ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION, AND SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT RESOURCES - Table of Contents


COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

THE HISTORY, PHILOSOPHY AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE (HOW A SIMPLE TUNE BECAME A MONSTER HIT)

Prelude: Art and Science Share a Common Trait

Overture: Songwriters and Performers in Science and Engineering

Libretto: 1983 - Computational Intelligence Begins

Aria: 1992 - The Horizon Expands

Accelerando: 1992-2000 – CI goes Viral

Finale: CI in 2012

HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF NEURAL NETWORKS

Introduction: The Body and the Brain

First Steps towards Modeling the Brain

Learning: The Optimization of Network Structure

The Fall and Rise of Connectionism

Hopfield Networks

The ‘Adaptive Resonance Theory’ Classifier

The Kohonen ‘Feature-Map’

The Multi-Layer Perceptron

Radial Basis Function Networks

Recent Developments in Neural Networks

“What Artificial Neural Networks Cannot Do..”

Conclusions and Perspectives

RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS

Starting With the Basic Model Neuron and the Most Classical Non Recurrent Neural Network, The MLP

Recurrent Neural Networks, In Artificial Neurocomputing and In Biology - Structures with Cyclic Paths in the Flow of Information

Time Playing an Important Role in Recurrent Networks - Phenomenology and Potential Exploration of Useful Behavior

Detailing a Classical Example: The Fully Connected Auto-Associative Hopfield Neural Network, a Classical RNN for the Storage of Images and Their Recovery from Noisy Versions

Alternative Ways to Define Inputs and Outputs in Recurrent Neural Networks Time versus Space

A Recurrent Neural Network for Real Time Applications, With Changing In Time Inputs and Changing In Time Outputs

ADAPTIVE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING AND REINFORCEMENT LEARNING

Reinforcement Learning

Adaptive Dynamic Programming

Iterative ADP algorithm

Applications and a Simulation Example

Conclusions

ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING

Memory as an Attractor System

Memory Re-consolidation

Self Organization

KERNEL MODELS AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

Kernel Function and Feature Space

Representer Theorem

Example

Pre-Image Problem

Properties of Kernel Methods

Statistical Learning Theory

Support Vector Machines

Variations of SVMs

THE GENESIS OF FUZZY SETS AND SYSTEMS ASPECTS IN SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY

Introduction

From Electrical Engineering to System Theory

A New View on System Theory: Fuzzy Sets and Systems

Philosophy of Science, Vagueness and Fuzzy Sets

Before the “Fuzzy Boom”: Fuzziness in Language and Meaning

Real-World Application Fuzzy System

Fuzzy Sets in Humanities and Social Sciences

Outlook: Computing with Words and Perceptions

DESIGN AND TUNING OF FUZZY SYSTEMS

Fuzzy Systems

AnYa type FRB

Fuzzy rule based systems using expert knowledge

Fuzzy rule based systems using clustering

FUZZY DATA ANALYSIS

Fuzzy Clustering Model

PCA based on Fuzzy Clustering based Correlation

PCA based on Variable Selection

INTRODUCTION TO INTERVAL TYPE-2 FUZZY LOGIC SYSTEMS

Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

The Interval Type-2 FLS

An Illustrative Example to Summarize the Operation of the Type-2 FLS

Avoiding the Computational Overheads of Type-2 FLSs

Brief Overview on Interval Type-2 FLSs Applications

ROUGH SET APPROXIMATIONS: A CONCEPT ANALYSIS POINT OF VIEW

Two Aspects of Data

Definability and Approximations

Construction of Approximations

EVALUATING THE EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS - CLASSICAL PERSPECTIVES AND RECENT TRENDS

Classical Numerical Benchmarks

General Guidelines for Designing Benchmark Problems

Modern Benchmark Suites

Experimental Conditions and Performance Measures

Statistical Test Procedures

Facing the Real World - Some Issues

A GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS

Simple Evolutionary Algorithms

Applying EAs to Problems

Beyond Simple Evolutionary Algorithms

EVOLUTIONARY MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION

Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization (EMO)

A Brief Time-line of the Development of EMO Methodologies

Elitist EMO: NSGA-II

Applications of EMO

Recent Developments in EMO

MEMETIC ALGORITHMS

Micro-level Design of Memetic Framework

Macro-level Design of Memetic Framework

SWARM INTELLIGENCE

Particle Swarm Optimization

Swarm Dynamics - A Simplified Example

PSO Variants

Applications

Theoretical Works

ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE ALGORITHMS IN LEARNING AND OPTIMIZATION

Historical Background

Basics of Immunology

Abstraction into Computing

Optimization

Anomaly Detection

Clustering

Novel Application Areas of AIS

HYBRID COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Core Areas of Computational Intelligence: Fuzzy Logic, Evolutionary Algorithms and Neural Networks

Genetic Fuzzy Systems

Neural Fuzzy Models and Fuzzy Neural Networks

General Framework for Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks

COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

Fuzzy Logic and Medical Image Processing

Artificial Neural Network and Bone Tissue Engineering

COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND SMART GRID

Microgrids and Integrated Microgrids

Optimization Problems and Proposed Methodologies

Development of a Multi-Agent Simulation Platform

Simulation Studies

Simulation Results and Discussions

COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND BIOINFORMATICS

Computational Intelligence: An Overview

Bioinformatics: An Overview

Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics

COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE

What is Computational Neuroscience?

Emergence of Computational Neuroscience

What is the Role of Computational Neuroscience?

Property of Computational Modeling for Nervous Systems

Elements and Organizations in the Nervous System and In Computational Models

New Directions in Computational Neuroscience

NEUROMORPHIC ENGINEERING

Neuromorphic Communication

Sensing

Computing

BRAIN-MACHINE INTERFACE

History of Research and Commercialization

Information Encoding in the Brain

Motor BMIs

Neuronal Ensembles and Large-Scale Recordings

BMI for Reaching and Grasping

Decoding Algorithms

Neuronal Plasticity

Noninvasive BMIs

BMI for Walking

Sensory BMIs

BMIBidirectional BMIs

LIFE CYCLES FOR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, TEST, AND EVALUATION

Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Life Cycles

LIFE CYCLES FOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION

Commonly Used Life Cycles

Current and Future Trends

Introduction

THE PLANNING AND MARKETING LIFE CYCLE

Planning and Marketing

SYSTEM BASICS

Basic Principles of System Performance

Continuous System Processes, Computational Models

Control, Observation, Feedback

USER NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS, AND LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

Problems and Issues Concerning Requirements Development

Requirements Process

Quality Characteristics for User Needs and Requirements

Contemporary Requirements Practices

CASE Tools for Support of the Requirements Process

Future Perspectives for User Needs and Requirements Engineering

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

Identifying System Requirements

Requirements Identification Strategy

Methodologies and Techniques to Identify User Requirements and System Species

VALUE SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY

Relations between Systems Methodology and Fractal Geometry

A Close Look at Value Systems Design

How VSD Process Works

How You Can Test a VSD for Quality?

