

POLICY IN SELECTED SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SECTORS

THE SOCIOECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURE

Socioeconomic Agricultural system

Different types of agricultural systems

Dynamic processes in agricultural systems

The environmental dimension of modern agricultural systems

Agricultural politics.

COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION

The Fundamentals

Real Communicators and Virtual Worlds

Media and Social Change

Theoretical and Methodological Challenges

Anticipating What the Future Holds

HOUSING : OBJECT AND SUBJECT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Necessity, Commodity, and Beyond

The Social and Sociological Emphasis

Short-, and Long-term Economics

Theory Enhancing Methods

Future Trends in Housing and Housing Studies

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGY

Technology, Economy and Society

The Organization of Technological Development

The Technological System

Technology and Globalization

Technological Policy: Patterns of Management and Financing

TRANSPORTATION, MOBILITY, AND WOMEN IN CITIES OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

Citizenship and women

Theoretical framework

Urban space and neutrality

Mobility and accessibility

Urban transportation

Transportation and women

URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND ITS FORMS: ORIGINS AND NEW CHALLENGES FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

The origins of the city

Urban planning of industrial cities

The urbanization process

Urban spaces in developing countries

SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND HISTORICALLY DISADVANTAGED POPULATION

OLDER PEOPLE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Demographic issues

Regional variations in an ageing world

Rural/ urban migration

Older people and poverty

Women and widows

Social Care and income maintenance issues

Ageism and valuing old age

ETHNIC, RACIAL, AND RELIGIOUS MINORITIES

National and regional minorities

Migration and ethnic minorities

Racial groups

Religious minorities

THE POOR

The Poor in Welfare State Societies

The Poor in Low Income Countries

Prospects for the Future

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER SOCIETIES

The Historical Problematization of the Consumer Society

Definitions and Chronologies

Practices and Discourse

Modelling the Consumer Revolution

Multifarious Trajectories for Modern Consumption

CONSUMPTION IN AFFLUENT SOCIETIES OF INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS

The modern society

Models of consumption: the neo-classical framework

Sociology of consumption

Recent developments

From modern to postmodern society

CONSUMPTION IN DEVELOPING NATIONS

Consumption in a global world

Modernization and globalization

FAMILY, GENDER, AND SOCIALIZATION ISSUES IN CONSUMPTION

Theories on origins of consumption

Gender and consumption: an historical perspective

Gender and consumer behavior in family

Socialization and consumption

ECONOMIC THEORIES OF CONSUMPTION

The Consumer in Classical Economic Thought

The Marxian View: Fetishism and Use Values

The Marginalist Revolution: From a Subjective Theory of Value to Revealed Preferences

Marginalist Theory of Demand and its Shortcomings

Lancaster's Objective Theory of Demand

Becker's Economics of Tastes

GLOBALIZATION AND CONSUMER CULTURES

Consumption as a socio-behavioral complex.

The kaleidoscope society

The Global society

Consumer cultures

DIFFERING CONCEPTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT AND THE CONTENT OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW

A Brief History of IDL

Competing Views of Development

Some Thoughts on the Future Evolution of IDL

THE NATURE AND SOURCES OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW

The Nature of International Development Law

Interim Observations

THE CONCEPT OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW

The Definition of the Subject and the Range of its Problems.

The Conceptual Necessity for an International Development Law.

The Substantive Principles of an International Development Law.

PARTICIPANTS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW

The role of the human being

The role of peoples

The role of States

The role of international organizations

The role of non-governmental organizations

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW AND OTHER BRANCHES OF THE LAW

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW AND PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

International Development Law as an Offshoot of Public International Law

Public International Law as Provider of Material Sources of International Development Law

Shaping and Moulding of International Development Law

The Right and Duty to Share Common Resources beyond National Jurisdiction

Obligations Relative to The Right to Sustainable Development

CONTENTS OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW

THE PRINCIPLE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW

Introduction

Sustainable Development and Development within the United Nations System

The Issue of Poverty

The Global Economy, The World Bank Group, Development and Sustainable Development

Conclusion

REGULATION OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Domestic Regulation

International Regulation

Future Trends

THE GENERALISED SYSTEM OF PREFERENCES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Introduction

The Implementation Process

Nature and Limits of the GSP

The Results of the GSP

The GSP legal basis

CONTROLLING CORRUPTION IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Introduction

The First International Anti-Corruption Movement (1975-1980)

The Second International Anti-Corruption Movement (1995-Present)

Conclusion

IMPLEMENTATION OF AND COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LAW

DEVELOPMENT LAW CAPACITY BUILDING: TRAINING LEGAL PROFESSIONALS FOR DEVELOPMENT

Beginnings: the Rise and Fall of "Law and Development"

Revival: Development Law Training for a Global Market

Looking Ahead: Whither Development Law Capacity Building?

