ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INSTITUTIONAL AND INFRASTRUCTURAL RESOURCES - Table of Contents


URBAN SUSTAINABILITY, BUILT HERITAGE, AND GLOBALIZATION IN THE CUBAN CAPITAL

Cuba in the New Millennium

Sustainable Development in Havana

Urban Ecology

Food Production in Havana

Transportation

Sustainability and Community Participation

Housing in the late 1990s

Community Participation

Built Heritage and Cultural Tourism

Introduction

Conclusion

A RURAL MIGRANT COMMUNITY IN URBAN BEIJING

Background of the migrant community and fieldwork

Major findings from this migrant community

Introduction

Conclusions and Discussions

BANGKOK: ARE INDUSTRIES GENERATING A SUSTAINABLE CITY?

Urbanization and Environmental Degradation

Towards the Sustainable Development of Bangkok?

Introduction

Conclusion: Industries and Sustainable Development

SETTLEMENTS AS SOCIO-TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: STUDY OF SINGAPORE AS AN URBAN ECO-SYSTEM

Case-Study of the Island and City-State of Singapore

Economic Planning and Development in Singapore

Managing Changes in the Physical Environment of Singapore

Environmental Policy and Environmental Management

Enforcement of Environmental Rules and Regulations

Introduction

Conclusion

SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN A MEDIUM-SIZED CITY: THE EXAMPLE OF FREIBURG, GERMANY

The Local Implementation of Sustainable Human Development

Urban Development in Freiburg

Conclusion—Freiburg’s Scope for Local Action towards Sustainability

MEGALOPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF RURAL JAPAN: SUSTAINABILITY IMPLICATIONS OF EXTENDED METROPOLITAN REGIONS IN ASIA

From Megalopolis to Extended Metropolitan Regions

The Melting of Rural and Urban in the Tokaido Megalopolis

Sustainability Issues of Extended Metropolitan Regions

Lessons of the Japanese Extended Metropolitan Regions Experience

Introduction

CITIES, COMPETITIVENESS AND COHESION: EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL SCOTLAND

Measuring City Competitiveness

Social cohesion

Introduction

Conclusion

FREE-TRADE AND CHANGING PATTERNS OF CITYWARD MIGRATION: THE CASE OF MEXICO

Introduction: Migration Patterns during the Era of Import Substitution

The Great Turn-around of the 1980s and 1990s

Integration, Disintegration and Migration

New Poles of Immigration

The Transformation of the Position of Mexico City in the 1980s

The 1990s: Will Mexico City Renew its Position as an Immigration Pole?

Conclusion

SUPPORTING URBAN SMALL-SCALE MANUFACTURERS: THE CASE OF EMERGING BLACK-OWNED ENTERPRISES IN GAUTENG, SOUTH AFRICA

Gauteng’s Emerging Manufacturers: A Profile

The Macro-Policy Environment – Provincial and Local

Support Needs

The Question of Markets

Introduction

Concluding Comments

THE CITY AS A SOCIO-TECHNOLOGICAL SITE: THE CASE OF EXCHANGES IN FINANCIAL CENTERS

Introduction: Innovations in Social Time

Technological Sites as Centers of Calculation

The Case of Global Financial Corporations and Futures Exchanges

Changes in Technology and Knowledge and their Impact on Space

Performativity and Knowledge: Market Simplification and Disembedding

Conclusion: the City as a Techno-system

PLANNING THE SUSTAINABLE CITY: A POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF URBAN GROWTH IN ZANZIBAR

The Sustainable Cities Program and Environmental Sustainability

Land Use and Environmental Sustainability in Zanzibar City

Flexibility, Political Will, and Cost-Effectiveness

Introduction

Conclusion

POVERTY REDUCTION IN INDIA : TOWARDS BUILDING SUCCESSFUL SLUM-UPGRADING STRATEGIES

Poverty in India – The Bigger Picture

Definitions and Indicators of Urban Poverty

Key Factors Affecting Urban Poverty in India

Rules of Anti-Poverty Program Design in the Urban Context

Slum Improvement Programs in India

Outcomes of Slum Improvement Projects (SIPs) in India

Reflections on the Rules for Anti-Poverty Program Design

New Approach to Urban Anti-Poverty Program Design

Introduction

Conclusions

URBANIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN JORDAN

Interaction between Urbanization and Agriculture in Drylands

Urban-Rural Dynamics in Jordan: Historical Context

Environmental Management: Consumption and Degradation at the Desert Margin

Conclusion

LIVELIHOODS, URBANIZATION AND THE RURAL-URBAN INTERFACE IN AFRICAN GROWTH-BASED ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF BOTSWANA

Introduction: Urbanization and Growth-based Macro-economic Performance

Urbanization and the Rural-urban Interface in Botswana

A Short Note on Urban Policies and Economic and Social Developments in Botswana

Instrumentalizing Urban-rural Linkages

New Patterns of Social Vulnerability in the Wake of Urbanization

Conclusion: Urbanization will Rapidly Carry on—What must be Done?

SURVIVAL STRATEGIES AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF KIOSKS IN MOSHI, TANZANIA

Introduction: Kiosk Business

Moshi Municipality

The Pre-1980s Kiosk Owners

Contemporary Kiosk Owners: From Survival Strategy to Development Strategy

Growth of Kiosks: Some Contributing Factors

Advantage of Kiosk Business

Risks and Problems Associated with Kiosk Business

Conclusion

URBAN SUSTAINABILITY: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON INTEGRATING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Sustainable Development

Ecological Modernisation

Urban Regime Theory

Regulation Theory

Introduction

Conclusions

WATER AND SUSTAINABILITY IN ASIAN MEGALOPOLISES: THE CASE OF BEIJING

A Conceptual Framework

The Case of Beijing: The Early Years

The Case of Beijing: Beyond Expansion

A CASE STUDY OF MITIGATING AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS AT TRAFFIC LIGHT JUNCTIONS

Factors Contributing to Traffic Congestion

Effects of Air Pollution

Pollutant Emissions at Traffic Light Junction

Study Approach

Data Collection

Proposed Improvements

Estimation Results

URBANIZATION AND DESERTIFICATION IN EUROPEAN MEDITERRANEAN COASTAL AREAS: A CASE STUDY IN NORTH-WESTERN SARDINIA (ALGHERO, ITALY)

Land degradation and urbanization in Sardinia: A case study of soil consumption in northern Sardinia (Alghero, Italy)

Introduction

Conclusions: the Need for a Local Plan of Action towards Sustainability

THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BOMBING ON INDUSTRIAL SITES THROUGHOUT YUGOSLAVIA DURING THE 1999 CONFLICT

Literature Review

Main Chemical Substances Emitted as a Result of NATO Air Campaign

The Pollution Recorded at Several Industrial Hot-spots

The Use of Depleted Uranium—a Risk for Human Health and the Environment.