How to Design and Test a Value System

Theories of Value and Multi-phase Effects

Teamwork and Freedom

CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT

Configuration Management within the System Lifecycle

Configuration Status Accounting and Configuration Auditing

Configuration Management Responsibilities

Configuration Management in Process Improvement

Configuration Management Tools

DECISION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING, AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN LIFE SUPPORT

Life Support Process

Enabling Information Systems

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES FOR LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

On Architectures

Architecture Development Process

Conversion to the Executable Model

SYSTEMS INTEGRATION OF SYSTEMS FOR LIFE SUPPORT

SI in Life Support Systems and an SI Life Cycle

SI Strategy for Success

The Audit Trail

Quality Assurance in SI

Subcontractor Management for SI

Subsystem Integration and Delivery

Risk Management

MANUFACTURING AND NETWORKED INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR LIFE SUPPORT

Background

Evolution of information systems

Information for sustainable production

LIFE-CYCLE COSTING: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR TOTAL ASSEST MANAGEMENT

The Need for Life-Cycle Costing

Application of Life-Cycle Costing Methods

The Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Process

The Benefits of Life-Cycle Costing

MAINTENANCE AND SUPPORT: A CRITICAL ELEMENT IN THE SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE

The Elements of Maintenance and Support

The Design for System Maintenance and Support

EVALUATION IN SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Integration and Iteration in System Design Evaluation

Cost Effectiveness Evaluation

Choosing the Preferred Alternative

System Evaluation Examples

EVALUATION OF PROGRAMS AND POLICIES FOR LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

Evaluation Approach

Evaluation Design

DECISION NETWORKS AND COMMAND ORGANIZATIONS

Single Human Detection Model

Distributed Detection Model

Structural Congruence between Tasks and Organizations

Design of Congruent Organizations for Specific Missions

Robust and Adaptive Organizations

New Directions

PRINCIPLES AND TOOLS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Total Quality Management Tools

Total Quality Management Philosophies

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION: DEVELOPMENTS IN SETTING REQUIREMENTS AND VERIFYING COMPLIANCE

How Requirements Should Be Set

How to Verify Compliance with Requirements

RISK MANAGEMENT AND RISK-BASED DECISION-MAKING

The Complexity of Risk Modeling; Assessment and Management of Large Scale Systems

Systems Engineering, Risk Analysis, and Large-Scale and Complex Systems

Holistic Approach to Risk Assessment and Management

Hierarchical Holographic Modeling for Identifying Risk Scenarios

Expected Value of Risk

The Partitioned Multi-objective Risk Method

Risk of Extreme Events

The Fallacy of the Expected Value

The Partitioned Multi-objective Risk Method

THE POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

Stewardship of the Earth

Emergence of Ecological Perspectives

Ecological Approaches

Industrial Ecology

System Elements of Industrial Ecology

Policy Implications of Industrial Ecology

Public Roles

Industry Roles

Government Roles

HUMAN FACTORS AND GLOBAL PROBLEMS: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

Why Can Human Factors Help Solve Global Problems

A Systems Approach Design Principles

Application Examples

TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FOR LIFE SUPPORT

Life Support Telecommunications Issues

Principles of Telecommunications

Telecommunications Terminology

Analog and Digital Communications

ATM Networks

Multimedia Communication for Life Support

Major Network Components

Transmission Media

Packet Switched Communications

Protocol Layering

Supporting Protocols

Multicasting

Telecommunication Systems Management

Network Security

OPERATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY MANAGEMENT FOR THE INFRASTRUCTURE: THE CASE OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE

The Process of Emergency Response

Opportunities for Supporting Decision Making

Technologies for Decision Support

Methodologies for Providing Decision Support in Emergency Response

An Illustrative Example: The Port of Rotterdam

FORMAL TOOLS FOR EXPLORING COMPLEXITY

Complex Systems

Entropies

Objectiveness and Reductionism

Some Measures of Order, Disorder and Complexity

MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES OF COMPLEXITY

Structural and Functional Approaches

Computation and Language

Computational Complexity

Simulation Approaches

HIERARCHY AND COMPLEXITY IN PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

Normal Statistics

Scaling and Lévy Statistics

Renormalization and Scaling

COMPLEXITY IN CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

Introduction: Chemical Kinetics

Clocks and Oscillations

Chaos

Spatial Complexity: Waves and Patterns

Ignition and Extinction

Perspectives and Conclusions

THE SCIENCE OF SELF-ORGANIZATION AND ADAPTIVITY

The science of self-organization: a historical sketch

Characteristics of self-organizing systems

Characteristics of adaptive systems

The state-space description of self-organization

THE SELF-ORGANIZING UNIVERSE

More on Prigogine and Self-Organization

Network Thermodynamics

Photons and Self-Organization in Living Systems

MEMETIC ENGINEERING AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION

What is Memetics?

The State and Status of Memetics

Memetic Engineering in Human Societies

Memetic Engineering and Artificial Societies

What are Artificial Societies?

Memes in Artificial Societies

Evolutionary Game Theory Models

Memetic Models of Cultural Change

ARTIFICIAL LIFE AND HUMAN SOCIETIES

Artificial Life

Artificial Life and Human Societies

Basic Modeling Tools

Some Selected Phenomena

GENETIC ALGORITHMS

Historical Development of Evolutionary Computation

How to Implement a GA

How and Why GAs work

GAs for Simulating Multi-Level Adaptive Systems

DISTRIBUTED ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Classification of DAI Issues

Multi-Agent Architectures and Environments

Distributed Problem Solving

Distributed Decision Making

Applications

EXPLORATORY SIMULATION AND MODELING OF COMPLEX SOCIAL SYSTEMS

The Characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System (CAS)

Evolutionary System Based on CAS: L-V Model

System Dynamics (SD) as a Research Methodology

Simulation of the Chaotic Behavior of L-V Model

COMPLEXITY RISING: FROM HUMAN BEINGS TO HUMAN CIVILIZATION, A COMPLEXITY PROFILE

Individual and collective behavior

Complexity profile

Control in human organizations

Environmental demands and complexity

Historical progression

Human civilization as an organism

COMPLEXITY AND TECHNOLOGY

Prevailing Perspectives

"Technology" as a Complex Phenomenon

The Endless Transition

The Coevolution of Technology, Society, and Culture

Technological Innovation in Complex Systems

Normative Implications

Introduction

COMPLEXITY AND INNOVATION

Innovation and Learning

Fitness Functions and Rugged Landscapes.

Characteristic Time Scales and Critical Mass

Cultural Conditions for Innovation

Fractal Structures and Self-Similarity

Forecasting of Innovations

Extension of State Space Dimensions

Extrapolation and Emergence of New Frontiers

Complexity and Innovations in the Information Society

Computability of Complex Problems

Innovations and Biological Arms Races

COMPLEXITY IN CLIMATE PHENOMENA

Climate Behavior

The Governing Equations

Steady Solutions

Triadic Interaction in the Two Level Model

Baroclinic Dynamics

Baroclinic Adjustment

Low Frequency Behavior

COMPLEXITY IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

Socio-Economic Systems and Complexity

Complexity and Simplicity

Knowledge Arising from Different Assumptions

Complexity in Socio-Economic Systems

COMPLEXITY AND ORGANIZATIONS

Individuals and Organizations

Group Processes

Organizational Processes

COMPLEXITY, POLITICS AND PUBLIC POLICY

New Methods for Looking at Politics

Theories of Decision-Making

Self-Organization and the "Edge of Chaos"

