ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOTECHNOLOGY - Table of Contents


MICROBIAL CELL CULTURE

Nutrition

Growth

Cultivation Systems

ALGAL CELL CULTURE

Cell culture characteristics

Growth and nutrition

Cultivation techniques

Selected organisms

Scale-up considerations

Production system classified by product type

Scale-up technology

Molecular algal biotechnology

PLANT CELL CULTURE

The Basics of Plant Cell Culture

Propagation of Plant Material

Plant Improvement

Conservation

Utilization of Plant Germplasm

MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE

A brief history of mammalian cell culture

Primary and continuous cultures

Methods in mammalian cell culture

Applications of cell culture in virus production

Application of cell culture in biopharmaceutical production

Tissue engineering and cell culture

CELL THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY METABOLISM

Concepts of Thermodynamics

Concepts of Energy Production and Conservation

Concepts of Membrane and Solute Transport

Concepts of Energy Metabolism

Concept of Enzyme Catalysis

BASIC STRATEGIES OF CELL METABOLISM

Polymer hydrolysis

Aerobic catabolism

Anaerobic catabolism

Anabolism (biosynthesis) of cellular components

Metabolic Regulation

THE IMPORTANCE OF MICROBIAL CULTURE COLLECTIONS AND GENE BANKS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Microbial Resources

Plant Genetic Resources

Culture Collections, Gene Banks and Biotechnology

Future Programs

Introduction

BIOSAFETY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction

General Principles of Risk Assessment

Contained Use

Deliberate Release of Transgenic Plants: Testing in the Environment and Placing on the (World) Market

Food and Feed as, or Derived from, Transgenic Crops

Medicinal Products

Framing Biosafety in An International Context

Conclusions

BIOINFORMATICS

Levels of information processing

Traditional information support in biosciences: bibliographic databases

Value added processing of databases

Nucleic Acid Research and Genomics

Protein Research and Proteomics

Introduction

Higher levels of information processing

Factual databases in biosciences

MICROBIAL CHEMISTRY

Introduction

General Considerations

Metabolism

Microbial Chemistry in Nature

Microbial Interactions

Human and Microbial Chemistry

Biotechnology Application

A CONCISE HISTORY OF BIOTECHNOLOGY – SOME KEY DETERMINANTS

Introduction

Biotechnology of Traditional Fermented Foods and Beverages

Biotechnological Production of Biomass, Organic Acids, Solvents and Waste Treatment Processes Under Non-Sterile Conditions

Biotechnological Processes Produced Under Conditions of Sterility

Downstream Processing

Applied Genetics and Genetic Engineering – Their Influence on Biotechnology

Public Perceptions of Biotechnology

Conclusions

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF BIOPROCESSES

Common Instruments for Process Automation

Advanced Instrumentation for Bioprocess Control and Automation

Bioreactor Automation

CHEMICAL METHODS APPLIED TO BIOTECHNOLOGY

Methods for Protein Determination

Methods for the Determination of Carbohydrates

Methods for Determination of Lipids

Methods for Determination of Other Cell Components

Analysis of Other Low Molecular Weight Molecules

PHYSICAL METHODS APPLIED TO BIOTECHNOLOGY

The Characterization of Potential Feedstocks in Sugar Cane

Physical Methods used for the Characterization of Lignocellulosic Materials

Bioprocesses Based on Sucrose Consumption such as in Sugar Cane Juice

Bioprocesses Based on Lignocellulosics such as Sugar Cane Bagasse

Final Considerations

MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

What Can Mathematical Models Do for Biotechnological Processes?

Overview and General Principles of Mathematical Modeling Biotechnological Processes

Types of Models

Steps in the modeling process

Case Study 2: Mathematical Model of a Differential Reactor for Estimating Kinetic Constants

Case Study 3: A Metabolic Structured Model for Glucose-Limited Growth of a Single Cell of Escherichia Coli

State of The Art and Future Prospects

BIOSENSORS

Transducers

Biological elements

Construction of biosensors

General working principles

Response characteristics

Introduction

Examples of biosensors

Scientific and technological status

Future trends and perspectives

MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY : APPLICATION IN LIVESTOCK SYSTEM

Introduction

Molecular Biotechnology Approaches Applied to Livestock Systems

Future Trends

Conclusions

BIOPROCESSING OF SOLID STATE SUBSTRATES

Introduction

Microorganisms and Substrates in Ssb

Measurement and Control of Physical Factors Controlling Growth

Estimation of Biomass

Bioreactors

The Mode of Bioreactor Operation

Kinetics and Modelling

Conclusions

GENETIC MANIPULATION OF BACTERIA

Genetic manipulation in bacteria

Introduction of DNA into bacteria

Library screening

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Expression and protein purification

Site directed mutagenesis

Genetic manipulation of bacteria

Examples of genetic manipulation

Introduction

Biosafety

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF FUNGAL CELLS

Introduction

Generation of transforming constructs

Transformation methods

Gene disruption and gene replacement

Concluding statement

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF ALGAL SPECIES

Classification of Algae

Principles of Microalga Culture

Gene Technology

Genetical Identification and Phylogeny

Genetic Engineering as a Tool to understand the Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Algae

Genetic Engineering of Algae: Examples of Environmental and Industrial Applications