Introduction

Conclusions

URBAN SOCIAL VULNERABILITY TO DISASTER IN GREATER LOS ANGELES

Greater Los Angeles: Background

Risk, Hazard, and Vulnerability: Place, Perception, and Politics

Survey Methods

Survey Results

In-depth Case Studies: Two Coastal Communities

Discussion

Introduction

Conclusion: Beyond LA-Noir

SHANGHAI: POPULATION PLANNING AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY

Population Growth and Urbanization in Shanghai

Urbanization and Rising Consumption

Urbanization, Resource Depletion and Environmental Pollution

Move towards Urban Sustainability in Shanghai

Indicators to Measure Shanghai’s Sustainability: A Case Study

Introduction

Conclusion

URBAN SUSTAINABLE INDICATORS - A CASE STUDY FROM HONG KONG

Sustainable framework for policy-makers

Sustainable indicators and a decision support tool

Paving the way forward

Some Other Approaches: United Nations Indicators of Sustainable Development

Some Other Approaches: European Common Indicators of Sustainable Development

TRADITIONAL LAND USE FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND USE: THE CASE OF YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA

General Situation of Yunnan Province

Analysis over Several TLU Modes at County and Village Level (or the Scale of Landscape)

Analysis of the TLU Modes at the Household Level

Summary of Features and Ecological, Economic, and Social Effects of TLU

Building on TLU for Sustainable Land Use and Agriculture

Recommendations for building on advantages of TLU with modern science and technology for developing Sustainable Land Use

REGIONAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN PUNJAB PROVINCE: AN ENVIRONMENT-BASED APPROACH FOR GUIDING DECISIONS ON INDUSTRIAL LOCATION

The Environment-based Approach and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

The Case Study Area: Punjab Province

Methodology of the Study

Pollution Assimilative Capacity of Nature

Backward Areas Uplift

Operationalizing Findings

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS AND THEIR UPGRADING: BUILDING ON THE LESSONS OF THREE DECADES OF EXPERIENCE

Nature and Evolution of Informal Settlements Upgrading

Lessons of Experience

Some Ideas on the Way Forward

RURBANIZATION IN THE REGIONAL PERIPHERY OF CENTRAL MEXICO

Rurubanization Examined

Characteristics of the Central Region

Periurban Agriculture in the Central Region

INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

Watershed Approach to Conservation and Development

Level of Watershed as Management Planning Unit

The Dilemma

Costs and Benefits of Watershed Management

Major Issues in Watershed Management

Determinants of Watershed Status

Approach to Watershed Management

MINERAL EXTRACTION, ECONOMY AND THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT: THE ROLE OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Mineral Extraction, FDI and Urbanization

Possible Destabilization of Urban Development due to FDI in the CEE Region

Benefits of FDI for Host Countries

Environmental and Social Consequences Related to FDI in Mineral Extraction

Negative FDI Implication for the Local Environment. Case studies: Kyrgyzstan, Romania Cyanide and Heavy Metal Spills

SUSTAINABLE FUTURE URBAN PATTERNS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF TROPICAL WETLANDS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

Traditional Socio-economic Activities

Monetary Socio-economic Activities

Modern Socio-economic Industrial Development

TEMPORARY MIGRANTS IN SHANGHAI, CHINA: HOUSING CHOICES AND PATTERNS

Studying Migrant Housing in China’s Context

Migrant Housing Patterns

Individual-level Determinants of Migrant Housing Choices

Geographical Distribution of Migrants

RENEWABLE ENERGY POLICY, PLANNING AND PRACTICE IN CITIES AND CITY REGIONS

Major Urban Energy Issues

Cultural Shifts towards Sustainable Urban Energy Development

Solar City, a Blueprint for Integrated Urban Planning

SELF-SUSTAINABILITY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF WATER CYCLES AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

Findings of the Research

Savonarola Neighbourhood Contract, Padua, Italy

Municipal Water Planning: the Revised Water Cycle Management Programme (Rigena) of Selvazzano Dentro – Padua.

INDICATORS OF URBAN SUSTAINABILITY IN THE UNITED STATES: A FRAMEWORK FOR MEASURING PROGRESS

The Santa Monica Indicator Program

Review of the Literature

Methods

Results

Discussion

URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY IN NIGERIA

Infrastructure Development and the Nigerian Urban Environment

State Provision: An Illusion? Reflections on Benin City

Urban Partnership Initiatives: The Sustainable Ibadan Project

Implications for Urban Infrastructure and Development

ORGANIZATIONAL PUZZLE OF HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PORTO-NOVO

Theoretical Considerations about Infrastructure and Urban Ecology

Methods

The Main Features of Porto-Novo’s Current Household Solid Waste Management System

Restructuring in the Household Solid Waste Management System

Analysis of Actors’ Perception of Structural Change

Policy Implications and Concluding Comments

URBAN FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION AND THE QUANTIFIABLE CONSEQUENCES OF INEFFICIENT PLANNING ON URBAN SUSTAINABILITY

Introduction: Bringing Freight Transportation back into the Urban Sustainability Debate

The direct impacts of freight transportation on urban settlements: the focus on externalities and diseconomies

Urban Freight Transportation and Urban Sustainability

Case Study: Quantifying Diseconomies in the City of Petropolis, Brazil

The “Monetarization of Externalities”: Policy Implications

TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY

Objectives and Vision

Current Trends in Transportation Systems

Elements of Transportation Systems

Sustainable Transportation Strategies

Approaches to Sustainable Transportation Strategies

Synthesis and Discussion

INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT AS "SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT": A BANGLADESH CASE STUDY

Roads and Rural Development in Bangladesh: Shifts in Goals and Orientation

A Summary of Impacts of Road Improvements on the Livelihoods of Local People

LAND TRANSPORT POLICIES AND STRATEGIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEM

Background

Policies And Strategies

Other Supporting Measures

ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION INDICATORS FOR UPGRADED SLUMS: THE CASE OF JARDIM FLORESTA SLUM (FAVELA) IN THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO

Slums and Their Inter-Relations

Environmental Sanitation Indicator - Esi

Environmental Sanitation Indicator for Slums - Esi/S

Selection of the Area for the Case Study

Confirmation of the Applicability of the Proposed Model

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THIRD WORLD CITIES: LESSONS LEARNED AND A PROPOSAL FOR IMPROVEMENT

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Third World Cities: An Overview

MSWM in the First and Third World: A Comparison

Informal Refuse Collection and Scavenging

Categorizing Scavenging

Evaluating the Impacts of and Response to Scavenging

Proposal for a Decentralized MSWM System

ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Environmental and Economic Relevance of MSW Systems

Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment

LCA Studies Comparing Incineration and Recycling of Paper

Applications of Systems Models and LCA to MSW Management

URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS: IMPLICATIONS OF RAPID URBANIZATION WITHOUT ADEQUATE URBAN GOVERNANCE IN LESOTHO

Background

Urban Development and Services

Environmental and Social Problems and their Implications

Urban Environmental Challenge

Introduction

Conclusions and Recommendations

MEXICO CITY: INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE RESPONSES TO URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION

The Natural Setting

Industrialization and Population Growth

The Recent Environmental Crisis

The Middle Class as a Research Focus

Out-migration by Middle-Class Families

Social Participation by Middle-Class Women

Final Remarks

CONFLICT IN PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS FOR EMPOWERMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY FROM SOUTH AFRICA

Methods

Findings from the Case Studies

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION BALANCES ECONOMIC VIABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SOCIAL EQUITY: THE CASE OF BOGOTÁ COLUMBIA

The Case Study of Bogotá: Background Information

Projecto TransMilenio

Beyond Buses: Public Space and Bicycles

Automobile Based Initiatives

Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial

THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL AGENDA IN POLICY-MAKING IN THE URBAN SECTOR: THE CASE OF EGYPT (1950S-1990S)

An Overview of Egypt’s Shelter Problem

The State, Domestic Determinants and Foreign Policy in Three Eras

The Political Economy of Shelter

Conceptual Reflections

DECENTRALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF LOCAL AND MUNICIPAL COUNCILS IN IRAN

Struggle for Participation and the Making of the Councils

Prospects for Development and Democratization

INVESTIGATING THE CONCEPTS OF LEGALITY AND LEGITIMACY IN SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF LAND USE PLANNING IN MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE

The Legal and Regulatory Basis for Urban Development in Mozambique

The Case of Maputo City

Social Legitimacy and Sustainable Urban Development

PATTERNS OF ECONOMIC AFFLUENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN HOUSTON, TEXAS

Air Pollution and Ill-Health in Cities

Growing Affluence and Increasing Pollution over Time

The Population and the Problem of Air Pollution

Indicators of Sustainability: Air Quality and Health Care

COPING WITH URBAN SOCIAL VULNERABILITY TO HAZARDS IN TOKYO: CURRENT STATUS OF DISASTER MITIGATION PLANS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

Disaster Mitigation Plans of Tokyo

Consideration of Urban Social Vulnerability to Hazards in Tokyo

Potential Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations

Integrating Resources of Various Organizations into Municipal Disaster Mitigation Plans

THE DEGRADATION OF WORK IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY: LOW INCOME WOMEN AND THE PRECARIOUS LABOR MARKET IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

Soaring Unemployment and Numbers of Unregistered Workers: Labor Statistics and Laws

Outsourcing of Production—the Resurgence of Homework and Sweatshops

Union Strategies to Prevent Precarization

VICTIMS, VILLAINS, AND FIXERS: THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND JOHANNESBURG'S POOR

Urban Poverty and the Urban Environment

Victims: Apartheid’s Legacy

From Heroes to Villains and the Struggle for Urban Services

Who are the Fixers? It cannot be Business as Usual

URBAN SEGREGATION AND SUSTAINABILITY IN SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

São Paulo Environmental Features

The Segregated Growth of the Urbanized Area

Recent Metropolitan Economic Performance

Housing Segregation in the 1990s.

Air Pollution and Impediments to Mobility

THE FIVE CITIES OF BUENOS AIRES: POVERTY AND INEQUALITY IN URBAN ARGENTINA

Introduction: Setting the Context

The Federal Capital: The Five Cities of Buenos Aires

MISSING LINKS: NEIGHBORHOOD AND STATE INITIATIVES AGAINST CRIME IN CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA

Authoritarian Legacies

Community-based Initiatives for Crime Prevention and Safety and Security

State Initiatives to Improve Community Safety and Security

THE EFFECTS OF THE TRANSITION IN HUNGARY ON THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Hungary: A Case Study

Post Transition Changes in Transport Policy

The Causes of Sprawl in Budapest

THE ROLE OF CLIENTELISM IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: CASE STUDY, KOCAELI, TURKEY

Structural Adjustment Program: Changes in the Economy and Governmental Structures

Clientelism

The Case Study: Kocaeli

GREENING LONDON: SUSTAINABILITY, POLITICS AND THE THIRD WAY

Sustainability and the Third Way

Sustainability as Strategy

Sustainability as Implementation

THE NATIONAL-LOCAL POLICY VACUUM IN SUSTAINABLE LAND USE PLANNING: AL QATIF OASIS, SAUDI ARABIA

Setting the Scene: Oases in Saudi Arabia

The Impacts of Urban Growth

The Policy Framework

Policy Integration and Co-operation

Education and Participation

Towards Sustainable Development in the Oasis

TECHNICAL PROCESS, POLITICAL REALTIES: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE SOUTH DURBAN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

Technical Processes, Political Realities

The South Durban Strategic Environmental Assessment

Competing Agendas

Institutional Issues

Implications for Environmental Politics

INTERPRETING THE REGULATORY GEOGRAPHY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE RISE OF THE SUSTAINABLE CITY IN THE UK

Reinterpreting the Regulation Approach

The Coming of the Sustainable City: the Re-regulation of Britain’s Urban Economy

Sustainable Development and the Regulation Approach

THE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON CHILD LABOR, EXPORT-ORIENTED GARMENT PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY

The Campaign against the Use of Child Labor in the Bangladeshi Export-Oriented Garment Industry

The Context of the Campaign

The Origins of the Campaign in the United States

The Use of Child Labor in Bangladesh

The Harkin Bill and its Effects

Garments in Dhaka: A Map of the City

The Crisis

The Signing and Implementation of the MOU

Results?

The MOU, Child Labor and Urban Sustainability

PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT

SOCIAL DIVERSITY AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY: THE USE OF CONSTRAINTS AND INCENTIVES

Goals and Requirements of Development

Society and Polity

State Intervention and Development

A Proposal for Effective Decision making

POLITICAL PARTIES: PRINCIPAL ARENAS OF POLICYMAKING CONFLICT

A Brief Institutional History of Parties

Types of Party System and their Policymaking Consequences

Party Functions and External Relationships

Factionalism and the Nominating Process

Political Parties as Planning Agencies and Policy Advocates

Cases of Political Parties’ Impact on Life-Support Policies

Future Development of Political Parties

Rights and Responsibilities of Political Parties

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN TODAY'S WORLD OF ORGANIZATIONS AND MARKETS

Research on Complex Organizations

Markets as Coordinating Mechanisms

From a Market Economy to an Organizational Economy

How Organizations Coordinate

Organizational Identification

Organizational Innovation and Adaptation to Change

Social Implications

PLANNED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE: ESSENTIALS FOR CONSTRUCTIVE ACTION

Context

Organizations: delineations and specifics

Context of change intervention

Change components and their dynamic relationships

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: UNDERSTANDING THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

Early History and Recent Development of the Study of Organizational Culture

Modern Organizational Culture in Public Agencies

Deciphering an Organization’s Culture

DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATION: ANCIENT EXPERIENCES

PERSIAN LEGACIES OF BUREAUCRACY AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Early Iran, prior to the Persian Empire

The World-State Persian Empire

Administrative Reforms of Darius

Persian Legacies towards Administration

DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN ADMINISTRATION: PRE-COLONIAL TIMES AND SINCE

The Pre-colonial Period: From the Ashes of Pharaohs to the Berlin Conference

Colonial Administration

The Post-Colonial Administration and Problems of Development

POLITICS IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Ruling and Abiding by the Rules

Representative Systems

ANCIENT BUREAUCRACIES OF INDIA AND CHINA, AND MODERN ADMINISTRATION

Western Misinterpretations

Comparisons: India and China

Indian and Chinese Evolution: Critical Comparisons

Confucian Brahmins and Kautilyan Mandarins

The European Evolution

Some Lessons from Comparative Survey

MODERN SYSTEMS

FRENCH PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

History of French Administration

The Constitution of the Fifth Republic

The Role of State in French political Culture

Civil Service

The Grand Corps of the State

Relation of Administration to the Private Sector

Decentralization and the Prefect

Administrative Law

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICA: THE EXCEPTIONALISM OF A HYBRID BUREAUCRACY

Attraction of Presidentialism

The American Exception

Types of Bureaucracy

Mandarinates

Presidentialism and the US

A hybrid bureaucracy

POLITICS AND ANTI-POLITICS: AMERICAN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

Stunted and Truncated: Public Administration in the Nineteenth Century

A Gentlemanly but Political Public Service

Jackson and Democratization

Reform: Honesty and Anti-Politics

Nirvana Attained: The Civil Service Act of 1883

The Merit Principle and American Governments

Reform: The Foundation for the Next Century

CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENTS

NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT: ORIGINS, DIMENSIONS AND CRITICAL IMPLICATIONS

Origin and Globalization of New Public Management

Rationales and Causes of New Public Management

Major Dimensions of New Public Management

Critical Implications of New Public Management

Limits and Prospects of New Public Management

STRATEGIES OF SUCCESSFUL ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS

Administrative reforms

Politics of reform

Characteristics of reform

Approaches to reform

Financial reform

Democratization

Decentralization

The Indian experience

Evaluation of reforms

REFORMS IN THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION SYSTEMS IN NEW ZEALAND

Context

Political Factors

Intellectual Framework

The Principal Reforms

Overview and Assessment

Subsequent Developments

GOVERNANCE, FACILITATIVE STATES AND TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Governance and Facilitative Institutions

Varied and Shared Public Administration Frameworks Within and Among Nations

International Perspectives and Shared Paradoxes of Public Administration

THE INTERNET, GOVERNMENTS AND THE ISSUE OF GOVERNANCE: A NEW CARTOGRAPHY OF POWER?