Positive Feedback, Increasing Returns and Path Dependence

COMPLEXITY AND INTERDICIPLINARITY

Interdisciplinarity Defined

The Organization of Interdisciplinarity

Complexity Defined

Simple, Complicated, and Complex Systems

Characteristics of Complex Systems

Other Forms of Complexity

Integrating Complexity and Interdisciplinarity

The Promise of Complexity and Interdisciplinarity

COMPLEXITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Economic Development and Population Growth

Economic Development and Knowledge

Economic Development and Environment

Economic Development and Government

Sustainable Development and Complexity

COPING WITH COMPLEXITY AND UNCERTAINTY

Artificial Life and Artificial Intelligence

Control of Chaos

RECIPROCITY: A KEYSTONE OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING

Applications of Ayni

Reciprocity and its relationship with concepts of Care and Justice

ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD: THE CASE OF EDUCATIONAL REFORM IN THE STATE OF AGUASCALIENTES, MEXICO

Berman: the structural nature of implementation, programmed vs. adaptive approaches

The educational reform in Aguascalientes

The state of Aguascalientes

The actors

The regionalization and its implementation

The external evaluation system

The extension of the school calendar

Alvarez’ adaptive management style: finding the way and assuming responsibility

PUBLIC-NONPROFIT PARTNERSHIP FOR SOCIAL CAPITAL

Public-Nonprofit Partnerships for Social Capital

The Evaluation of Research on Social capital

Networks: the Missing Links

Public Nonprofit Partnerships and Collective Learning

TOWARD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC TEACHING IN UNIVERSITIES: CHALLENGES AND CONCERNS

Overview of the Literature

Emerging Themes for Higher Education IT Learning

New Measures of Instructional Output are Required in Modern Universities

Re-Learning About Reinforcement and Rewards for Instructional Effort

Technological Integration and Support Platforms

Higher Education Organizations and Democratic Ideals

Intellectual Property

Critical Thinking and Technology

THE NATURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL UNLEARNING

Overview of the Literature

Definition

Individual and Organizational Unlearning

Organizational Forgetting

Inertia

ECONOMY AS ECOSYSTEMS

Mechanistic versus Biological Metaphors in Economics

Ecology as Nature’s Economy

Economy as Ecosystems

Putting the Idea into Practice: Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology

Perils of Stepping over the Line: Social Darwinism and Socio-biology

MUTUALISM AND COOPERATION

Mutualism and Ecosystem Models

Cooperation and Game Theory

ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Empirical Debate: Dematerialization, Growth and Structural/Technical Change

Sustainable Development, Growth Theory, and Ecological Economics

Limits to Delinking: Technological Optimism, and Skepticism

The Other Delinking: Growth and Well-Being

ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS AND MULTI-TIER HUMAN ORGANIZATION

Some Definitions and Assumptions

Human Choice

The Structure of Action Situations

Tiers of Decision-Making Units and their Direct and Indirect Impacts

Processes, Measurement, Aggregation, and Comparisons

DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE, AND WISDOM

Data

Information

Knowledge

Wisdom

THEORIES OF HUMAN COGNITION: TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE CO-ADAPTATION OF PEOPLE AND TECHNOLOGY

Automation History and Evolution of Practices

Artefacts Embed Human Cognition

From Individual Intelligent Assistance to Multi-Agent Communication

Human Memory Models as Analogs for External Memory Systems

An Organizational Memory Application within the IMAT Project

Co-development of Human and Artificial Cognitive Functions

Rehabilitating the Art of Memory

INFORMATION ECOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

From Information Ecology to Knowledge Ecology

Philosophical Basis of Organizational Knowledge Ecology

Accounting for Human Action and Performance

Discussion

THE INTELLIGENT ENTERPRISE AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Introduction: Successful and Viable Enterprises Require Knowledge Management

The Intelligent Enterprise Perspective

Knowledge Management Supports the Intelligent Enterprise

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND COOPERATION TECHNOLOGY

Cooperative Processes

The Complexity of a Cooperative Process

Knowledge Creation within a Cooperative Process

Knowledge Creation within Organizations

Computer Based Systems for Supporting Knowledge Creation

ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE CREATION AND MANAGEMENT

What is Knowledge?

Learning and the Generation of New Knowledge

Social Knowing

Managerial Implications

THE ROLE OF CULTURE IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Knowledge Management at a Glance

Cultures in Organization and Society

Why Culture in Knowledge Management?

Cultures That Enhance or Hinder Knowledge Management

HIERARCHY, COMPLEXITY, AND AGENT-BASED MODELS

The Nature of Complexity

The Science of Complexity

Studies of Complexity

The Future

THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY: CURRENT ISSUES

SOCIAL SCIENCES, SCIENCE POLICY STUDIES, SCIENCE POLICY-MAKING

The Field of Science Policy Studies and its uses

A Research Agenda

SOCIAL APPROPRIABILITY OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

The Existing Approaches

The integration of social knowledge

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY PROFESSIONALS: JOBS, WORK, KNOWLEDGE, AND VALUES

Careers in S&T Policy

The Work of S&T Policy Professionals

The Knowledge Base

The Value of, and Values of, S&T Professionals

COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DECISION-MAKING IN THE UNITED STATES

Public Participation in the Research Process: The History of Community-Based Research

Community-Based Research in the USA

Community-Based Research: Research for Change

Community-Based Research in Action: Two Examples

Public Funding of Community-Based Research

Community-Based Research Networks

Policy Recommendations: Building the Capacity of Community-Based Research Activities

JUSTICE, HUMAN RIGHTS AND ETHICS ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY

Ethics and Justice

Ethics, Justice and Policy

Social Justice and Technical Change

Social Justice and the Problem of Risk

CURRENT ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY

Current Issues

Technological Innovations

What is at Stake?

Introduction and Context

TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL MARKET: IS SUSTAINABILITY BOUND TO THE OLD WORLD ORDER?

Technology and the Environment: From sustainability to the global market

New Global Interests and Technological Cooperation

New Interests Converge with the Old Terms of International Exchange (the «Kyoto Model»?)

THE NATIONAL IMPERATIVE: THE STATE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, AND POLICY EVOLUTION CIRCA 1400-2000

Introduction: Before the Beginning

Statism—The Eighteenth Century

Industrialization and Industrialism

Public Science and Science Policy

The Development Paradigm—The Short Twentieth Century

The World Turned Upside-down—The New Climacteric

INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY

INTERNATIONAL TRANSFERS OF TECHNOLOGIES: SUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF PRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS AND GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR POLICY

Technology transfers are not limited to a contract

An example of breakdown and repair

A socio-technical construction

Policies of technology transfer and productive efficiency

Payments in the transfer of technologies

Evaluation of productive efficiency

STAKES AND NEW PROSPECTS FOR NORTH-SOUTH SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION POLICIES

Scientific Interference: Legitimacy and Duty

Is Research for Development a Public Property?