DISPUTE RESOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT

History

Venues for Dispute Resolution

The Law Governing Investment Disputes

Procedural Issues

SCIENTIFIC JUSTIFICATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Technology and Energy Systems of the Future

Defining the Environmental Threats

Biospheric Stability

Efficient Energy Use

Biotechnology

Productivity

A Sustainable Energy System

BIOLOGICAL AND BIOGEOCHEMICAL APPROACHES TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Water Cycle

The Carbon Cycle

The Nitrogen Cycle

The Phosphorus Cycle

The Sulfur Cycle

ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC, AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sustainable Development

Trends

Ecology

Environment and Economics

Economic Instruments

Social Instruments

Role of Government

Industry’s Role

Multicriteria Analysis

SOCIAL ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Population Pressure

Poverty

Education

National Policy and Legislation

People’s Consumption Patterns

Public Awareness and Participation

INTERNATIONAL COORDINATION OF SCIENTIFIC EFFORTS IN SUPPORT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Background to International Scientific Coordination on Environment Protection

International Scientific Coordination on Environmental and Ecological Sustainable Development

Looking to the Future

MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES TO NEW PATHWAYS TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Ecology and Sustainable Development

Economics and Sustainable Development

The Social Aspects of Sustainable Development

Technology and Sustainable Development

Indicators

THE INTERNATIONAL POVERTY TRAP

Structuralist and Neo-Marxist Explanations of Poverty

Human Capital and Knowledge as Determinants of Development

International Aid

IMPACTS OF POVERTY AND AN INABILITY TO MANAGE THE ENVIRONMENT

The Poor: Victims and Agents of Environmental Degradation

Is Environmental Degradation Inherent in Poverty?

Policy Failure and Market Failure

Other Factors in the Poverty–Environment Link

Attempts to Alleviate Poverty, Thus Relieving Pressure on the Environment

IMPACT OF AFFLUENCE AND OVEREXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Human Activities and Loss of Biodiversity

Destruction of Natural Resources in the Name of Development?

Grow Now and Clean Up Later

Can Privatization Miraculously Save the Situation?

Institutional Weakness of Developing Countries’ Management of Natural Resource Exploitation

Using Economic Instruments To Protect the Environment

Payment for Access to Genetic Resources

Promoting Sustainable Development

MECHANISMS FOR IMPROVING ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL GROWTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Linear Growth Model and Stages of Development

The Money of the Rich May Bring Luck to the Poor

Relying On One’s Own Strength or Borrowing a Hen To Have Its Eggs

Technological Progress and Human Capital

STRATEGIES FOR RATIONAL USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Urgency

Feasibility

Strategic Policy

IMPROVED BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY, RECYCLING, AND REUSE

The Environment and By-Products and Wastes

Cyclic Use of By-Products and Wastes

The Recovery of By-Products and Wastes

Clean Production

From Clean Production to Industrial Ecology

DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS TO ALERT GOVERNMENTS TO MAJOR CHANGES IN RESOURCE USE

Categories of Resources

Market Failure: When the Invisible Hand Doesn’t Work

Government Failure

Making Environmental Data Useful for Policy Makers

International Progress in Development of Indicators of Environmentally Sustainable Development

RAW MATERIALS USE REDUCTION, REPLACEMENT, AND RECYCLING

The Direction of Development—Ecomaterials

Life-Cycle Assessment

Raw Material Substitutes and Conservation

CAPACITY FOR DEVELOPING INNOVATIVE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

Finite, Infinite, and Sustainability of Resources

Contributions of Technological Innovation to Sustainable Development

General Theory of Technological Innovation

Institutional Analysis of Systems of Technological Innovation

NARROWING DISPARITIES USING TAXATION AND OTHER ECONOMIC INCENTIVES AND DISINCENTIVES

Increasing Economic and Social Disparity

Globalization, Disparities, and Sustainability

Overview of Economic Policies for Narrowing Disparities

Obstacles for Governments to Overcome

Global Efforts for Poverty Reduction: World Bank Strategic Shifts

Microcredit Programs: Successful Economic Incentives for Poverty Reduction

MINIMIZING DISPARITIES BY CHANGING PUBLIC ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS, AND BY IMPROVING EDUCATION AND PUBLIC AWARENESS