Towards a New Globalized Economy : A New Architecture

The Death of Space?

Sovereignty, Electronic Commerce and Globalization

Developing a New Global Framework for Electronic Commerce

Redefining the Role of Governments

ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT

CONTEMPORARY PUBLIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: PATRONAGE, CIVIL SERVICE, PRIVATIZATION, AND SERVICE CONTRACTS

Public Personnel Management Functions

Public Jobs as Scarce Resources

Traditional Values

Emergent Values

Traditional Systems: Patronage, Civil Service, Collective Bargaining, and Affirmative Action

Emergent Systems

Conflict and Compromise among Alternative Public Personnel Systems

Service Contracting and Privatization Outcomes in Developed and Less developed Countries

REVISITING BUDGETARY INCREMENTALISM

Basic Issues

The Demise of Incrementalism

Broader Context, Limited Horizon

Contradictions: Holding on and Letting go

Encountering Change

Return to Basics

BUDGETING FOR GOVERNMENT ACTIVISM AND DEMOCRACY

The Need for Budget Reforms

Designing a Budget Reform

Budgeting for Government Activism

Budgeting for Democracy

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND LIFE SUPPORT PROGRAMS

Scope of Life Support Programs

Differences between Industrial and Developing Countries

Financial Management Cycle

Issues in Practice

Tasks Ahead

ELUSIVE NEXUS: BASIC NEEDS AND FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION

A Brief History

Participation in Development

Previous Empirical Work

An Empirical Test of the Common Ground

The Results

MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECTOR PROGRAMS

Significance

The State of the Art

Implementation

Limitations

Institutional Context

The Bottom Line

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

Administrative Power, Discretion, and the Rule of Law

Administrative Rulemaking

Administrative Adjudication

Enforcement

Transparency

The Legal Status of Public Agencies and Administrators

External Review of Agency Operations

THE OMBUDSMAN OFFICE

The Historical Creation of Ombudsman Offices

What is an Ombudsman?

The Current State of the Ombudsman Concept

The Ombudsman Office in the Context of other Correction Mechanisms

The Effectiveness of the Ombudsman

ETHICS IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

Ethics at the Institutional Level

Ethics at the Organizational Level

Ethics at the Individual Public Servant Level

PUBLIC POLICY

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND DIFFUSION

The Beginnings of Technology Dissemination

The Process of Technology Dissemination

Policy and Practice in Technology Dissemination

Technology Dissemination: Prospects and Ramifications

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AS A LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM RESPONSE

Environmental Policy Challenges in the Twenty-First Century

Environmental Policy as a Response System

DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IN SOUTH AFRICA

The South African Context

Growth, Development and the Environment

Sustainable Development

Natural Resource Economics Policy in South Africa

The Environment as an Asset

The Design of Environmental Policy

Environmental Management as an Integral Part of Business Strategy

CORRUPTION IN ASIAN COUNTRIES: CAN IT BE MINIMIZED?

Levels of Asian Corruption

Anti-Corruption Strategies

Lessons from Singapore

POLITICS OF PREFERENCE: LESSONS FROM INDIA, THE UNITED STATES AND SOUTH AFRICA

The Case for and against AA

Policy Initiatives

Politics of Preference

An Assessment

INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW

The Most-Favored Nation Clause: GATT Article I

National Treatment with Respect to Internal Taxation and Regulations: GATT Article III

GATT Article XI: General Elimination of Quantitative Restrictions

Article XX: General Exceptions to the GATT

INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE USE OF FORCE

Historical Development

Content of the Prohibition of the Use of Force

Exceptions to the Prohibition

Legal Framework

Future Prospects

INTERNATIONAL LAW REGARDING THE CONDUCT OF WAR

Principles of the jus in bello

Enforcement

New Directions and Developments

INTERNATIONAL LAW AND SOVEREIGNTY IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Territory and Public International Law

Challenge to the Jurisdiction Issue by Modern Economic Law—The Effects Doctrine in International Antitrust Law

Territory, Jurisdiction, and Environmental Policy

Multinational Corporations

Global Institutions

HUMAN RIGHTS TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS

The International System of Human Rights Protection

Regional Protection of Human Rights

INTERNATIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS

World Trade Organization

Regional Trade Agreements

OIL SUPPLY, OIL SECURITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

Sovereignty Over Natural Resources: The Legal Dimension

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

The International Energy Agency

The Energy Charter Treaty

Oil and the Environment, Global Warming

TRANSBOUNDARY ENVIRONMENTAL HARM AND STATE RESPONSIBILITY : CUSTOMARY INTERNATIONAL LAW

Customary International Law Approaches to Transboundary Environmental Harm

Absolute Territorial Sovereignty: The Harmon Doctrine

Absolute Territorial Integrity

Limited Territorial Sovereignty

The Community Theory

INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Major Developments in the International Law of Marine Environmental Conservation

Marine Pollution

Marine Wildlife Conservation in Law and Policy

LAW REGARDING PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT DURING WARTIME

Conventional International Law

Customary International Law

Trends in the Development of International Law Protecting the Environment During Wartime

ENDANGERED SPECIES AND INTERNATIONAL LAW

Causes of Wildlife Extinction

The Stockholm and Rio Declarations

CITES

Solutions

INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Institutional Framework within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization

The Committee on Trade and Environment’s Agenda: Flashpoints of the Trade and Environment Debate

Trade-Related Measures in International Environmental Agreements

Unilateral Trade-Related Environmental Measures

Perspectives for a Millennium Round

SURVIVAL, SOCIETY, AND ETHICS IN HUMAN EVOLUTION

Humans Evolving

Society, Culture, and Reality

Rules

SOCIETY, ETHICS, AND THE ANTHROPOLOGIST

The Unity of Humankind

Ethics and the Anthropologist

CULTURAL RELATIVISM

Descriptive Cultural Relativism

Epistemological Cultural Relativism

Normative Cultural Relativism

Cultural Relativism and Human Rights

CONSEQUENTIALISM

The Character of Consequentialism

The Structure of Consequentialism

Some Consequentialist Theories

Objections to Consequentialism

Prospects for Future Development

RIGHTS

Who or What Can Possess a Right?

What Can Be the Content of a Right? What Sort of Things Are There Rights To?

Rights and Justice

The Roots of Rights—Social Constructs or an Essential Moral Concept?

Critics of Rights

Conflicts of Rights

Environmental Rights and Duties

Justifying Rights

VIRTUES

Philosophical Background

Basic Normative Virtue Ethics

Familiar Virtues and Vices

New Virtues?