Growing Disparities Requires Different Strategies

Models and Approaches

Institutional Functions and Models

Coordination

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICIES IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC MIGRATION

Historical Perspectives of International Scientific Migration

Losses and Gains – an Unclear Picture

The Response of Scientific Policies

Science Policies, Globalization, and Migrations

GLOBALISATION OF INDUSTRIAL R&D: POLICY ISSUES

Trend in R & D Globalisation

Impatcs On National Economies

Strategies For Enhancing The National System Of Innovation

THE INNOVATION SYSTEM AND S&T POLICIES

MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY

Introduction. Recent Changes in Business and Technological Paradigms

Management of Technology and its Role in the Process of Innovation

The Evolution of Management of Technology

Integrated Strategic Management of Technology

STRATEGIC INNOVATION ALLIANCES

Strategic Innovation Alliances and Policy Considerations

THE NEW KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY AND SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY

The New Technoscientific Information Infrastructure

Working Collaboratively

THE POLICY MAKING PROCESS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

POLICY-MAKING PROCESSES AND EVALUATION TOOLS: S&T INDICATORS

S&T Indicators: Definition, Terms of Reference and Categories

The Production and Use of S&T Indicators in Practice – the Question of the Data Sources

Indicators in the Decision-making Process: Limitations and Criticism

EVALUATION PRACTICES IN A MODERN CONTEXT FOR RESEARCH: A (RE)VIEW

Basic Definitions of Research and Evaluation Methodologies

Relationship between Science Policies, Promotion and Management of R&D Activities

A General Frame of Reference for Evaluation from the European Perspective

Emerging Issues on Evaluation from the United States

BIBLIOMETRICS AND INSTITUTIONAL EVALUATION

Bibliometrics as an Evaluation Tool

Output Evaluation

Citation Measurements

Journal Impact Factors

Relative Impact Indicators

Future Trends and Perspectives

REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES: A NEW SCENARIO FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICIES IN THE DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING WORLD

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICIES IN AFRICA

Historical Background

Current Policies: A Typology

CHANGING POLICY IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA

Four Science and Technology Policy Cultures

Different Phases of S&T Policy

Changing Trends in Science as Social Institution

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY IN CHINA

Science and Technology Policy from the 1950s to the 1970s

Science and Technology Policy in the 1980s and 1990s: Market Reform and the Transformation of the Innovation System

EUROPEAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY

The International Context

Formalization and Implementation of the EU Research Policy

The EU Research and Development Programs

Strengths and weaknesses of the EU intervention: a general overview

THE NORTH AMERICAN "INNOVATION SPACE": A WORK IN PROGRESS?

The Characteristics of the S&T structure in North America

A North American Research Diaspora?

What are Some Key Elements of a Regional Research Space?

Emerging Signs of North American Collaboration in S&T

Reaching Beyond the North American Sphere

An Agenda for a North American Innovation Approach

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY IN JAPAN

Features of the Early Development of Science and Technology Policy

Post-war Catch up and S&T Policy

Japanese Science and Technology in the Recent Decades

Framework for Science and Technology Policy Making and the Current Policy Trends

Issues for Science and Technology Policy in the New Century

CHANGING INNOVATION SYSTEM OF ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION (CEE)

Global Position of the Region

International R&D Consequences of Opening the Borders

Some Changes in the National Innovation Systems

Moving out from Transition Crises

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY IN UNESCO: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

Genesis of science and technology policy in UNESCO

Science policy consultancy services

Science policy publications

Regional Ministerial Conferences

Information Exchange and Normative–making Activities

Training in science and technology policy

Termination of UNESCO Science and Technology Policy Programme

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY IN THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

The 1963 Geneva Conference

The UNCSTD preparation

The Vienna Programme of Action

UNCSTD Results and Post-Vienna Activity

Further restructuring of UN in the economic and social fields

Commission on Science and Technology for Development

Science and technology policy in the work of UN bodies

TECHNOLOGICAL LEAPFROGGING BY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The Technological Gap Between Industrialized and Developing Countries

New Generic Technologies: A Class of Their Own

Major Issues Concerned With Leapfrogging

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL CAPABILITY BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Biotechnology and Developing Countries

Building Capability for Biotechnology

Policy Considerations

HUMAN RESOURCES AND WORK ORGANIZATION IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY - THE CASE OF THE INDIAN SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

Knowledge Economy and Organization of Production – A Theoretical framework

The Case of the Software Industry in India

INTER-FIRM TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CAPABILITY BUILDING

What is a Technology Cooperation Agreement?

Inter-firm Technology Cooperation Agreements – Some Empirical Analysis

Forms of Interfirm Technology Cooperation

Implications for Technological Capability Building

KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS FOR MEETING THE SOCIETAL DEMANDS - THE UNIVERSITY ORGANIZATION IN TRANSITION

Introduction: Research Organization in Transition

Research Organization, Collaboration and Funding – Some Theoretical Aspects

The Emergence of the Research Centers

Academic Life and Focused Programs – Two Case Studies

SCIENCE PARKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Universities, Science Parks and Regional Development

Objectives vs. Performance: Incubators and Managed Science Parks

The Swedish and British Science Park Phenomena

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER THROUGH FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - THE ROLE OF HOME COUNTRY MEASURES

Analytical Framework

Outward Investment Promotion and Development: Empirical findings

TRANSFER OF CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES TO TRANSITION ECONOMICS AND THE ROLE OF MESO-LEVEL INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF LITHUANIA

Establishment of Meso-Level Institutions: a Phase-wise Approach

Formation of the PPC in Lithuania

Lessons Drawn and Conclusions

THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: INDUSTRIALIZATION AND INNOVATION AS A COLLECTIVE PROCESS

Technological Cultures

Private Sector Industrialization

Flexible Production in Firms and Networks

Gradual Diffusion and Social Continuity

Alternative Technology Policies

SOME QUESTIONS RELATED TO THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL PURITY OF SCIENCE?

The Science Wars debate and its problems

Epistemological ethnocentrism of Science

The Perspective of Unitarian Conception of Science on Knowledge from non-western cultures

The Eurocentric Equation: The Greek Origin, Christianity and the West and Science

Continuity between Pre-modern and Modern Science

THE DYNAMICS OF TECHNOLOGY AND GENDER ROLES

Global Trends in Trade, Technology and Division of Labour

Selected Sectors

SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND URBAN DESIGN

Search for Sustainablility in the Inner City

The Byzantine-Latino Quarter: Integrating Urban Design and Community Development

The Problems of Forging Sustainable Development in the Inner City

URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE AND MORPHOSIS

Material Flows

Mobilization Versus Civilization: The Stresses of Movement

Building Recombinant Ecologies

URBAN RENEWAL

Background

Montereys Transformation from a Derelict Industrial Landscape into a Prime Tourist Attraction

The Making of Savannahs Historic Downtown

New York: Manhattans Chinatown

ZONING AND REGULATORY POLICIES

Private Land Use Regulation

The Police Power

Land Use Regulation Strategies

Comprehensive Zoning

New York City Zoning Resolutions of 1916 and 1961

Land Use

Density

Bulk

Building Placement

Open Space

Variances

Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co.