Introduction

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF PLANTS

Transformation of dicotyledonous plants

Transformation of monocotyledonous plants

Transformation of algae

Promoter efficiency and tissue specificity

Targeting genes to organelles

Integration and stability of transgenes

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF MAMMALIAN CELLS

Expression and Regulation of Eukaryotic Genes

Recombinant DNA Technology

Genetic Maps

Use of Genomic Information in Animal Improvement

Cloning Adult Mammals

Transgenic Animals

Introduction

Gene Therapy

Ethical and Social Issues

Conclusions

PROTEIN ENGINEERING

Introduction

Strategies for Protein Engineering

Commercial Applications of Protein Engineering

Future Possibilities

Conclusions

HEALTH AND GENE SCIENCES

Relevance of genomes to human health

Diagnosis

Drugs and Vaccines: pharmacogenomics

Gene Therapy

Conclusion

Introduction

GMO - TECHNOLOGY AND MALNUTRITION - PUBLIC SECTOR RESPONSIBILITY AND FAILURE

Cost-effective and sustained production of nutritious food

Why do we have GMO regulations?

Traditional breeding

The paradox of GMO regulation

Is GMO over-regulation costing lives?

Micronutrient malnutrition

NEW OPPORTUNITIES REVEALED BY BIOTECHNOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF EXTREMOPHILES

Introduction

Extremophiles and biomolecules

Extremophile genomics exposing the biotechnological potential

Tapping into the hidden biotechnological potential through metagenomics

Unexplored frontiers and future prospects

THE CHALLENGES OF GENETIC INFORMATION

Introduction

What is Genetic Information?

Characteristics of Genetic Information: The Claim of Genetic Exceptionalism

How Genetics Highlights Existing Problems

Conclusion

PRINCIPLES OF METABOLIC ENGINEERING

Introduction

The Tools of Metabolic Engineering

Metabolic Engineering in Practice

BIOREACTORS

Bioreactors with Mechanically Moved Internal Part

Bioreactors with a Circulation Pump

Bioreactors Mixed by Compressed Gas Sparging

The Large-Scale Pneumatic Bioreactors

Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment

Fine Products Bioreactors

Photobioreactors

UPSTREAM PROCESSING - STERILIZATION IN BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY

Sterilization of Gases

Sterilization of Liquids

Sterilization of Small Equipment

Sterilization of Large Equipment

Validation of Sterilization

DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING OF PROTEINS USING FOAM FRACTIONATION

General Aspects of Foam Fractionation

Foam Fractionation of Proteins

Protein Adsorption at a Gas-liquid Interface

Foam Models

Separation of Bovine Serum Albumin and Cytochrome c from Binary Mixtures Using Gas-Liquid Interface Adsorption

PROCESS OPTIMIZATION STRATEGIES FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS: FROM DISCOVERY TO PRODUCTION

The Drug Discovery and Development Process

Optimization of Chemical Structure

Optimization of the Microbe

Optimization of the Growth Medium

Optimization of the Operating Environment using Process Control

Introduction

MICROBIAL DYNAMIC TRANSFORMATION

Growth and Microbial Kinetics

System and Signals

Dynamical Systems

Models

Application to Bioreaction Modeling

Models for the Reaction Rates

Modes of Operation in Fermentation

Control

Introduction

Steps of a Control System Design: The Biotechnologist’s Role

BIOTRANSFORMATIONS

Screening of Biocatalysts

Biodegradative Pathways for Biotransformations

Biocatalyst Characterization and Design

Bioprocessing

Introduction

Technical Applications of Biotransformations

PLANT CELL BIOREACTORS

General Theoretical Background of Plant Cell and Tissue Cultures and Their Processes

The plant cell bioreactor

Description of Most commonly used Types of Plant Cell Bioreactors

Conclusion and outlook

PICHIA PASTORIS: A PLATFORM ORGANISM TO PRODUCE PROTEINS

Introduction

The P. Pastoris Expression System

Bioreactor Process Techniques for Production of Recombinant Proteins with P. Pastoris

Conclusion

BIOREACTORS AND CULTIVATION SYSTEMS FOR CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE

Introduction

Mammalian cells

Insect Cell Culture

Plant Cell Culture

Tissue Engineering and Stem Cell Culture

Regulatory and Safety Issues

Conclusions

STEM CELL BIOREACTORS

Introduction

From Bioprocess Selection to Bioreactor Design and Operation

Bioreactor Configurations

Bioreactor Systems for Stem Cell Culture

Conclusions

INFLUENCE OF CO2 ON MICROBIAL FERMENTATION PROCESSES

Introduction

CO2 in Biotechnological Fermentation Processes

Biochemical Pathways with CO2

CO2 as A Carbon Feedstock for Biofuels Production

CO2 as A Feedstock in Bio-Based Polymer Synthesis

CO2 as A Feedstock in Syntheses of Other Natural Products

Enhancing Effect of CO2 on Secreted Enzyme Production

Influence of CO2 on Microbial Growth

Alteration of Gene Expression

CO2 measurement in biotechnological fermentation processes

Calculation of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Concentration from Exhaust Gas Analysis