The Future

COMMUNITARIAN VALUES

Community and the Common Good

The Communitarian Critique of Liberalism

Consequences for Politics

PERSONAL ETHICS

Personal Ethics as Moral Commitment

Personal Ethics as a Challenge to the Universalization Principle

Personal Ethics as Exercising Virtues

Virtues and Community: A Modern Reformulation of Ethics of Virtue

THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

Three Types of Professional Ethics

Sociological Foundations

Goals of Professional Work and Their Problems

Normative and Evaluative Elements in Professional Work

Engineering Ethics

Progress and Rationality in Engineering Ethics

INSTITUTIONAL ETHICS

The Institution as a Moral Agent

Indications That Institutions Should Be Considered Moral Agents

Institutional Agent Properties

The Moral Importance of Institutions—Impact

Individuals Fulfilling Moral Obligations Through Institutions

Moral Records and the Grounds for Blaming

Institutionalizing Institutional Responsibility

Ethical Misconduct and Institutional Loyalty—Whistle Blowing

Institutional Ethics and Ethical Platforms

Institutional Behavior, Moral, and Non-Moral Motives—Prudence

Impact on a Collective and on an Individual Level

Impact and Future Generations

Knowledge and Responsibility—Sagesse Oblige

Knowledge and Application of Knowledge

Institutions—Relevant and Irrelevant Types

GLOBAL ETHICS

The Role of Global Ethics

The Implications of a Particular Global Ethic

The Idea of a Global Ethic

Arguments against a Cosmopolitan Ethic for Individuals

Three Types of Normative International Relations Theory

Objections to Non-Cosmopolitan Theories

Comparison with the Encyclopedia’s Goals

Varieties of Cosmopolitanism/Global Ethics

Kantianism

Human Rights Theories

Other Theories and the Challenge of Non-Anthropocentric Values

ECONOMIC JUSTICE

Robert Nozick

John Rawls

Michael Walzer

Analytical Marxism

Sustainability

CULTURAL JUSTICE

Justice as Cultural

Justice between Cultures

Cultural Justice and Colonial Societies

Culture, Justice, and Globalization

INTERGENERATIONAL JUSTICE

Moral Sensibility for Unborn Generations

Future Generations Are Disadvantaged

Degradation in the Quality of Environmental and Cultural Life

Conserving the Common Heritage for Future Generations

A "Guardian" for Future Generations

Rawls’ "Just Saving Principle" and Future Generations

The Relational Theory of Intergenerational Justice

ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE

Varieties of Justice

Distributive Environmental Justice for Humans

Justice for Future Generations

Interspecies Justice

Minimalist Methodologies of Closure

Regan, Rights, and Vegetarian Justice

Anthropocentrism, Justice, and the Othering of Nature

Othering as an Impediment to Justice

Counter-Hegemonic Virtues

RECTIFICATORY JUSTICE: RIGHTING PAST WRONGS

Means and Ends

Cross-Cultural Goals

Placing Goals and Tools in Context

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

International Relations and Sustainable Development

Global and Local Dimensions, and the Management of Interdependence

Distributive and Equity Issues

Perspectives

COMBATING POVERTY

Mitigating Poverty With Solidarity: Charity for the Poor

Fighting Poverty through the Economy: The Generation of Wealth

The Struggle through Sharing: The Role of the State

The Struggle through Ideology: The Promise of Equality

The Struggle through Integration: The Global Market

The Struggle through Ethics: Direct Confrontation

Social Policies

WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT

Critique of the Discourse of Development

Development and Women

Integrating Women into Development

Women in Development: Issues and Problems

Women, Globalization, and Development

Visions for Change: Ways Forward

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES

Land Tenure and Self-Determination

Cosmological Beliefs

Mabo

Land Management

CHANGING PATTERNS OF CONSUMPTION

Old Ideas and New Problems

Overconsumption and Overpopulation

Two Perspectives

General Patterns of Change

Particular Patterns of Change

Proposals for Future Changes

Ethical Considerations

POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE

Trends and Projections

Population, Natural Resources, and the Environment

Population, Food, and Technologies

Population and Development

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: ETHICS AND JUSTICE NEEDS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Economic Question

Globalization

The Crisis of Development

Ethical Questions

Ways Forward—Alternatives

Institutional Development

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

Overview

Prelude to the Appropriate Technology Transfer Debate

Clarifying the Debate on Appropriate Technology Transfer

Technological Dualism and Appropriate Technology

The Universe of Appropriate Technology and Its Transferability

Channels and Mechanisms for Appropriate Technology Transfer

Appropriate Technology Transfer and Socio-Technical Infrastructure

Appropriate Technology Transfer or Endogenous Technological Development?

Policy Options for Endogenous Technological Capabilities

ENVIRONMENT WELL-BEING AND HUMAN WELL-BEING

Historical Aspects

Foundations of Science

The Paradox of Technology

Policy

Trends in Education, Workforce, and Professional Practice

BIODIVERSITY AND SOCIAL WELLBEING: THE CASE OF SOUTH AMERICA

Current Ecological and Social Problems in South America

Diversity and Homogenization in Southern South America since European Colonization

Propositions to Attenuate Eco-Cultural Homogenization and Conflicts in South America

YOUTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND SUSTAINABILITY

A Profile of Youth

Policies for Youth

Social Institutional Systems and Services for Youth

Issues of Development and Sustainability

Is Sustainable Development Possible?

THE IMPORTANCE OF ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Traditional Environmental Protection Motivations: Regulations and Profit

The Ethical Aspects of Corporate Environmental Decisions

Obstacles to Ethical Decision Making

Solution

THE GLOBALIZATION OF ETHICS IN SCIENCE

The Public Image of Science

Oaths, Pledges, Codes, and Guidelines

The Globalization of Ethics

Three Problems for Ethical Globalization

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR ETHICS AND JUSTICE

Sustainability and the Quest for Global Institutions for Ethics and Justice

Problems for Global Justice and Ethics Institutions

Models for Institutionalizing Ethics and Justice

What Kind of Institutions Do We Need?

BUILDING ETHICS INTO INSTITUTIONS

From Individual Ethics to Institutional Ethics

What Does It Mean To Institutionalize Ethics?

Organization Theory and Institutional Ethics

Organizational Culture

ECONOMIC SECURITY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Livelihood

Ecological and Economic Distribution

Cost Shifting and Compensation

Basic Incomes

Is Consumption Becoming "Dematerialized"?

Risk, Uncertainty, and Environmental Liability

Some International Aspects

The Environmentalism of Livelihood

Women, Economic Security, and the Environment

HEALTH SECURITY ISSUES

Health and Security

Interpersonal Violence

Illicit Drug Use

Communicable Diseases

ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY

Securing the Nation

Securing the Global Commons

Securing Human Welfare

FOOD SECURITY ISSUES

The World Food Situation Today

What Is Food Security?

Who Are the Food Insecure?

Where Are the Food Insecure Found?

How Do People Become Food Insecure?

Women’s Role in Ensuring Food Security

Ethical Issues in Food Security

LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND COMMUNITY SECURITY

Natural and Social Prerequisites for a Sustainable Future

Security and Sustainable Development

Local Knowledge

Overlapping Knowledge Systems

Case Studies

The Future of Local Knowledge for Survival on a Community Level

POPULATION GROWTH ISSUES: CULTURAL CONTEXTS OF ABORTION IN JAPAN

Two Different Types of Mizuko-kuyo

The Tokugawa Shogunate Banned Mabiki

Japanese Demography 1721–1846

Personal Documents from Parish Registers

After Modernization

Important Source of Earnings for Buddhist Temples

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION ISSUES

Two Limiting Cases

The Basic Constellation

Why Distributive Justice?

The Allure and the Ills of a System of Nation-States

Defending Restrictions: From Institutional Principles to Reasons for Action

Special Obligations: Two Ways of Accounting

The Value of Special Relationships: Why Identity Matters

Special Concern Stemming from Equal Respect?

Taking Care of Strangers

ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED IN ETHICS, JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES

Human Rights Organizations

Organizations involved in Ethical and Bioethical Questions

Rights for the Future and the Future of Rights

ETHICS AND JUSTICE INFORMATION FOR DECISION MAKING

Sustainable Development

Values and Choices

Environmental Ethics

The Place for Justice

ETHICS AND SCIENCE

Ethics and Science

UNESCO as the World’s Forum for Ethics

CULTURE OF PEACE

Introduction. Culture of Peace: A Task for Our Time

A Brief History of the Culture of Peace Concept

Basic Aspects of the Culture of Peace

Culture of Peace in Everyday Life

Actions Undertaken by UNESCO to Promote a Culture of Peace (1992-98)

Declarations for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence

ETHICS AND VALUES

Meta-Ethics, Normative Ethics, and Applied Ethics

Reason and Objectivity in Judgments about Ethics and Values

Ethics, Values, and Sustainability

Varieties of Ethics

PEACE OPERATIONS AS AN INTEGRATED PART OF THE UN STRATEGY FOR A MORE SECURE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

The Evolving Context of the Strategy for the Promotion of Peace, Stability, and Well-being

Peace Operations

Good Governance as a Prerequisite for Successful Peace Operations

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS, MORALS, AND INCENTIVES IN MODERN SOCIETIES

New Dimensions of Environmental Problems

Costs of Moral Behavior and Strategies of "Cost Reduction"

THE EARTH CHARTER:GLOBAL ETHICS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

The Global Situation and the Need for a Global Ethics (Preamble of The Earth Charter)

Respect and Care for the Community of Life (Part I of The Earth Charter)

Specific Commitments of The Earth Charter (Principles 5–16)

The Way Forward (Epilogue of The Earth Charter)

CONFLICT DOMAINS: WARFARE, INTERNAL CONFLICTS, AND THE SEARCH FOR NEGOTIATED OR MEDIATED RESOLUTIONS

Conflict Between and Within States

Divided Societies

The Role of Culture

Settlements and Resolutions

Group Identity

CROSS-CULTURAL CONFLICT

The Nature of Conflict

Culture

Cross-Cultural Conflict

Culture, Identity, and Conflict

Culture, Ethnicity, and Ethnic Conflict

Cross-Cultural Conflict Resolution

INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT

Sources and Influences

Dynamics of Interpersonal Conflict

Assessing Interpersonal Conflict

New Directions

INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT

Historical Trends in International Violence

Issues Over Which States Conflict

System Level Explanations

National and Societal Explanations

Individual Explanations

THE NATURE OF WARFARE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

Wars and Rumors of War

The Post-Cold War Zeitgeist According to Fukuyama et al

Spillover: An Expanded View and Typology

CONFLICT IN DIVIDED SOCIETIES

Race, Ethnicity, and Class

Identity Formation and Politics

Group Competition and the State

STRUCTURAL SOURCES OF CONFLICT

Analyzing the Structure of Conflict

Mixed-Motive Games

Social Dilemmas: Mixed-Motive Games with Large Groups

ALLIANCES: SANCTIONING AND MONITORING

The Main Factors that Keep Groups Together

The Role of Monitoring and Avoidance

Analyzing Groups and Individual Actions with the Social Sciences

POLITICAL FACETS OF CONFLICT

Historical Reconstructions of the Development of Political Systems

How to Select those who will Govern

How to Organize Large Communities to Develop and Maintain Resources

How to Allocate Collective Resources over Large Communities

INSTITUTIONAL FACETS OF CONFLICT

Informal Institutions

Formal Institutions

SOCIAL CHANGE, CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Myths

Newer Models for Change

The Role of Trauma

Examples

Tests

Applying the Resolutionary Change Model to Ecosystem Issues

Idealism or Pragmatism?

THE LANGUAGE OF CONFLICT

Introduction to a Framework for Analyzing Language Use

The Strategies of Using Language

The Strategies of Using Language in Environmental Conflict

SMALL GROUPS AND CONFLICT

Analyzing Status: Who Likes Whom?

Analyzing Social Networks: Who Gives What to Whom?

Analyzing Social Identity: Who Calls Whom What?

Analyzing Dispute Resolution in Small Groups

Analyzing Community-Based Environmental Management

CONFLICT AND CHANGE ACROSS GENERATIONS

Technological changes over generations

Social changes over generations

Planning for the future

THE PERSON AND CONFLICT

What are Individuals Made of?

Economic Impacts on Individuals: Resources and Consumption

Political and Institutional Conflicts

Small Group Conflicts for the Individual

Conflicts from the Wider Society

Multiple Audience Conflicts

Multiple Resources Conflicts

Intergenerational and Family Conflicts

Monitoring in Individuals

Avoidance in Individuals and its Observation

Solving Conflicts for the Person

APPROACHES TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Negotiation

Multilateral Negotiations

Mediation

Arbitration

NEGOTIATION

Approaches to the Study of International Negotiation

New Issues for Research

Comparing Approaches

MULTILATERAL NEGOTIATION

Managing Complexity

Coalition

Other Approaches

Negotiating Regimes

Future Directions

MEDIATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL DISPUTES

Mediation as third party intervention

Brief history and current practices

Mediation of environmental disputes

Some current issues and new directions

ARBITRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL DISPUTES THAT CROSS NATIONAL BOUNDARIES

Sources of Authority of Trans-boundary Environmental Disputes

Major International Environmental Public Law Arbitration Cases and Tribunals

Major International Environmental Arbitration Private Law Cases and Tribunals

The Future of International Environmental Arbitration

THE GRAPH MODEL FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Theoretical Foundations

Applying the Graph Model to Real World Conflict

Context of the Elmira Groundwater Contamination Dispute

Modeling the Elmira Dispute

Analyzing the Elmira Dispute

Introduction

Conclusions

DRAMA THEORY AND METAGAME ANALYSIS

Dilemmas generated by a rational approach to conflict

Reaction to the dilemmas; metagame theory

Dilemmas of agreement and disagreement; metagame analysis

From metagame analysis to drama theory

The six phases of conflict resolution

The six dilemmas and their elimination

Drama theory and rationality

MISPERCEPTIONS AND HYPERGAME MODELS OF CONFLICT

Hypergame Models and Stability Analysis

Background of the Water Aquifer Conflict

Modeling the Water Aquifer Conflict as a Hypergame

Hypergame Stability Analysis

Introduction

Conclusions

GAME MODELS OF NEGOTIATION AND ARBITRATION

Introduction and Overview

Negotiation Models

Mediation

Arbitration Models

MULTI-OBJECTIVE DECISION-MAKING IN NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION

MCDM Approaches to Quantifying Preferences of Individual Parties in Negotiations

Multi-objective Methods for Identifying Compromises Using Implicit Value Functions

Negotiation Support Systems

The Arizona Water Control Study: A Successful Use of MCDM in Negotiation

COST ALLOCATION

Cooperative Game Theoretic Approach

Non-cooperative Game Theoretic Approach with Coalition Formation

COMPLIANCE MODELS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS

The Regulatory Approach

Economic Measures

Citizens’ Enforcement

Introduction

Conclusions

CASE STUDY IN INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY: REGIONAL UTILITY-BASED COGENERATION

Industrial Ecology

Scope of Case Study

Cogeneration

Scenarios for Utility-Based Cogeneration

Results and Discussion for Annual Assessment

Results and Discussion for Cumulative Assessment

Implications and Trends

Introduction

A CASE STUDY OF MULTI-LATERAL WATER NEGOTIATION: THE JORDAN RIVER SYSTEM

Geopolitical Settings of the Jordan River System

Water and Conflict in the Middle East

Water and Peace: The Multi-lateral Water Negotiations

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF WAR

Peacetime (Pre-war and Post-war) Impact of the Military Sector

Environmental Manipulations

Forest Clearing

Explosive Remnants of War

Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Warfare

Beneficial Environmental Effects of War

THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL COST OF WAR:THE CASE OF AFRICA

Introduction: The African Crisis

Natural Resources and Conflict in Africa

PEACE,CULTURE,AND ETHICS:RECENT HISTORY OF CONSERVATION VALUES IN PEACE AND WAR

Basic Parameters

Recent History

The Military Sector

Into the Twenty-First Century

COMPLEXITY, COLLAPSE, AND SUSTAINABLE PROBLEM-SOLVING

The Dilemma of Sustainability

Unsustainability: Historical Collapses

A Concept of Sustainability

Sustainability and Problem-solving

Development of Problem-solving Institutions

Divergent Outcomes to Problem-solving

Sustainable Problem-solving

Models of Sustainable and Unsustainable Futures

FROM STATES SYSTEMS TO A SOCIETY OF STATES: THE EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Early States Systems

Mediaeval Cosmology and Politics

Origins of the European States System

The Peace of Westphalia (1648)

The Legacy of the Napoleonic Wars: The Concert of Europe and the Management of the States System

The Universalization of the European States System: Imperialism

The Legacies of the Great War

The Legacies of World War II

Managing the Postwar International System

Revising Westphalia: A New Norm for Intervention?

The Territorial Compact

From System of States to a Society of States: International Institutions

DIPLOMACY

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Negotiation

Telecommunications

Bilateral diplomacy

Multilateral diplomacy

Summitry

Mediation

GEOPOLITICS

Concept

History of "Geopolitics"

Conceptual Difficulties

Geopolitical Vision

The "Ages" of Geopolitics

Cold War Geopolitics

Geopolitics After the Cold War

Global Security

Environmental Threats

Migration

The Revolution in Military Affairs

Resistance and the Geopolitical Imagination

Human Security and Territorial States

Green Geopolitics

Future Geopolitics

DIPLOMATIC, INTERNATIONAL AND GLOBAL-WORLD HISTORY

Diplomatic History

International History

The Cold War

European Union

Global/World History

AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN FOREIGN RELATIONS

Europe in 1945

The Onset of the Cold War

The Dispute over Germany

The Plight of Western Europe and the Marshall Plan

Defense Arrangements in Western Europe. NATO

The Failure of the European Defense Community

Western Strategy: from "Massive Retaliation" to "Flexible Response"

The France-NATO Rupture

Détente In The Early 1970s

Imbalance in the Western Alliance

Collapse of the Soviet Union

The Issue of NATO Enlargement

The Emergence of the European Union as a Defense Organization

NATIONALISM AND IDENTITY POLITICS IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Nationalism and National Identities

Nationalism and International Relations

SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Sociology's Relevance to International Relations

Historical Origins of Sociological Thought

Historical Sociology

The Historical Scociology of the State and International Relations

Principles of Historical Sociology

Problems with Historical Sociology

Sociology of Globalization

Global Versus Historical Sociology?

The Future Sociological Agenda in International Relations

LONG CYCLES IN GLOBAL POLITICS

Introduction : The Study of Long Cycles

A Brief History of Global Politics

Basic Concepts

Evolutionary Explanation

From Leadership to Global Organization

COMPLEXITY SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE-CREATION IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY

Complexity Science: Its Epistemological and Ontological Significance

How Complexity Science Overthrows Lakatos's Methodology of Research Programs

The Logical Foundation of "Complex Justificationism"

MERCANTILISM

History of Mercantilism

The British Context

Mercantilism as a Doctrine

Power and Protection

Protection and Underdevelopment

HEGEMONY IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

When Do Resource Advantages Beget Political Influence?

Complications in the Relation between Resources and Influence

Public Choice Theories of Hegemony

Unresolved Issues in Public Goods Treatments of Hegemony

Hegemony from a Gramscian perspective

Alternative Means of Providing International Public Goods

Lessons for Policy-Making

HUMAN RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

The Universality of Human Rights

The United Nations

The International Covenants on Human Rights

Other Human Rights Activities by UN Bodies

Council of Europe

European Union

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

Organization of American States

Organization of African Unity

Non-governmental organizations

Humanitarian Intervention

International Adjudication

INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL NEGOTIATIONS

Coalition Formation

International Environmental Agreements

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

How Has the World Changed?

Technology and Territory

Some Normative Implications

THE EVOLUTION OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: THEORY AND PRACTICE

The Origins of Global Governance

Global Governance and the Establishment of the Post-War World Order

Global Challenges and Global Governance

Future Research on Global Governance

COMPARATIVE FOREIGN POLICY AND HUMAN RIGHTS: THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER DEMOCRACIES

COMPARATIVE FOREIGN POLICY AND HUMAN RIGHTS: THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER DEMOCRACIES

U.S. Foreign Policy and Human Rights

Other Liberal Democracies

Illiberal States

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

International security: past and present

The study of international security: theoretical developments and perspectives

INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION

The Characterization of Intervention

Permissive Intervention

Collective Security and Peace Support Operations under Chapter VII

Conceptual Developments

Command, Control and Decentralization

THE UN AND HUMAN RIGHTS ON THE EVE OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

Taking Stock at Vienna, 1993

Diplomacy for Rights

Complex Peacekeeping

Moving Toward Enforcement

THE ROLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Making Environmental Treaties Work

Financing Challenges

Institutionalizing Global Environmental Protection

The United Nations and Sustainable Development

Partnerships for the Planet

THE PRESERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES: THE UNCERTAIN FUTURE

Background and State of the World

The Role of International Government Organizations in Environmental Protection

A Status Report on Present and Future Problems

THE UNITED NATIONS IMPACT ON GENDER ISSUES

Introduction—from San Francisco to Beijing

The Political Rights Agenda

CEDAW: its Meaning and History

The Decade for Women 1976–1985: Three Meetings: Agendas, Participants, Results

Beijing 1995 and its Follow-up

THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE PEACEKEEPING

Traditional Peacekeeping

Evaluation of Traditional Peacekeeping

Resurgence of Peacekeeping after the Cold War

The Move to Peace Enforcement and Subcontracting

Retrenchment

Recent Expansion

Future Challenges

A GLOBAL APPROACH TO DISEASE: COORDINATING THROUGH THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

The WHO: its Goals and Programs

Response to Major Challenges

The Special Challenge of AIDS

Global Health: How WHO Might Help Achieve It

UNITED NATIONS REFORM: ON TRACK FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY?

The Genesis of United Nations Reform

Agents for Change

Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s Comprehensive Reform Program

The New Challenges

Reform at Age 60

The Decisions of the 2005 World Summit Meeting

The Balance of Reform

DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE ROLE FOR INGOS IN DEMOCRATIC GLOBAL GOVERNANCE

The Historical Roots of the INGO Movement

Twenty-first Century INGOs: New Issues, New Rationales, New Strategies

Structures and Strategies for Improving Governance and Management of INGOs and NGOs

CONTRIBUTING TO INTERNATIONAL CIVIL SOCIETY :A EURASIAN EXAMPLE

History of the Environmental Movement in the FSU

Western Assistance to Environmental NGOs in the FSU: A Brief Overview

The ISAR Program: A Case Study in NGO Development and International Cooperation

HUMAN RIGHTS: THE STRUGGLE FOR INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE

Introduction: Human Rights Issues Post-Second World War

The Role of Human Rights INGOs in Theory and Practice

Evaluating INGO Performance: an Analytical Framework

Egypt: Western Influence Yields to Cultural Mores?

Guatemala: the High Cost of Impunity

The United States

COMBATING INFECTIOUS DISEASE AS A GLOBAL SECURITY GOAL: EMERGING TRENDS AND "STRANGE BEDFELLOWS"

United Nation Groups Combating Infectious Diseases

WHO Initiatives

Infectious Disease and Global Security

Developing New Alliances: Lessons Learned and Future Trends

GENDER EQUALITY: A WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY

National Development Impacts on Women

Launching the Field of Women and Development (WID)

WID Strategies

Challenges to WID: New Voices

International Women and Development NGOs

Association for Women’s Rights in Development: A Case Study

THE EMPOWERMENT OF SUBNATIONAL GOVERNMENTS AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES IN A DECENTRALIZED AND UNEQUAL POLITY

Participation and decentralization: a brief theoretical review

Brazil's regional inequalities

Participation as empowerment and as voice

The vectors of decentralization

Financial and political decentralization: some figures and factors

Assessing some preliminary results of decentralization

BALANCING NATIONAL ECONOMIC REFORMS WITH SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS

The redemocratization agenda

Urban-environmental management: an overview of its recent trajectory

The financing of urban-environmental programs

Current stage of urban-environmental management

THE MESOAMERICAN BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR: LINKING INTERNATIONAL, NATIONAL AND LOCAL SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES

The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor and Intergovernmental Organizations

Non-governmental Organizations and Indigenous Communities

Communicating the MBC Vision

INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE AND BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

What Theory Expects

Institutional Evolution

IMPROVING INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

The Conceptual Framework

Levels of Support and Action

Types of Organisation

Policy issues

Conclusions

LOCAL, REGIONAL, AND NATIONAL DECENTRALISED, MULTISTAGE PLANNING PROCESSES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

Different Types of Planning Processes

Case Studies

The Links of Multilevel Planning To the SLA

Emerging Lessons

ACCOMODATING MARGINALIZED GROUPS IN THE PLANNING PROCESS

Introduction

Need for Participatory Environmental Policies

Issues of Exclusion for Marginalized Groups

Mechanisms for Participation of Marginalized Groups

Conclusion- Vision for the Twenty-First Century

NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND THE PROMISE OF DECENTRALISED GOVERNANCE: LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE IN INDIA

Introduction: The Twin Crises

Signs Of Hope: Resolving The Twin Crises Together

Effectiveness of Community Self-Organization

Lessons for a More Democratic, Decentralised Governance

THE EFFECT OF INSTITUTIONAL CULTURES ON SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ECOLOGICAL CONSERVATION

Cultures Shaping Institutions

Institutions Shaping Cultures

Institutional Cultures For Sustainable Development

Case Study: the social infrastructure of irrigation in Mexico (a World Bank project)

Implications

CULTURAL DIVERSITY, DEMOCRACY AND PARTICIPATION

Roots and frontiers

Inclusion—Exclusion

Universalism—Diversity

The Self and the Collective

Multiculturalism—Interculturalism

Social Movement Networks: the Local and the Global

Democracy and Participation

Scenarios for the Future

INTERNATIONAL BINDING MECHANISMS

Nature and History of International Environmental Law

Dispute Settlement in International Environmental Law

Sustainable Development and International Law

European Environmental Law: A Regional Success Story

INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES AND PRINCIPLES

Role of Soft Law in International Environmental Law

Status of Principles in International Environmental Law

Environmental Principles

ENDANGERED SPECIES

The Nature of Endangerment

Regime Development

Policy Mechanisms Under CITES

Policy Development and Implementation Under Cites

TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

Hazardous Wastes and their Transboundary Movement—Problem Definition

Hazardous Treatment and Disposal

International Legislation and Hazardous Waste

The Basel Convention

Problems of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste

INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS AND AGREEMENTS ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Basic Science

A Brief History of the Debate: The Early Discussions

Science and Politics

Future Trends

BIODIVERSITY

General Principles

Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity

Access to Genetic Resources and the Sharing of Benefits

Institutional Mechanisms

Other Instruments

DESERTIFICATION

The Problem of Desertification

The Internationalization of the Question of Desertification

The Desertification Convention

The Convention and the Realization of Sustainable Development

FORESTS

Deforestation

International Forestry Agreements

The Road to the Future

MARINE ISSUES

International Legal Framework

Marine Pollution

Marine Living Resources

Future Prospects

LONG RANGE TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION

The Convention

Exports and Imports

The First Sulfur Protocol

The NOx Protocol

The VOC Protocol

The Critical Loads Approach

The Second Sulfur Protocol

Heavy Metals and POPs Protocols

Multi-effects and Multi-pollutants Protocol

Cost-effectiveness

The Very Process is Important

From Fish to Forests to Health to …

POLAR REGIONS

Arctic Accords

Antarctic Accords

The Effectiveness of Polar Accords

OZONE LAYER DEPLETION

The Architecture of the Ozone Layer Regime

The Evolution of the Ozone Layer Regime: Adjustments and Amendments to the Montreal Protocol

Future Challenges

HUMAN RIGHTS

Human Rights Perspectives on Environmental Protection

Environmental Perspectives on Human Rights

NUCLEAR ISSUES

International Legal Framework

New Challenges

BIOSAFETY

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

THE ROLE OF INTER- AND NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

Intergovernmental Organizations

Nongovernmental Organizations

THE WORLD BANK

The Creation and Evolution of the World Bank

The Organisational Structure of the World Bank Group

The Political Process of the World Bank

The World Bank and the Development Assistance Regime

The World Bank and Environmental Issues

THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

The Creation of the IMF

The Operation of the Gold Exchange Standard

The Membership of the IMF

The Legal Structure of the IMF

The Political Structure of the IMF

Quotas and their Significance

The Availability of Financial Resources

Credit Tranches, Stand-By Arrangements and Conditionality

The Variety of Financial Facilities

Developing Countries and the Debt Crisis

Global Political Change and Reform of the IMF

EUROPEAN UNION

The Challenges of EU policy making

The Historical Transition towards an EU Environmental Policy

Identifying the Principles and Objectives of EU Environmental Policy: The Evolution of the Environmental Action Plans.

Towards Sustainability: The Fifth EAP

Towards a Sixth EAP

A Future for Green Politics at the EU level?

ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

The Role and Functioning of the OECD

Sustainable Management of Resources

Protection of Health and Safety

Climate Change

Biotechnology

THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION

The Creation of the WTO

The Organizational Structure of the WTO

The Political Process of the World Trade Organisation

The WTO and the World Trading System

The WTO and Environmental Issues

NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT

NAFTA Overview and Background

NAFTA Implementation

NAFTA’s Side Agreements

NAFTA’s Environmental Aspect

NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

NGOs, Interest Groups, Pressure Groups, Lobbies, and Private Voluntary Organizations

Transnational Actors

NGOs and their Independence from Governments

NGOs, Political Parties, and Ethnic Minorities

NGOs and their Relations with Business and Commerce

NGOs and the Political Use of Violence

Different Types of Structures Among NGOs

Coalition-Building Among NGOs

The Geographical Spread of NGOs

Types of NGO Activities

NGOs, Social Movements, and Civil Society

INFORMAL SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Defining Social Movements

History and Development

Social Movement Theory

Social Movements and Global Politics

What is the Future for Social Movements?

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

HUMANKIND AND CONSUMPTION OF RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES: LIMITS OF GROWTH AS A CHALLENGE OR UNLIMITED GROWTH AS A SOLUTION?

Humankind and Resources: Analyzing

Humankind and Resources: Theory

Humankind and Resources: Mobilization

GENDER AND VIOLENCE. DIVERSITY AND DIFFERENCE

Violence, Diversity and Differences.

Gender and Violence.

MEDIATION: EMPOWERING PEOPLE FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING (MEDIATION AND PEACEBUILDING)

From conflict to a Impartial Third Party

Mediation

Community Mediation

Mediation and Peace Building

PEACE EDUCATION AND TEACHING

Structural Violence

SYNCHRONIZING CULTURAL AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES TOWARDS GLOBAL GOVERNANCE

Synchronism in Peace Education and Conflict Resolution

Variable Contextual Conditions

Education as Praxis

WORLD TRANSITION, CIVIL COURAGE, AND WHISTLEBLOWING TO PROTECT SOCIAL PEACE

World Transition

Unloved Heroes of our Establishment - Examples

Civil Courage

Whistleblowing

Social Peace