Changing Perceptions of Poverty

Exploration of Human Resources and Economic Development

Improving Education in Developing Countries

Other Impacts of Improving Education

Creating Brighter Future with Sustainable Development

CONCEPTUAL ISSUES INCLUDING ENVIRONMENTAL, NATURAL RESOURCES, AND ECOLOGICAL ACCOUNTING

Sustainable Relations between Economic Activities and the Environment

Environmental Accounting

Accounting for Natural Resources and the Ecosystem

Including the Environment in Economics and Accounting

Valuation of the Environment

Accounting Views of Environmental Costs Caused and Borne

Actual and Imputed Environmental Costs

PHYSICAL AND MONETARY ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING

Treatment of Environmental Elements in the System of National Accounts and the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting

Environmental Costs Caused, Costs Borne, Actual Costs, and Imputed Costs

Importance of Introducing Environmental Physical Data into Accounting

The Concept of Material/Energy Balance

Changes in Natural Assets

Natural Resource Accounts

Physical Accounts

The System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting Matrix

ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING BY SATELLITE ACCOUNTING

Satellite Accounting for Sustainable Development

The Development of Environmental Accounting

Handbook of National Accounting To Be the Standard

The Necessity for Two Data Systems

The Structure of the Satellite Accounting System

Limitations of the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting

The Physical and Monetary Data Systems

The Versions of the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting

The Matrix Tables of the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting

INTEGRATED NATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC ACCOUNTING

Environmental Elements and Accounting in System of National Accounts

The Utility of Natural Assets

The Environment in the System of National Accounts

Recent Developments in the System of National Accounts

The System of National Accounts and the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting

Environmental Accounting and the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting

Accounting for the Natural Environment

Early, Reasonable Economic Treatment and Input-Output Analysis

ENVIRONMENTAL GLOBALISM AND GREEN CONSUMERS

Green Consumerism and Major International Conferences

Awareness of the Relationship between Consumption and the Environment

Lessening Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

Forests and Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide as an Indicator of Global Environmental Difficulties

Environmental Accounting

Identifying the Origin and Destination of Carbon Dioxide

The Importance of Households and Individuals

Green Consumerism in Economic and Material Terms

Consumer Behavior

The Concept of the Regional and Global Community

ECOBUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND GLOBALIZATION OF ECOBUSINESS

Ecobusiness and the Behavior of Consumers and Producers

Regulations and Taxation

The Effect of Consumers’ Demands on Enterprises

Ecobusiness and Administration

Administration and Environmental Accounting Systems

The Valuation of Economically External Environmental Elements

Ecobusiness, Life Cycle Assessment, and International Standards

NEED FOR ECOENTERPRISE AND ECOTECHNOLOGIES

The Development of Ecoenterprise and Ecotechnology

Ecobusiness Management

Social Demand for Environmental Protection Services and Goods

New Demand for Ecoenterprise

Five Categories of Ecoenterprise

Residual-Reducing Industries

Reuse and Recycling of Residuals

Treatment of Residuals

Recycling and the Natural Environmental Recycling System

ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS

Ethical challenges of the Environmental Crisis

Environmental Ethics Is the Ethics of Sustainable Living

ANTHROPOCENTRIC ETHICAL THEORIES: RELATIONS WITH NON-HUMAN BEINGS

Is Anthropocentrism the Cause of the Environmental Crisis?

Anthropocentric Environmental Ethics

Pan-moralism: Moral Relations with Nonhuman Beings

BIOCENTRIC ETHICAL THEORIES

Albert Schweitzer: Reverence for Life

Peter Singer: Respect for Sentience

Paul Taylor: Biocentric Ethics

Ecocentric Ethics

Modern Environmental Ethics Converge

DEEP ECOLOGY: FROM DUTY TO ECOLOGICAL CONSCIOUSNESS

Deep Ecology: The Philosophical Foundation of Deep Environmental Ethics

From Duty to Ecological Consciousness

ECOFEMINISM: INTRA-GENERATIONAL AND INTERGENERATIONAL EQUITY

Ecofeminism: A Major Aspect of Anti-Mainstream Culture

Intra-generational and Intergenerational Equity

EFFICIENCY

Eco-efficiency

Economic Efficiency

Efficiency and Equity

Market Failure and Government Failure

LOCAL, NATIONAL, REGIONAL, AND GLOBAL LINKS IN ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

State Governments Are Subject to Ecological Environment Management

State Ecological Environment and International Cooperation

State Management of the Ecological Environment and Regional Economic Cooperation

State Management of the Ecological Environment and the Role of Local Government

THE URBANIZING WORLD

Urbanization Process

Urban Population Growth and Concentration

Urbanization in Developing Countries

Sustainable Cities and Urban Future

ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT - OVERALL RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