Conclusion

RHEOLOGY IN BIOPROCESSING

Introduction

Relationship between Shear Stress and Shear Rate

Impact of Rheology on Bioprocessing

Rheology Measurement

Design and Scale-Up

Relationship with Solid Quantity

Relationship with Cell Morphology

Improvement of Bioprocesses

Conclusions

BUBBLE COLUMNS AND AIRLIFT BIOREACTORS

Introduction

First Characterization of Bubble Columns

Mass Transfer

Oxygen Transfer Efficiency

Examples of Bubble Column Reactors

Airlift Loop Reactors

Examples of Airlift Loop Reactors

Heat Transfer in Bubble Columns and Loop Reactors

Conclusions

ENZYME PRODUCTION

Enzyme source

Microbial strain selection

Strain development

Growth requirements of microorganisms

Fermentation

Isolation and purification of enzymes

Product formulation

Regulations during enzyme production

Introduction

PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

Grape wines

Palm wines

Alcoholic Beverages from miscellaneous substrates

Alcoholic Beverages from Cereals

Spirit Beverages

PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC ACIDS

Citric Acid

Lactic Acid

Acetic Acid

Gluconic Acid

Itaconic Acid

Other Acids

Conclusions

Introduction

PRODUCTION OF ANTIBIOTICS

Introduction

b-lactam Antibiotics as a Model System

Penicillin, Cephalosporin and Cephamycin Biosynthesis: An Overview

Regulation of Penicillin Biosynthesis

Clustering of Genes for the Biosynthesis of b -lactam Antibiotics

Strain and Process Improvements

Application of the DNA Recombinant Technology to Increase the Antibiotic Production in Filamentous Fungi: Engineering of the b -lactam Antibiotic Pathways

BIOPLASTIC AND BIOPOLYMER PRODUCTION

Biopolymers (Polysaccharides)

Future Developments

Bioplastics

PRODUCTION OF BIOSURFACTANTS

Introduction

Evaluation

Structural Types and Producers

Biosynthesis and Regulation

Genetics

Production

Properties

Potential Applications

Concluding Remarks

INDUSTRIAL RECOMBINANT PROTEIN PRODUCTION

Introduction

Markets and Products

The first step: Selection of an expression system

Bioprocess engineering considerations

Biosafety and Regulations

Facility Design

Product Characterization

BIOPESTICIDE PRODUCTION

Introduction

Biological Control

Microbial Insecticides

Production of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Bacillus Sphaericus

Entomopathogenic Viruses

Entomopathogenic Fungi

Biopesticide Production

Entomopathogenic Protozoa and Microsporida

Entomopathogenic Nematodes

Biological Control of Aflatoxin Contamination of Crops

Integrated Pest Management

Market

Conclusion

SECONDARY PRODUCTS FROM PLANT TISSUE CULTURES

Diversity and potential of plant cell culture

Regulation of production through elicitation and induction

Preliminary economics of using plant cell culture for secondary metabolite production

Limitations/opportunities for marketing plant cell culture products

The future for secondary products from plant tissue culture

INDUSTRIAL MYCOLOGY

Product range

Introduction

Solid State Fermentation

Submerged Fermentation

Other Developments of Industrial Mycology

Conclusions

BIOBUTANOL

Introduction

Biobutanol as a Biofuel

Development of the Industrial ABE Fermentation Process

The Commercial ABE Fermentation Process

Limitations of the Industrial ABE Fermentation Process

Economic Perspectives

Advances in Scientific Know-how

Advances in Process Technology

Utilization of Lignocellulosic Substrates

Conclusions and Future Prospects

THE INDUSTRIAL USE OF ENZYMES

Introduction

Sources of Enzymes

Enzyme Production

Fundamentals on Enzyme Kinetic

A Briefing on the Uses of Enzymes

Conclusion

PRODUCTION OF HETEROLOGOUS HYDROLYSIS ENZYMES WITHIN CROP BIOMASS FOR BIOFUEL ETHANOL

Introduction

The Plant Cell Wall

Cell wall degradation

Ethanol production

Production of Hydrolysis Enzymes in Biomass Crops

Other Approaches

Conclusion

BIO-REFINERIES-CONCEPT FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Bio-Refinery Concept

Lignocellulosic biomass of Livestock Excreta

Multiproduct formation from biomass crops(Recycling) of Livestock Excreta

Product formation from human, animal and agricultural wastes

Introduction

Conclusion

NUTRICEUTICALS FROM MUSHROOMS

Nutritional Values of Mushrooms

Medicinal Properties of Mushrooms

Mushroom Nutriceuticals

A Protocol for Quality Mushroom Nutriceuticals

MUSHROOM PRODUCTION

What are Mushrooms?

Mushroom Cultivation

Trends in Mushroom Production

Non-Green Revolution

Concluding Remarks

Introduction

PHARMACEUTICALS FROM ALGAE

Antibiotics

Antiviral Compounds

Cytotoxic, Antitumour and Antineoplastic Metabolites

Anti-inflammatory Compounds

Introduction

Algal Carotenoids

Other Activities

Symbiosis and Bioactive Metabolites

Production of Algal Metabolites

Conclusion

BIODIESEL

The Approaches

The Production Process

Biodiesel: An Evaluation of Properties

Biodiesel and the Environment

Test Programmes and Current Development

Legislation and Incentives

The Alternatives

Introduction

Conclusions

NATURAL FOOD COLORANTS

Current Natural Colorants

Colorants Obtainable by Biotechnology Routes

Conclusions

Introduction

PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FOR FUEL AND ORGANIC SOLVENT

Production of Organic Solvents

Conclusion

Production of Fuel Ethanol

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF ACETIC ACID BACTERIA IN FOOD PRODUCTION

Introduction

Traditional and current bio/technology using acetic acid bacteriaHydrocarbons

Acetic acid bacteria as spoilers

Ecology

Taxonomy

Physiology

Technological solutions in bio/technology using acetic acid bacteria

A CARBON-NEGATIVE MODEL FOR PRODUCTION OF FEED AND FUEL FROM BIOMASS

Introduction

Biomass as a source of food or fuel? What are the issues?

Feed and fuel from biomass

Net primary productivity (NPP)

Biomass as food/fuel and recycling

Models for small-farm scale production of feed/food and energy

Conclusions

INTEGRATED THERMO-BIOREFINERY

Introduction

Priorities of Waste Management and Resource Recovery

Secondary Recycling via Thermal Recovery

Feedstock Considerations

Thermal Technology Energetics

Optimal Thermo-Biorefinery Campus Design

Establishing a "Bright Line"

External Technology Validation

Conclusion

THE NEXT GENERATION OF BIOFUELS - A NEW APPROACH TO THE PRODUCTION OF BIOFUELS

Introduction

The First Generation of Biofuels

The Second Generation of Biofuels: "Cellulosic Ethanol"

Renewable Esters: The Next Generation of Hybrid Biofuels

The Mini-Biofuels Refinery Technologies

N-Butanol as a Renewable Fuel

Status/Business Strategy/Competitive Advantages/Market Opportunity

A General Discussion of the Superior Fuel Traits of Bio-butanol

The Old World War II ABE Fermentation

The Production of Bio-Butanol in Mini-Biorefineries

Current Status of Mini-Bio-Butanol Refineries

PLANT GENOME MAPPING: STRATEGIES AND APPLICATIONS

What is a genome, and why map it?

Genetic mapping

Physical mapping

Comparative genomics

Putting it all together -- a case study of the sorghum genome

Synthesis

BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS

Wood and Other Forms of Biomass

Modern Biomass

Electricity Production from Biomass

SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING CELLULOSIC BIOMASS REFINING

Introduction

Processing of cellulosic biomass

Typical Processes

Dilution in Bioconversion

Description of a refinery

Other fermentations

Conclusions

BIOHYDROGEN - THE MICROBIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FUEL

Introduction

Biological Catalysts for Hydrogen Production

Bioreactors for H2 Production

Photobiological Hydrogen Production Processes

Dark Fermentations

Biohydrogen - Future Prospects

PROCESSING, CONSUMPTION AND EFFECTS OF PROBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS

Introduction

Definitions: Probiotic, Prebiotics, Synbiotic and Integrated Synbiotics

Commercial Impact of Probiotic Products

Requirements for Probiotic Microorganisms and Probiotic Food

Health Benefits of Probiotic Microorganisms

Increasing the Effectivity of Probiotics by Chemical and Biological Encapsulation

Manufacturing of Probiotics and Products with Probiotic Properties

Application Strategies in the Utilization of Probiotic Strains

Improving Shelf Life of Probiotics

Critical Consideration of Todays Probiotic Products

Conclusion

FERMENTED FOODS AND THEIR PROCESSING

Fermented food from cereals

Fermented foods from cassava

Fermented Foods from Legumes

Fermented foods from vegetables

Fermentations for the Production of Coffee, Tea and Cocoa

Fermented foods made from milk

Fermented Food from alcohol

Food condiments made from fish

Introduction

ESSENTIALS OF NITROGEN FIXATION BIOTECHNOLOGY

Crop Requirements for Nitrogen

Potential for Biological Nitrogen Fixation [BNF] SystemsMushrooms

Diversity of Rhizobia

The Biochemistry of Biological Nitrogen Fixation: The Nitrogenase System

The Genetics of Nitrogen Fixation

The Potential for Biological Nitrogen Fixation with Non-legumes

Application of Biological Nitrogen Fixation Technology

Introduction

CROP PROTECTION THROUGH PEST-RESISTANT GENES

Mechanisms of Plant Defense

Insect resistance

Nematode resistance

Fungal and bacterial resistance

Virus resistance

Weed resistance

Introduction

COMPOSTING AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES

Defining Composting

An Outline of the Composting Operation

Metabolic Processes in Aerobic Composting

Ecology of Compost Systems

Environmental Concerns

Introduction

Conclusions

SILAGE FOR ANIMAL FEED

History of Silage Making

The Ensiling Process

Silage Microflora

Silage Additives

Silage Quality

Properties of Common Forages and Crops for Ensilage

Silage from Crop Residues and By-products

Introduction

TRANSGENIC PLANTS

Transformation of Plants

Herbicide and Disease-Resistant Crops

Manufacturing Proteins in Plants

Nutritional Enhancement of Plants (Nutriceuticals)

Transgenic Plants and Gene Silencing

Conclusions

Introduction

TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR ANIMALS AS BIOREACTORS

Methods for Producing Transgenic Animals as Bioreactors

Control of Transgene Expression in Transgenic Animal Bioreactors

Introduction

Conclusions

PLANT BREEDING AND MOLECULAR FARMING

Introduction

Traditional Plant Breeding

Biotechnology in Plant Breeding

Products of Crop Genetic Engineering

Potential Consequences of Crop Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

Risk Assessment

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND AGROBIODIVERSITY

Introduction

Technical aspects of agricultural biotechnology at the interface with agrobiodiversity

Agro-biodiversity as a source for biotechnological applications

Biotechnological tools in genetic resources management

Impact of biotechnology on agrobiodiversity

THE ECONOMICS OF AGROBIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Important Economic Aspects of Agrobiotechnology

Methodological Approaches to Assess the Benefits and Costs of Agrobiotechnology

Empirical Evidence

Conclusions and Outlook

CONVENTIONAL PLANT BREEDING FOR HIGHER YIELDS AND PEST RESISTANCE

Introduction

Macro-Evolution and Micro-Evolution

Domestication

The Worldwide Redistribution of Plants

Stable and Unstable Protection Mechanisms

Quantitative and Qualitative Genetics

Quantitative (Horizontal) and Qualitative (Vertical) Resistance

The Gene-for-Gene Relationship

Vertical Resistance and Horizontal Resistance Compared

Special Aspects of Horizontal Resistance

Yield versus Resistance

The Nature of Plant Breeding

The Future of Conventional Plant Breeding

Complexity Theory

TRANSGENIC VEGETABLE CROPS FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS AND FUNGAL AND VIRAL DISEASES

Introduction

Genetic Engineering Technologies

Insect resistant vegetable crops

Virus-resistant vegetable crops

Fungal-resistant vegetable crops

Issues to consider

Conclusions

FARMERS AND PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

Introduction

Why Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) Are Important to Farmers

How Farmers Manage and Use Plant Genetic Resources

Advancing PGR with Farmers: Joining Formal and Informal Research

Developments

Conclusion

THE ROLE OF PLANT GENOMICS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Understanding the 'plant genome’

The science of ‘Genomics’

Arabidopsis Genome Sequence -The signpost of plant genomics

Applying genomics to Agricultural Biotechnology

Concluding Remarks

ROLE OF PLANT HORMONES IN LEGUME NODULATION

Introduction

Abscisic Acid

Auxin

Cytokinin

Ethylene

Gibberellins

Conclusion

MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF STEROID ACTION IN MARINE FISHES

Introduction

Steroid Classes

Steroidogenesis

Steroid Binding Proteins

Steroid Inactivating Enzymes

Steroid Hormone Receptors

Examples of Processes Governed by Steroid Hormones

Concluding Remarks

MARINE MICROBIAL ENZYMES

Role of Microbial Enzymes in Marine Environment

Enzymes from Marine Microorganisms

Enzymes as Tools in Biotechnology

Innovations in Enzyme Technology

Future Prospects

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS IN FISH HEALTH MANAGEMENT

Microbial Disease Problems in Aquaculture

Strategies for Health Management

Biotechnological tools in health management

MOLECULAR TOOLS FOR IMPROVING SEAFOOD SAFETY

Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Seafoods

Viruses

Biotechnological Tools in Safety Assurance

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Aquatic Systems and Monitoring their Presence by Molecular Methods

MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS BIOTECHNOLOGY

Historical Development

Present Development

Future Development

MOLECULAR TOOLS FOR THE STUDY OF MARINE MICROBIAL DIVERSITY

The Importance of Biodiversity Research in the Marine Environment

What Questions can be Answered Using Molecular Biology Techniques?

Evaluating Marine Biodiversity by Sequence Analysis and Fingerprinting Methods

Analysis of Population Structure Using Molecular Markers

Molecular Probes for Identification and Characterisation of Marine Phytoplankton

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

BIOREMEDIATION IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Types of Pollutants in the Marine Environment

Pathways for Bioremediation

Genetic Engineering and Bioremediation

BIOTECHNOLOGY OF ARCHAEA

Cultivation of Extremophilic Archaea

Molecular Basis of Heat Resistance

Screening Strategies for the Detection of Novel Enzymes from Archaea

Starch Processing Enzymes

Cellulose and Hemicellulose Hydrolyzing Enzymes

Chitin Degradation

Proteolytic Enzymes

Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Esterases

DNA Processing Enzymes

Archaeal Inteins

Introduction

VIABLE BUT NONCULTURABLE BACTERIA IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND THE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS TO DETECT THEM

History of the Viable but Nonculturable Phenomenon in Bacteria

Introduction

EXTENDING INTEGRATED FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGIES TO MARICULTURE IN CHINA

Introduction

Rationale of Integrated Aquaculture and Mariculture

Integrated Fish Farming

Successful Models in New Stages

Mariculture

Eight New Concepts or Trends of Integrated Aquaculture and Mariculture

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY - SOCIO-ECONOMIC STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABILITY

Introduction

Nature’s Cycles of Matter

Socio-economic strategies

Benefits to the environment

RECYCLING LIVESTOCK EXCRETA IN INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS

Livestock Excreta as Livestock Feed

Potential Benefits from the Recycling of Livestock Excreta

Methods of Processing (Recycling) of Livestock Excreta

The Biodigester Sub-system

Excreta as Source of Nutrients for Water Plants, Terrestrial Crops and Earthworms

Conclusions

Introduction

RECYCLING OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES THROUGH CLEANER TECHNOLOGY

Sources and problems of agro-industrial wastes

Waste management hierarchy

Concept of Clean Technology

Future prospect of clean technologies

Introduction

URBAN ROOFTOP MICROFARMS

Microfarming–What Is It?

Why Organic Hydroponics?

Sample Projects

The Silwood Suburban Microfarm

Mt. Gravatt Study

Profitability

Introduction

Conclusion

BIOMASS AND ORGANIC WASTE CONVERSION TO FOOD, FEED, FUEL, FERTILIZER, ENERGY AND COMMODITY PRODUCTS

Introduction

Planning Strategies

Agricultural Production Unit

The Bioprocess Unit

Waste Management Control Unit

HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF RECYCLED WATER

Why Recycle?

Uses of Recycled Water

Issues and Options in the Use of Recycled Water

Treatment Technologies

Introduction

Legal Issues

Economics

Community Involvement

Acknowledgments

MICROORGANISMS AS CATALYSTS FOR THE DECONTAMINATION OF ECOSYSTEMS AND DETOXIFICATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS

Key Reactions of Microbially Mediated Degradation of Organics

Modes of Microbially Mediated Detoxification of Organics

Approaches to Increasing Efficiency and Velocity of Detoxification of Organics

Concluding Remarks

Introduction

BIOHYDROMETALLURGY

Microbiology of Biomining Processes

Effect of Operation Variables

Bioleaching of Copper

Bio-Oxidation of Gold Ores

Introduction

BIODEGRADATION OF XENOBIOTICS

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Halogenated Hydrocarbons

Nitroaromatic Compounds

Azo Compounds

s-Triazines

Organic Sulfonic Acids

Synthetic Polymers

Introduction: General Features of the Microbial Degradation of Xenobiotics

Conclusions

SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE: CONCEPT OR PRACTICE

Sustainability

The Origins and Evolution of Aquaculture

Green and Blue Revolutions

Sustainable Aquaculture Practices

Dynamics of Intensive Culture Ponds

Reduced Stocking and Feeding

Harvesting Plankton to Recycle Nutrients and Improve Sustainability

Economic and Social Considerations

Managing Global Ecosystems

BIOGAS AS RENEWABLE ENERGY FROM ORGANIC WASTE

Introduction

Biomass Waste

Energy Production Using Anaerobic Digestion Technology

Energy from Garbage and Municipal Solid Waste

Energy from Human and/or Animal Waste: Case Studies

BIODIVERSITY: THE IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

The Essence of Biodiversity

International agreements

Loss of biodiversity and conservation

Applications of biotechnology and its effect on biodiversity

Social consequences

Introduction

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: POTENTIAL EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY

Defining ecological risk

Direct risks of transgenic crops

Indirect risks of GM crops

Ecological risks and sustainability

Introduction

BIOREMEDIATION: AN OVERVIEW

Introduction

Principles of Bioremediation

Factors of Bioremediation

Microbial Population for Bioremediation Processes

Environmental Factors

Bioremediation Strategies

Phytoremediation

MICROBIAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: THE ROAD TO GO FOR ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Microbial Resources: "quoi de neuf ?" (What is new ?)

Microbial Resource Management (MRM)

Exciting new potentials of MRM in Relation to the Super Challenges

Conclusions

APPROPRIATE AND INAPPROPRIATE BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Introduction

Which type of biotechnology may be appropriate?

VERMICULTURE INDUSTRY IN CIRCULAR ECONOMY

Introduction

Necessity to develop a vermiculture industry

Status of the vermiculture industry

Where is the orientation of vermiculture?

Measures Taken In Vermiculture Industry

MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY - FUNDAMENTALS

BIO-CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND MEDICINE

Introduction

Biocultural diversity

Socio-economic Diversity

Conclusion

BLOOD: THE ESSENCE OF HUMANITY

Introduction

Blood Composition and Functions

Blood Groups

Blood Transfusion - Safety and Transmission of Diseases

Red Cell Indices and Morphology in Disease Diagnosis

Anemias

Leukemias

Bleeding and Clotting Disorders

Blood Parasites

Blood Substitutes

Blood and the Arts

Conclusion

COMPULSORY LICENSE REGIMES FOR PUBLIC HEALTH IN EUROPE

Introduction

The Context: The BRCA-Controversy

Compulsory Licenses

Conventional Compulsory License

Compulsory License for Public Health

Conclusion

MEDICAL MYCOLOGY

Introduction

Classes of fungi that are of Medical Interest

Clinical groupings of fungal infections

Subcutaneous infections

Systemic infections

Miscellaneous fungal or fungal-like diseases

Antifungal Therapy

Identification of fungi- The Classical Approach to Fungal Identification

Serological testing

LYSINE BIOSYNTHESIS IN BACTERIA- AN UNCHARTERED PATHWAY FOR NOVEL ANTIBIOTIC DESIGN

Introduction

Lysine Biosynthesis Pathway in Bacteria

Identification and validation of targets

Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase (DHDPS)

Dihydrodipicolinate Reductase (DHDPR)

DAP epimerase

Conclusions

ANTIBODY BASED PROTEIN RESEARCH IN HUMAN PATHOLOGY

Introduction

Routine Antibody Based Methods in Pathology

Novel Protein Investigation Techniques

Problems in Antibody Based Methods

Conclusions

CONTRIBUTION OF BIOCHEMISTRY TO MEDICINE: MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY

What Is Medical Biochemistry?

The Scope of Medical Biochemistry

The Changing Scope of Clinical Biochemistry

Natural History of a Scientific Field

History of Biochemistry and Medical Biochemistry

The Emergence and Evolution of Clinical Biochemistry

Methodology: the Principal Driver of Developments in Clinical Biochemistry

Laboratory Automation

Scientific Infrastructure of Medical and Clinical Biochemistry

Academic Contribution of Clinical Biochemistry

Clinical Biochemistry or Laboratory Medicine?

Clinical Biochemists as Practicing Doctors.

Evolving Role of a Chemist in Clinical Biochemistry

ABZYMES - A CHALLENGE FOR THE MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Introduction

Structure and Function of Enzymes

Antibodies

Catalytic Antibodies

Abzymes - A Challenge for Medical Biotechnology

Perspectives for Abzyme Technology As A New Branch Of Medical And Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

THE ROLE OF PHYTOBIOTECHNOLOGY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

Introduction: The Concept Of Medicinal Plants And Phytobiotechnology

A Recap of Infectiology and Contemporary Challenges in the Control of Infectious Diseases

Medicinal Plants and Macrofungi in Control of Fungal Infections and Other Dermatological Problems

Employing Appropriate Medicinal Plant Biotechnology in the Management of HIV/AIDS And Cancer

Medicinal Plant Biotechnology in Preventive Health

Conclusions

BIOINFORMATICS ON POST GENOMIC ERA-> FROM GENOMES TO SYSTEMS BIOLOGY

Introduction

Bioinformatics and Internet

Genomes

Databases

Sequence Alignment

Common Sequence Analysis Methods

Functional Genomics

Protein Structure Predictions

Systems biology

Trends and Prospects

GENE THERAPY

Introduction

Vectors for Gene Transfer

Gene Delivery

Clinical Applications of Gene Therapy

TISSUE ENGINEERING: ADVANCES IN ORGAN REPLACEMENT

Introduction

The Skin

The Liver

Kidney

Bone

Blood Vessels

Skeletal Muscle

The Bladder

Nerve

Articular Cartilage

The Cornea

THE NANOSTRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY ON NEUROSCIENCE

Introduction

The Micro- and Nanoscale Structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

Synthetic and Engineering Methods in Nanotechnology

Applications of Nanoengineering and Nanotechnology to the CNS

Challenges Associated with Nanotechnology Applications to the CNS

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

TP53 GENE AND P53 PROTEIN AS TARGETS IN CANCER MANAGEMENT AND THERAPY

Introduction

TP53 Mutations and Human Cancer

The p53 Protein—A Sensor of Genotoxic Stress

Gene Therapy Using TP53

The p53 Pathway as a Target for Pharmacological Intervention

TP53 in Cancer Detection and Monitoring

Perspectives and Future Challenges

PLANT-MADE VACCINES- THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

Introduction

Traditional Vaccines

New Generation Vaccines

Plant-made Vaccines

Plant-made Vaccine History

The Successful Plant-made Vaccine

The Future

TRANSGENIC MICE IN IMMUNOBIOLOGY

Strategies to Generate Transgenic Mice

Transgenic Mice and the Immune System

Future Perspectives

Introduction

NANOMEDICINE AND MEDICAL NANOROBOTICS

Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine

Medical Nanomaterials and Nanodevices

Microscale Biological Robots

Medical Nanorobotics

ROLE OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM IN DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

General Aspects of Xenobiotic Metabolism

Methods for Studying in vitro Metabolism

Determination of Metabolism in in vitro Systems

In vitro - in vivo Scaling of an NCE

Induction of CYP Enzymes

Modelling of CYP Enzymes

In Vitro versus in Vivo

Conclusions

FROM GENE TO CLINICAL PRODUCT: AN OVERVIEW OF GMP REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BIOTHERAPEUTICS, IN A MULTIPROCESS/MULTIPRODUCT FACILITY

Introduction

Basic requirements for a State-of-the-Art Biopharmaceutical Development Facility

General considerations for a multi-process/multi-product biotech manufacturing facility

Requirements for manufacture and quality control of investigational medicinal products derived by biotechnological processes

Conclusions

THE IMPACT OF PATENTS ON MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Key features of patent law

Restrictions on use of gene and research tool patents

Increasing complexity of the patent landscape

Social policy considerations in the healthcare arena

Social policy considerations in the public sector research arena

The way forward

Conclusion

BIOFILM OF MEDICAL IMPORTANCE

Introduction

The Structure of Biofilms

Tolerance to Antimicrobials

Lung Infection

Wound Infection

Chronic Otitis Media

Foreign Body Implants / Tissue Fillers

Treatment of Biofilm Infected CF Lungs

Conclusion

HUMAN GENETIC DATA BANKS: FROM CONSENT TO COMMERCIALIZATION AN OVERVIEW OF CURRENT CONCERNS AND CONUNDRUMS

Introduction

Types of Biobanks: Population Banks vs. Disease Specific Banks

Legal and Ethical Issues in the Establishment and Use of Biobanks: How to Reconcile Autonomy with the Existence of Common Interests?

Commercialization of Genetic Data: Common Heritage of Humanity vs. Private Interests?

Public Involvement: Can or Should Researchers and Participants be Partners?

Conclusion

THE STATUS OF THE EXTRACORPOREAL EMBRYO [STEM CELLS]

The Legal Situation

Ethical evaluation: The Belgian (federal) Council on Bioethics

Factual Material

BIOTERRORISM BY BIOTECHNOLOGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL MEDICINE

Biotechniques in Bioweaponeering

Counter Strategies in Clinical Medicine

Conclusion

Introduction

HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF THE ANOGENTIAL TRACT

HPV in anogenital cancers

HPV and cervical cancer development

HPV-mediated transformation: additive events

Deregulation of E6 and E7 transcription

E6 and E7, the viral oncogenes

HPV-mediated immortalization

Telomerase activation

Chromosomal alterations

Epigenetic alterations in cervical cancer

Concept of multistep process of HPV-mediated carcinogenesis and future perspectives

SOME SOCIAL, EDUCATIONAL AND POLITICAL ASPECTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction

The Developing Country Identity

Analyzing the Impact of Biotechnology

Methodological Approaches and Competing Discourses

Rhetoricism and Debate

The diplomacy model and environmental discourses

An international Political Economic Discourse

Conclusion

PUBLIC POLICY RESPONSES TO BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Challenges for the Biotechnology Industry

Reasons for the Lack of Public Acceptance

Some theoretical considerations regarding public confidence

Public Policy Issues related to Biotechnology

Some Reflections on Future Public Policy Towards Biotechnology

INVENTIONS, PATENTS AND MORALITY

Introduction

Intellectual Property Protection

Ethical and Moral Issues

Moral Arguments Supporting Patenting

Ethical Arguments Against Patenting

Rewarding Historical Innovation

Morality Exclusion of Patents

Conclusions and Predictions

THE REGULATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

Introduction

Process versus product regulation and the risks of GMOs

Regulating the Laboratory Use of GMOs

Regulating the Release of GMOs to the Environment

GM Food Safety Regulations

Labelling

Trade and GM food regulations

Conclusions

BIOTECHNOLOGY EDUCATION

Introduction

Teaching the Basic Principles of Biotechnology

Teaching the Skills of Biotechnology

Teaching Values and Attitudes in Biotechnology

General Discussion

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN RURAL AREA

Introduction

Advanced Biotechnological Achievements Applied in Rural Areas

Conventional Biotechnology as Practiced in Rural Areas

Socioeconomic, Political and Cultural Impacts on Biotechnology

ART BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE CULTURE OF PEACE

Introduction

Biotechnology - Ancestral Art and Culture

Zero-Emission Biotechnology and Environmental Art

Microbes and Cultural Heritage

Biotechnology and Art

Education and art

The Dark Side of Biotechnology - Culture and Peace

The Developing Countries and Biotech Art

Concluding Remarks

WHY GENETIC MODIFICATION AROUSES CONCERNS: SOCIAL, CULTURAL AND POLITICAL IMPACTS

Introduction

How to Know about Concerns

What are the Concerns

Cultural Roots of the Concerns

Political Factors Contributing to the Concerns

Ways Forward: Dialogue

GENDER RELATIONS IN LOCAL PLANT GENETIC RESOURCE-MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION

General Background

Patterns in Relief: Women's Knowledge and Management of Plant Genetic Resources

Behaviors in Relief: the Practice and Consequences of Gender Bias

Needs in Theory and Practice

BIOWARFARE AND BIOTERRORISM: THE DARK SIDE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Biological/Chemical Warfare Characteristics

Bioweapons

Bioterrorism

Control, Monitoring and Reporting Systems

Conclusion

SOCIAL FACTORS IN THE TREATMENT AND REUSE OF ORGANIC WASTES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Introduction: Attitudes, behaviours and technology for organic waste reuse

Household and community-scale action for treatment and reuse

Technology choice, behavioural change and institutional supports

Conclusion

POTENTIALS OF BIOENERGY FROM THE SAGO INDUSTRIES IN MALAYSIA

Introduction

Starch Industries

The Sago Palm

Production of Bio-Ethanol

Waste Production and Management

Prospects and Problems

THE PACIFIC ISLANDS: A NATURAL TREASUREHOUSE OF BIORESOURCES AND ISLAND BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction

The Pacific Region and Medicinal Plants

Aboriginal and Maori Medicine

Pacific Island Medicinal Plants and Intellectual Property Rights

Safety

Biodiversity trade in the contemporary Pacific

Trade considerations - Green pharmaceuticals

Gender

Kava and Nonu

Conclusion

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE MIRCENS – HISTORY, TRAINING AND RESEARCH UNTIL 2002

Introduction

Biological Nitrogen Fixation [BNF] MIRCENs

Culture Collection MIRCENs

Biotechnology MIRCENS

Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology MIRCENs

Bioinformatics MIRCENs

BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION

Introduction

Nodulation: From the Infection Process to the Functioning of the Nitrogenase

Measurement: Different Methods to Monitor the Nitrogen Fixation

Improvement: Description of Different Approaches Allowing Maximisation of Nitrogen-Fixation

HISTORY AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE CULTURE COLLECTION AND PATENT MIRCEN BRAUNSCHWEIG[GERMANY]

Introduction

The Early Days of DSM

Further Development

History of DSM with Regard to its Patent Depositary

MIRCEN activities of DSM in these early years

Present Organisation and Status of DSMZ

The OECD initiative on Biological Resource Centres (BRC-Initiative)

Future Development

THE EX SITU CONSERVATION OF MICROORGANISMS: AIMING AT A CERTIFIED QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Towards a Global Network

Size of the Task

Quality Management

Information technology

Preservation

Quality Control based on molecular characterization

Capacity Building

Conclusion

MIRCEN-BITES LJUBLJANA: COOPERATION FOR RESEARCH, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT

International Centre for Chemical Studies – ICCS

Biotechnological Information Exchange System – BITES

Examples of Projects

ICCS Publications

MICROBIOLOGICAL RESOURCES CENTRE (MIRCEN) AT THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG, SHATIN, HONG KONG (1991-2003)

Introduction

Research

Training

International Services

Publications/Conference Presentations