Incentive Zoning

Exactions

Special Districts

Growth Management

Smart Growth and Sustainable Development

Environmental Review

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969

Land Use Regulation as a Planning Strategy

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY BUILDING MATERIALS

The global role of building materials

Material environmental life-cycle: resource extraction; manufacturing; transportation; use

Material Assessment Methods

Other economic factors

Material economic life cycle

Broad categories of materials

Specific types of materials

Summary global trends

Healthy Materials

RESOURCE CONSCIOUS BUILDING DESIGN METHODS

Resource-Efficiency and Sustainable Construction

Ecology as the Basis for Resource Efficient Design

Resource-Efficient Strategies for Building Design

Case Study

INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS

Development of Intelligent Buildings

Current Developments of Intelligent Building

Design of Intelligent Buildings

Future Development of Intelligent Buildings

HOMES FOR PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITIES

Defining Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS)

A History of Indoor Air Quality Problems

Indoor Air Pollutants

The Design of Dwellings for people with MCS

Case Study: Barrhaven Community Housing for the Environmentally Hypersensitive

Current Trends and Issues for the Future

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

Theoretical approaches to setting environmental standards

Environmental standards from classical times to 1970

Acid Rain - the development of the first international environmental standards to regulate trans-boundary pollution

Development of global environmental standards - ozone depletion and CFCs

Climate Change

HEALTH AND COMFORT IN BUILDINGS

History of buildings and health

Health effects

Indoor exposures associated with health effects

Building factors associated with health effects

Economy

Future

THERMAL COMFORT IN HOUSING AND THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS

Thermo-regulatory system

Heat balance

Global thermal comfort

Local thermal comfort

Thermal comfort predictive models

Thermal Environment for Elderly and Physically Handicapped Persons

Social-political understanding of the issue

SOLAR HEATING AND PASSIVE COOLING

Passive solar heating - recent progress

Passive cooling

NATURAL, MECHANICAL AND HYBRID VENTILATIONS

Mechanisms of airflow

Airtightness and ventilation

Ventilation design

Ventilation Systems

Predictive models

Solution methods and airflow network

LIGHTING: FUNDAMENTALS, PRACTICE, AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS

Lighting Practice

Design Approaches

Daylighting

Fenestration Control

Integrating Electric Light

Architecture

Lamps

Current Practice Trends

ACOUSTICS IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

External propagation

Community sources of sound

Noise intrusion

Indoor noise assessment (Background)

Indoor noise assessment (Quality)

THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT: ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Enhancing Architectural and Environmental Assets

The Economic Strategies for Enhancement

Choosing the Destination in the Conservation of Property of Historical and Architectural Interest

Managing the Architectural Property and the Activities

The Contribution of Economics and Evaluation

BUILT ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH AND ETHICS OF INTERVENTION

Background

Statements on the right to healthy indoor air

Commentary

CULTURAL CONSERVATION IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

Introduction: keywords in the scientific-philosophical research of the 20th century

Alois Riegl and Der moderne Denkmalkultus (The modern cult of monuments) (1903)

Keywords in the conservation of architectural works

Why and what is conserved?

Restoration vs Conservation

The conservation project

Scope of the conservation project

State of the art and cultural progress

HISTORIC BUILDINGS: CONSERVATION, MANAGEMENT AND POLICY ISSUES

Conservation and restoration in historical buildings

Conservation and restoration including exhibition space and transport

Registration and documentation for the identification of cultural property

Ecological aspects of building maintenance

Indoor environment engineering for heritage conservation

Strategy for safety in buildings

EDUCATION AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENTS

Culture, Existing Building and Sustainability

A Call for Better Understanding: The case of Moisture Control

Indoor Air Sciences Education: A Tool for Achieving Sustainable Built Environments

A New Context for Graduate Education

Learning Models

CASE STUDIES EVALUATION: TOWARD DEVELOPMENT OF A TRANSFERABLE MODEL

The Main Street Program

Essential Elements of a Sustainable, Heritage-Focused Community Development Program

Case Studies

MONITORING THE QUALITY OF AIR

Air quality monitoring techniques

MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER QUALITY

Summary of monitoring of surface water quality

Water quality and parameters monitored

Sampling

Remote sensing

Examples of monitoring results

Future trends

MONITORING OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY

Chemical analyses

Geophysical technologies

Biomonitoring

TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE WASTE DISPOSAL

Sources and characteristics of waste

Technologies for waste management

Newer developments in waste management

Future directions

ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Ecological Engineering or Ecotechnology

Ecological Engineering methods, principles, and applications

Ecological Engineering and the Urban Environment

Case studies

URBAN AND REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION

ECONOMICS OF THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

Transportation Economics

Transportation Systems

Allocating the Costs of the Transportation System

Expanding Capacity

The Economics of Regulation of the Transportation System

INTERMODAL AND MULTIMODAL CONSIDERATIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS

Transportation Modes

A Multimodal Perspective of the Transportation System

Intermodal Considerations

Future Issues and Challenges

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ORGANIZATION, MANAGEMENT, AND INTEROPERABILITY

Transportation System Organization

Transportation System Management

Interoperability of Transportation Design Operations

Future Issues and Challenges

THE AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Overview of the Air Transportation System

Impacts of the Air Transportation System

Future Issues

INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

ITS Defined

History of ITS Applications in the World

A National Architecture for ITS Applications

Future Issues

DEVELOPMENT PLANNING: PANGAEA-GAMING SIMULATION EXERCISE FOR TRAINING IN SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

General Features of PANGAEA

Modeling Institutional Framework

Gaming Procedures of PANGAEA

Simulation Model of PANGAEA

Gaming preparations

GLOBAL INFORMATION AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEM ON FOOD AND AGRICULTURE (GIEWS)

What Does GIEWS Do?

Information Sharing and Management

Methods and Tools

Publishing and Dissemination

THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION INFORMATION AND SIMULATION (RAINS) MODEL

Model Description

Analytical Support for International Negotiations

Example Calculations

THE EITF WORLD ECONOMETRIC MODEL: A MULTISECTORAL APPROACH FOR OUTPUT AND FOREIGN TRADE

Structure of the Model

Policy Scenarios

Future Research

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: DEFINITIONS, TRENDS, TECHNIQUES, AND CASES

A Short History of Artificial Intelligence

Current Trends in Artificial Intelligence

Techniques

Cases

INTELLIGENT AGENTS

Agent Notions

Primitive Agent Concepts

Business Websites

A Generic Multi-Agent Architecture for Intelligent Websites

Requirements for the Website Agents

The Internal Design of the Information Broker Agents

DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS, INDIVIDUAL-BASED MODELING, AND SELF-ORGANIZATION

Individual-based modeling

Basic notions of dynamical systems theory

Non-linear dynamical systems

Other attractors

Chaos

Self-organization

Examples of self-organization and chaos

A Software simulation environment: Swarm

MACHINE LEARNING

Basic Knowledge Representation and Learning Methods

Current Focus of Research

Major Achievements and Current Trends

EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION

A General Evolutionary Algorithm

Classical Genetic Algorithms

Evolution Strategies

Evolutionary Programming

Genetic Programming

Theory of Evolutionary Algorithms

Applications

QUANTUM COMPUTING

Quantum Computation

What quantum computers can do

How Quantum Computers Do It

NEURAL NETWORKS

What are neural networks?

Neurobiology

The Hopfield Network

Statistical Physics

Perceptrons

Training Neural Networks

Neural Network Applications

FUZZY LOGIC

Basics of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic

Linguistic Variables and Fuzzy Sets

Fuzzy Numbers

Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic

Generalized Modus Ponens

Fuzzy Rules

Fuzzy Graphs

Fuzzy Clustering

Fuzzy Decision Trees

DNA COMPUTING

DNA molecules and their processing

Computing with DNA molecules

Bottleneck of traditional computing

Discussion

SPEECH PROCESSING

Speech synthesis

Speech recognition

Application areas

A complete dialogue system: OVIS

DATA MINING

Goals

Techniques

Applications

VISION

The eye

The retina

Retinal receptive fields

The Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

The primary visual cortex

Intermezzo: Measurement of neuronal activity

Hypercolumns and orientation structure

Higher cortical visual areas

Computer Vision - Computational Vision

Non-linear, geometry-driven diffusion

Multiscale measurement and deep structure

Outlook

EXPERT SYSTEMS

Expert System Principles

Knowledge Representation and Inference

Knowledge Engineering

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS

HISTORY OF COMPUTATION

Early (Non-Electronic) Computing Machines

Electronic Computers

NEW TRENDS IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

Application Trends

VLSI Technology Trends

Architecture Trends

Towards the End of 21st Century

HARDWARE ARCHITECTURES

BASIC FUNCTIONS AND OPERATIONAL UNITS

Peripherals

Board-Level Components

Processing Units

Functional Units

MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS

System Components

Microprocessor System Operation

Performance Evaluation

Common Applications of Microprocessor Systems

MICROCONTROLLERS

Applications of Microcontrollers

Architecture

Sample Microcontrollers

Software

Hardware

Current/Future Trends

PROCESSORS

Elementary Processor

Pipelined Processor Design

Superscalar Processors

BUS ARCHITECTURES

Bus Protocols

Bus Standards

COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Sequential/Conventional Computers

Parallel Computers

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

A Historical Note

Levels of Abstraction

Fundamental Characteristics of a Description Language

Hardware Description and Concurrency

Hierarchy

Procedural Bodies

Parameterization

Three State Modeling

Delay Modeling

SOFTWARE ARTCHITECTURES

OPERATING SYSTEM

Brief History

Types of Operating Systems

Operating Systems Basics

File Systems

Scheduling

Memory Management

Other Problems: Concurrency, Consistency, Asynchrony, Deadlocks, Error Handling

Distributed Operating System and Web Computing

Outlook for the Future

NETWORK SOFTWARE: FROM NCP TO UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING

Introduction

Chronological Taxonomy

Loosely Coupled Systems

Tightly Coupled Systems

Service Layers in Distributed Devices with JINI

Ubiquitous Computing

Conclusion

MACHINE LANGUAGE

Assembly Language

Binary Code

Executing Machine Language

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

IMPERATIVE PROGRAMMING

Effect: The Essence of Imperative Programming

Variables and Assignment

Control Structures

Procedures and Functions

Types, Type Systems, and Type Safety

Basic Sofware Engineering Concerns and Methods

Formal Reasoning About Imperative Programs

Advanced Features of Type Systems

FUNCTIONAL AND LOGIC PROGRAMMING

Functional Programming

Logic Programming

Refinement and Convergence

Impacts on Computer Science

COMPUTER SECURITY

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE DATA SECURITY

Authentication

Access control

Audit

Cryptography

COMPUTER VIRUSES

What is a Computer Virus?

Theory of Computer Viruses

Protection Against Computer Viruses

SYSTEMS DYNAMICS IN ACTION: SELECTED EXAMPLES

URBAN DYNAMICS

The Urban Political Background

Understanding the City as a System

The Theory of Urban Attractiveness

Growth and Feedback

Modeling the System

The Urban Dynamics Model

Solving Problems

To Balance Jobs and People

Negative Counterbalances

Urban Trade-offs and Attractiveness

Concluding Reflections

SUPPLY CHAIN DYNAMICS, THE "BEER DISTRIBUTION GAME" AND MISPERCEPTIONS IN DYNAMIC DECISION MAKING

The Stock Management Problem

Behavior of the Stock Management Structure

A Supply Chain Management Experiment: the “Beer Game”

Results

Adapting the Theory to the Beer Game

Testing the Theory

Misperceptions of Feedback

MARKET GROWTH, COLLAPSE AND FAILURES TO LEARN FROM INTERACTIVE SIMULATION GAMES

The Interactive Simulator : Managing a New Product

Discussion

Implications for learning from simulations and games

A DYNAMIC MODEL OF COCAINE PREVALENCE

Background

Data Sources and Trends 1976-1990

Model Structure and Parameters

Using the Model to Understand History

Using the Model to Test Alternative Scenarios

ECOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS: PREDATOR AND PREY DYNAMICS ON THE KAIBAB PLATEAU

The Kaibab Deer Herd

Simulating the Kaibab Irruption

Predator Prey Systems

An Initial Model

Why Don't Predators Annihilate Their Prey?

Revising the Model

Closer Look at Stable Oscillations

Patterns of Oscillations

Predator Removal

Post Script

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND DIFFUSIONS

Importance of Permanent Innovation Activity

A System Dynamics Perspective of R&D and Innovation Diffusion Models

Integrating the Models of R&D, Innovation and Diffusion

Implications for Management

CONCEPTUAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS

ON THE HISTORY, THE PRESENT, AND THE FUTURE OF SYSTEM DYNAMICS

The History

The Present

The Future

INTELLECTUAL ROOTS AND PHILOSOPHY OF SYSTEM DYNAMICS

Feedback Control Theory

Living System Disciplines

Philosophy of the System Dynamics Methodology

Pattern Feedback Control

THE ROLE OF SYSTEM DYNAMICS WITHIN THE SYSTEMS MOVEMENT

The Emergence of the Systems Approach

Common Grounds and Differences

The Variety of Systems Methodologies

Distinctive Features of SD

Actual and Potential Relationships

Outlook

METHODOLOGY FOR SYSTEMATIC FEEDBACK MODELING

MENTAL MODELS OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

Definition

Characteristics

The Role of Mental Models in Dynamic Decision making

The Role of System Dynamics in Improving Mental Models

Principles for Mental Models Research

Priorities for Future Research

KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION

Knowledge Sources and Elicitation Techniques

Eliciting Knowledge from Individuals

Eliciting Knowledge from Groups

Delphi

Eliciting Knowledge to Construct a System Dynamics Model

Judging Model Outcome

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE MODELING IN SYSTEM DYNAMICS

Problems of Quantification

Quantitative Uncertainty: A Case Study

Insights from a Qualitative Model

Another Qualitative Model

A Portrait of a Human Disaster

The Uses of Influence Diagrams

Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Modeling

A Research Agenda for Quantification, or a Prudent Approach to Difficult Models

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

Building Models with Uncertain Inputs

Robust Results

The Structure Causes the Behavior

Poorly Structured Models

Leverage Points

Formal Sensitivity Analysis

Sampling Methods

Software

First Example: Exponential Growth

Second Example: S Shaped Growth

Concluding Example: Overshoot and Collapse

Practical Suggestions

Discussion

TECHNICAL ISSUES IN MODELLING AND SIMULATION

EQUILIBRIUM AND STABILITY ANALYSIS

Equilibrium points

Qualitative behavior of dynamical systems

Time-scale decomposition of nonlinear dynamical systems

SIMULATION SOFTWARE AND NUMERICAL ISSUES

Design Considerations

Major Numerical Methods

Modeling Errors

Current Software

POLICY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT, SYSTEMS THINKING, AND MODELING

Strategizing as a Core Process of Strategic Management

Theory and Practice of Strategic Management

Strategic Consensus and Organizational Performance

Fostering Strategic Consensus and Learning

System Dynamics as a Tool for Strategizing

Final Remarks

IMPLEMENATION ISSUES

Introduction -- The Implementation Challenge

Putting into Practice Specific Policies or Decisions ("Traditional Implementation")

Internalizing Insights (Learning)

On-going Enhancement and Use of a System Dynamics Model

Implementing an Approach to Modeling

Conclusions

GROUP MODEL-BUILDING

Group Model-Building in a Nutshell

Suitability of System Dynamics and Group Model-Building

Qualitative Versus Quantitative Models

Who to Involve

Themes in Group Model-Building: the How Question

Roles in Guiding the Group: the Importance of Group Facilitation

Practical Issues

Effectiveness of Group Model-Building: Assessment Studies

SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

A PERVASIVE DUALITY IN ECONOMIC SYSTEMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

Past Development Effort and its Performance

Existing Models of Economic Development

A Model of Resource Allocation and Income Disbursement in a Dual Economic System

Understanding Dualism and Designing Policies for Change with the Model

Implications for Sectoral, National, and Global Interventions

Role of Governance

THE ECOCOSM PARADOX

The Power of Compound Hyper-exponential Time Functions

Data Time Histories for Important World Variables

The Instability of the Human System on Earth

Feedback Structures That Cause the Exponential Time Patterns

The Nature of Sustainability

Proposals for Achieving Perpetual Sustainability

LESSONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY MODELING

Background on Electric Power in the United States

The IOUs, the Regulators and the Death Spiral

The Shift to Small Scale

System Dynamics Applications

Bonneville and the Conservation Policy Analysis Model

The Common Utility Approach

Single Company Models

Concluding Reflections

IRRIGATION PROJECTS, AGRICULTURAL DYNAMICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Model Description

Model Validation

Reference Behavior of the Model

Model Analysis

SYSTEM DYNAMICS FOR DISCERNING DEVELOPMENTAL PROBLEMS

Development Planning Based on Recognition of Existing Conditions

Reference Mode Construction as a Learning Process for Defining Developmental Problems

An Experiential Learning Framework for Constructing a Reference Mode

An Illustration of Reference Mode Construction for the Food Shortage Problem

Constructing the Reference Mode

Current Developmental Issues

METHODOLOGICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF APPLIED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF KNOWLEDGE

Hypothetico-deductive method

Hypothetico-inductive method (h.i.m.)

Computer formalization of knowledge

Non-cumulative evolution of knowledge

Decision-making under uncertainty

Tacit practical knowledge

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Basic tasks and directions of global system researches

Global crisis in models of system dynamics

Evolution of global problems in multimodel descriptions

Macromodels of individual fragments of world development

Biosphere and anthropogenic activity: two scenarios

NATURAL RESOURCES AS AN ELEMENT OF THE SOCIETY-NATURE SYSTEM

Natural Resources Impact upon the Development of Human Society

Changes in Conditions of Natural Resources Resulting from Human Activities

The Present Condition of Natural Resources

Basic Lines of Nature Protection Activities

The Ways to Sustainable Development

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC POLICY

Economic Policy as an Object of System Analysis

Basic Stages and Principles of the System Analysis of Economic Policy

Mechanism of Coordination of Interests as a Means of a System Approach to Economic Policy

System Modeling of Economic Policy and Its Optimization

APPLICATIONS OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ISSUES

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF PLANNING PROCESSES

National planning

Urban and regional planning

Planning inside firms

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES

Regional Systems: Components, Relationships, Attributes

Concept of System Analysis

Analysis Techniques

Mathematical Models

Uncertainty Consideration

Mechanisms of Conclusion Realization

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF ENERGY PROCESSES

Premises and means of the systems approach to energy development

Long-term Energy Modeling: Today's State and Further Prospects

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE AND DEVELOPMENT

Transport Role and Place in National Economy

Transport externalities

Forms of Property for Transport

National Transport Policy and State Management of Transport Development and Performance

Transport Interinddustry Connections

Planning of Transport Network Development

Transport in Logistic System

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF INVESTMENT PROJECT EFFICIENCY EVALUATION

Glossary and Main Notions

Investment Projects Classification

Specificity of Macroeconomic Conditions

Main Tasks of Project Analysis

General Scheme of Investment Projects Evaluation

Indicators of Evaluating Investment Projects Efficiency

Accounting Most Important Factors

SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL MARKETS: AN OVERVIEW

Classification of main approaches

Optimal portfolio theory (opt) and capital asset pricing model (capm)

Statistical verification of classical models

Modern tendencies in fm modelling

Active portfolio management

Value at risk

FUNDAMENTALS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SIMULATION

FUNDAMENTALS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR COMPLEX SYSTEMS

Closed mathematical models

Technology of mathematical modeling

Example’s of the mathematical models

Deterministic and stochastic phenomena

The procedure of endogenous characteristics calculation

The forms of models exploitation

Simulation models and simulation systems

Mathematical and Humanities Methods of Prognosis

Mathematical modeling and problem of sustainable development

FUNDAMENTALS OF SIMULATION FOR COMPLEX SYSTEMS

Simulating Complex Systems

Concepts of Simulation for Complex Systems

Simulation of Management Systems

Parallel and Distributed Simulation

Web-based Simulation

Simulation Software

Instrumental Systems for Simulation

Special Purpose Simulation Systems

Simulation Systems’ Development

MACROSYSTEM MODELING IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Examples

Equilibrium states of macrosytems

Dynamic processes in macrosystems

Applications

MODELING AND SIMULATION TECHNIQUES

Techniques in simulation model design

Techniques in execution of simulation models

Techniques in simulation model analysis

Perspectives

SIMULATION SOFTWARE

Simulation Software Survey

Object Oriented Simulation.

Instrumental Systems for Simulation

Special Purposes Simulation Systems

Multitasking, Parallel and Distributed Simulation

DEVS/HLA Distributed Simulation Environment

Simulation Software Development

LIFE CYCLE PROCESSES FOR MODEL DEFINITION AND DEPLOYMENT

Technology of mathematical modelling

Life cycle of mathematical model

Examples of mathematical models structure. Models of demographic processes

An example of mathematical models structure. Models of motion of the satellite

Mathematical modeling and consumption structure

MODELING METHODOLOGIES FOR GLOBAL MODELS

INPUT-OUTPUT MODELS

History

Input-Output model

Input-Output coefficients, static input-output model, total input coefficients

Dynamic input-output models in the form of equalities and inequalities, in optimization form, open and closed dynamic input-output models

Stationary trajectories of closed dynamic input-output models in the form of inequalities

Notion about turnpike property of optimal trajectories of closed dynamic input-output models with terminal objective function

Development of input-output method

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODELS

System indicators

Types of dynamic systems

Examples from mechanics

Leontieff’s balance

Criteria

Optimal control

Regulated systems

Probabilistic approach

IMITATION OF EXPERT JUDGEMENT

The nature of expertise

The main features of expert knowledge

Computer imitation of expert knowledge

Main difficulties in the construction of expert knowledge base

The methods of expert knowledge base construction

The Replication of the Expert’s Creative Possibilities

The human imitation of expert skill: tutoring the expert skill

GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS

MODELS OF BIOSPHERE PROCESSES

Modeling of the Global Biosphere Cycles in the Biosphere

A Spatial Model of the Global Carbon Cycles in Atmosphere - Plants - Soil System

Modeling the Global Carbon and Nitrogen Cycle in Atmosphere - Ocean System

Modeling the Impact of Air Contamination on Forest Ecosystems

SOCIOECONOMIC MODELS

MACROECONOMIC GROWTH MODELS

Main Equations

Model of Growth

Model of Cycles

MODELS OF SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

A general approach for the modeling of socioeconomic development

Model of the USSR’s centrally planned economy

Model of the USSR’s centrally planned economy with a co-operative sector

Model of the USSR’s economy before the collapse

Shock Therapy model of the USSR’s central planned economy

Russia’s economic model for 1992-1995

Russian region’s economic model for1996-1998

REGIONAL SOCIO-ECOLOGY-ECONOMIC MODELS

Sustainable development and regional sustainable development

A framework for analysis

Formalization

A case study: The Pereslavl region

MODELING OF ORGANIZATIONS

Model of the Active System and General Formulation of the Control Problem

Classification of the Control Mechanisms

Basic Mechanisms of Control of the Active Systems

Areas of Application

TECHNOLOGICAL MODELS

MODELING OF LARGE-SCALE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

Mathematical Formulation

Parametric Optimization Methods

Calculations of Marginal Rates Using Parametric Optimization Methods

Modeling Results

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF MIGRATION

Introduction

Classification of Migration Models

Macromodels of Migration

Micro Models of Migration Processes

Linking of Macro and Micro Approaches to Migration Modeling

Conclusion

INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY AND GREEN DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY

BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND BARRIERS

Modern trends for interaction of the society and the nature.

Production greening.

Environmental regulation at the national level.

Green consumerism.

Dynamics of the environmental protection strategy

REGULATORY INCENTIVES, OPPORTUNITIES AND BARRIERS

Role of Regulatory Incentives, Opportunities and Barriers in Environmental Management

World Practices of Regulation and Administration in Industrial Ecology

Russian Regulation Experience in Industrial Ecology

Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Expertise

LEGAL INCENTIVES, OPPORTUNITIES, AND BARRIERS

Environmental Factors of the Institutional Approach

Institutional Regulations of Environmental Business in Industrial Countries

Effectiveness Mechanism of Legal Incentives and Barriers in Developing Counties

Institutional Preferences and Restrictions in Russia

STANDARDS AND INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Role of International, Regional and National Standards in Industrial Ecology

International Standards ISO, IEEC, Standards and Procedures by the World Bank.

Standards of the European Union.

Standards in the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Standards in the Russian Federation.

RISK MANAGEMENT AND INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

The ecological safety problem and technical risk

The concept mechanism in the sphere of ecological safety and risk

Analysis and ecological risk management

Assessment of the hazard of an accident at an industrial facility

Organizing the safety system in emergency situations in the technical sphere

Ecological insurance in the sphere of ecological risk management

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: TECHNOLOGY ASPECTS

PACKET SWITCHED DATA NETWORK AND ITS EVOLUTION

History of packet switching

Packet switching

Datagram versus Virtual Circuit

Popular Packet Switched Networks

FIBRE OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS: TECHNO ECONOMICS

Propagation through Optical Fibers

Challenges in Fiber Optic Communications

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

Wavelength Multiplexing Technologies

Fiber Optic Communications Applications

The Indian Fiber Optics Industry

SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

Introduction

Overview of Satellite Communication Systems

Source Codes - Coding messages into bits

Modulation - Sending bits into the real world

Error Control Coding - Making modulation efficient

. Link Budget for Satellites - Planning the link

Future Directions

Conclusions

MULTIMODAL INTERFACES TO THE COMPUTER

Issues in providing Multimodal Local Language support to the Computer

Output Mechanisms

Developing Local Language Databases

Building Multimodal Interfaces to the Computer

DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES (ICT AND VISUALIZATION)

Introduction

Performance Requirements and Specifications for Display Screens

Technology for manufacture of Display Screens

Computer-aided Visualization

Conclusions

GIS AS A TOOL FOR DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

History of GIS

Concepts of Spatial Data

Spatial Data Sources

Map Projections

Spatial Data Modeling

Spatial Data Input and Editing

Geometric Transformation

Attribute data Management

Spatial Analysis

Spatial Interpolation

Digital Terrain Mapping

Watershed Delineation Using DEM

Network Analysis

Statistical Analysis in GIS

Role of Remote Sensing in GIS

Spatial Data Visualization

Global Positioning System

Spatial Decision Support Systems

Spatial Data Accuracy

GIS Applications

An Example on Use of GIS Technology

Current Scenario and Future Prospects in GIS

Conclusions

STORAGE SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

Introduction

Storage Devices

Block Storage Systems

File and Archive Storage Systems

Storage Networks

Storage Software

Concluding Remarks

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Introduction

Search

Logic and Inferencing

Knowledge Representation

Description Logic and Semantic Web

Conclusion

COMPUTER VISION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Content Based Image Retrieval

Automatic Illumination Correction for Scene Enhancement

Image Super-resolution

Photo Albumation: High resolution photo album through video shooting

Virtual-view Generation

Conclusion

TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKING

Introduction

How it evolved

Transmission Systems

Switching and Broadcasting Schemes

Some Basic Networking Examples

Some Real-life Networking Scenarios

Conclusion

INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: SOCIETAL AND DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS

REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON RURAL PC KIOSKS

Introduction

Rural PC Kiosks are difficult to Sustain

Successful Rural PC Kiosks Fall into Several Categories

Meeting Business Needs and Social Development Goals Simultaneously is Difficult

What Rural Villagers want and what we think they Need are Frequently Different

The Kiosk Entrepreneur Plays the Most Critical Role in the Success of a Kiosk

A Kiosk Champion Can Help Sustain a Set of Kiosks

Services Require Attention to the Entire Supply Chain, not only to the Kiosk

Focus on a Single Class of Services Increases Likelihood of Success

Kiosks do Better in Towns; Kiosks do Better in Remote Villages

Kiosks in Offices and Schools May Provide Alternatives to the Standalone Kiosk

Kiosk Usage is Dominated by Relatively Affluent, More Educated Young Men

Per-Transaction Fees are Resisted by Many Customers

Mobile-Phone-Based Kiosks Offer an Alternative to PC-Based Kiosks

Conclusion

ITS AND THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

Introduction

ITS and Behavior Adaptation

ITS and safety

ITS and mobility

Management and revenue collection

Energy and environment

Conclusions

SPARSE AND RURAL AREA COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Introduction

Connectivity

Backbone Network

Access Networks

Sparse Area Communication Systems

The Evolution of Rural Needs

Concluding Remarks

KEY ISSUES IN COMBATING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE

Appropriate Applications and Needs Assessment

Local Entrepreneurship

Marketing and Outreach

Ubiquity and Accessibility (Branding)

User Density

Technical Challenges: Maintenance, Obsolescence and Infrastructure

REGULATORY REFORM AND RURAL ROLL-OUT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES(ICTS)

Importance of Rural Access to Information and Communication Technologies

Undersupply of Rural ICT Infrastructure

The Need for Regulatory Reform

FREE - OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE FOR DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

Development, ICT and Software

The F/OSS Movement -- Its Moorings, Methods and Results.

F/OSS for Development

Discussion and Conclusion