The World Today

Future Sustainable Development

International Coordination and the United Nations

Preventing Wars and Natural Disasters

Developing Countries

Consumption, Production, and Lifestyles of the Rich Developed Nations

Scientific, Technological, and Financial Aid to Developing Countries

MICROECONOMICS: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

Introduction

Past

Present

Future

Conclusion

THE ECONOMICS OF PEACE AND SECURITY

WAR, PEACE, AND ECONOMISTS

The Pacifying Economy

Relations between Foreign Policy and Economic Policy Issues

Capitalism and Militarism: the Question of Social Relations

DETERMINANTS OF MILITARY EXPENDITURE

Historical Background

Proximate Determinants

THE DEFENSE BUDGET PROCESS

Background

The Budget Cycle

Congressional Review

MILITARY PROCUREMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE

The Fusion of Militarism and Industrialism, 1830-1914

The Era of the Military-Industrial Complex, 1914-1970

Military Procurement in a Post-Industrial Era, 1970-Present

THE CONCEPT OF A PEACE DIVIDEND

Introduction: Reduced Defense Budgets and the Arms Race

The Problem of Defense Conversion

Reduced Defense Spending as an Investment Process

Arms Exports

PATTERNS OF MILITARY SPENDING AFTER THE COLD WAR

Military Spending: 19851990

Military Expenditure since 1990

A Large Peace Dividend

Future Trends

THE FATE OF THE STATE

A Brief History of Modern War

The State and its Weapons

The Fate of the State

The Economics of Peace and Security, or, what's a State Supposed to Do?

THE EFFECT OF ENDING HOSTILITIES ON OUTPUT AND EMPLOYMENT

The Early 1900s

The 1940s

From the 1950s to the 1960s

The 1970s to the Present

ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS OF PEACE AGREEMENTS

Economic Incentives for Peace Agreements

Economic Barriers to Peace

ECONOMIC CONVERSION, DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION

Historical Background

The Nature of the Problem Today

Policies for Solving the Problems

BUILDING INSTITUTIONS FOR PEACEMAKING AND PEACEKEEPING

Peace as a Collective Action Problem

Institutions Matter

Design Principles

PEACE-KEEPING OPERATIONS

A Review of More than 50 Years of Peace-Keeping Operations

The Concept of a United Nations Armed Force

Political Problems Confronting the United Nations as the World’s Peace-Keeping Agency

ECONOMICS AS AN INSTRUMENT OF PEACE OR CAUSE OF WAR

The Liberal Peace

Problems of the Liberal Peace

Economic Instruments as an Alternative of War

THE LOGIC OF THREAT AND DETERRENCE TODAY

Practical Problems

Potential Adjustments

THE ECONOMICS OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

Conceptual Framework

The Private Costs of Acquiring Chemical and Biological Weapons

The Private Benefits of Acquiring Chemical and Biological Weapons

The Social Costs of Chemical and Biological Weapons Acquisition

Tentative Solution to Negative Externalities Caused by Chemical and Biological Weapons

GLOBAL AND REGIONAL SECURITY ALLIANCES

Economic Analysis of Alliance

Regional and Global Principles and the Structure of Organizations after the Cold War

THE MILITARY DIMENSION OF NORTH-SOUTH TRADE

The Arms Trade and War in the 1990s

The Soviet Bloc after the Cold War

The Middle East Arms Market

Specialization among Industrial States

The Arms Trade in the New Millennium

EFFECTS OF ARMS RACES AND WAR ON DEVELOPMENT

Arms Races, Military Expenditure and Development

The Costs of War

Arms Races, Military Expenditure and War

Ways Forward

ARMS INDUSTRY AND THE GLOBALIZATION PROCESS

The Worlds Arms Industries

The Economics of Defense Industries and the Defense Economics Problem

The US Competitive Threat

The European Arms Industry

Technical Change

The Impact of E-commerce

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT