ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LAND USE, LAND COVER AND SOIL SCIENCES - Table of Contents


LAND USE AND LAND COVER, INCLUDING THEIR CLASSIFICATION

Conceptual Prerequisites

Land Cover/Land Use

Classification Systems for Land Cover and Land Use

Existing Approaches of Classification Systems of Land Cover and Land Use

LAND-COVER AND LAND-USE MAPPING

Space Remote-Sensing Imagery

Aerial Photographs

Land-Cover and Land-Use Sample Surveys

FACTORS INFLUENCING LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE

Land-Use and Land-Cover ChangeDefinitions

Factors Influencing Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: An Overview

Factors Influencing Land-Use and Land-Cover Change at the Level of the Individual Land Unit

Factors Influencing Land-Use and Land-Cover Change at Aggregate Spatial/Organizational Levels

LAND USE CHANGES DURING THE PAST 300 YEARS

Terminology

Human Activities on the Land in Pre-industrial Times

Land Use and Land Cover Changes since the Industrial Revolution

Consequences of Land Use and Land Cover Change

LAND USE CHANGES AFFECTED BY URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

Stages of Development

Actual Situation

Present Trends

Policy Challenges

LAND USE/LAND-COVER CHANGES AND BIODIVERSITY LOSS

Primary Causes of Biodiversity Loss

Strategies for Biodiversity Conservation

LAND USE/LAND COVER CHANGES AND GLOBAL AGGREGATE IMPACTS

Typology of Impacts of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change

Global Environmental Impacts of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change

Global Socioeconomic Impacts of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change

Policies Related to Land-Use/Land-Cover Change

THE LAND-USE AND COVER CHANGE (LUCC) PROJECT

Scientific Networks

Outreach Activities

Regional Networks and Endorsement of Research Projects

AFRICOVER LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING PROJECT

Project Design

AFRICOVER- EA Project Activities

The International Scenario

The AFRICOVER Methodological Approach

SOIL SURVEY AS A BASIS FOR LAND EVALUATION

Soil Surveying

Soil Mapping and Soil Classification

World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), as a Basis to Streamline Soil Profile Information for Land Evaluation

Land Evaluation based on Land Characteristics and Land Qualities

From Soil Survey to Soil Suitability and Land Evaluation. Case Study: Land Evaluation for Irrigated Rice in the West-African Sahel

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE LAND EVALUATIONS

Traditional Systems

Modern Methodologies

Automated Application

Future Perspectives

THE FAO GUIDELINES FOR LAND EVALUATION

Basic Principles and Assumptions

Evaluation Procedure

Land Suitability Classification

The Results of Land Suitability Evaluation

The Way Forward

LAND EVALUATION SYSTEMS OTHER THAN THE FAO SYSTEM

Parametric Systems

Categoric Systems

Other Special Purpose Systems

AGRO-CLIMATE-BASED LAND EVALUATION SYSTEMS

Climatic Factors affecting Land Use and Land Cover

Early Bio-Climatic Classifications

Agro-Climatic Land Evaluation Systems

LAND QUALITY INDICATORS(LQI) : MONITORING AND EVALUATION

Requirements for Basic (core) LQIs

Core LQIs recommended for Short Term Development

Core LQIs recommended for Long-term Development (Sub-national AEZ Program)

Core LQIs recommended for Development by Liaison with Other Authorative Groups

Examples of LQIs Already Available

BIOPHYSICAL MODELS IN LAND EVALUATION

Classification of biophysical models

Models of expert knowledge

Empirical-statistical models

Dynamic simulation models of crop yield

Dynamic Simulation Models of Individual Land Qualities

Critical issues in using dynamic simulation models for land evaluation

Selecting a modelling approach

ECONOMIC MODELS OF LAND EVELUATION: LOCAL DECISION-MAKING

Objective of Land Use Modelling

Model Construction

Economic Models of Land Evaluation for Local Decision-Making

ECONOMIC MODELS OF LAND EVALUATION: REGIONAL AND GLOBAL DECISION-MAKING

Watershed Models

Regional Models

Global Models

Challenges and Pitfalls

LAND USE PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Concept of Sustainable Development

Traditional Land Use Planning

Modern Land Management Options in a Sustainable Development Context

Closing Remarks

AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES ASSESSMENTS

Background

Methodology

Findings

THE VALUE AND PRICE OF LAND

The Concept of Value

Value and Price of Land

Factors affecting the Value and Price of Land

Current Valuation Procedures

Examples of Valuation Systems in the World

IMPACT OF ETHNO-CULTURAL FACTORS AND LAND TENURE ON LAND USE AND LAND USE PLANNING

Ethno-cultural Issues related to Land Use

Land Tenure Systems in Europe

Land Tenure and Ethno-cultural Issues in Africa

Case Study: Ghana

Land Tenure and Agricultural Development

HUMAN-INDUCED LAND DEGRADATION

Causes of Land Degradation

Extent of Human-Induced Soil Degradation

Case Studies

THE CORINE PROJECT ON SOIL EROSION RISK AND LAND QUALITY

Methodological Approach

Factors affecting Soil Erosion Risk

Factors affecting Land Quality

Data Collection and Retrieval

Results

Applications

Limitations and Constraints

Introduction

Conclusions

THE ILUS INTEGRATED LAND USE PLANNING CONCEPT

Aims and Objectives of ILUS

The Land

The ILUS Philosophy

THE IMPACT OF THE PARTICIPATIVE APPROACH TO LAND-USE PLANNING

Definition

Context: Need for a Participative Approach in the Planning of Land Resources

State of the Art: Theoretical and Practical Experiences with Participative Land-Use Planning

MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND: CLIMATIC AND WATER ASPECTS

Types of Agricultural Land Management

Agricultural Land Management related to Climatic Hazards

Agricultural Land Management related to Crop Moisture Supply

Case Study: Agricultural Management of an Irrigation Scheme

MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND: CHEMICAL AND FERTILITY ASPECTS

Elements Required in Plant Nutrition

Managing NPK and Other Macronutrient Levels

Managing Micronutrient Levels

Managing pH and Soil Acidity

Manure and Organic Fertilizers

Management of Saline-Alkaline Soils

MANAGEMENT OF NON-ARABLE RURAL LAND, INCLUDING FORESTS, GRASSLANDS, AND SHRUB-LANDS

Ideas about "Nature"

Why Do People Have to Manage Non-Arable Lands?

The Meaning of Management

Ecosystems and Resource Types

Social Systems and Ecosystems

Understanding the Management of Natural Resources

Practical Advice for Management in a Diverse and Changing World

MANAGEMENT OF DRYLAND AND DESERT AREAS

Drylands of the World

Geographical Distribution of Drylands

Agro-ecological Diversity and Vulnerability

Dryland Management Principles

Agricultural Systems of Drylands

MANAGEMENT OF MOUNTAINOUS AREAS

Pressures, Impacts and their Management

Challenges for the Future

SOIL CONSERVATION

The Past Problems of Land Degradation

Modern Soil Conservation

Erosion Processes and Soil-Conservation Technology

Soil-Conservation Policies and Approaches

Changes in Approaches and Policies

Soil-Conservation Research

Future Trends in Soil Conservation

LAND REHABILITATION

The Problem: Land Degradation

Sustainability Concepts in Land Rehabilitation

Soil Rehabilitation

Soil Qualities to be Addressed in Land Rehabilitation

Erosion Control Principles

Three Styles of Land Rehabilitation Engineering

Case Studies

Rehabilitation: Measures of Success

LAND USE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AND PERI-URBAN AREAS

Urban and Peri-urban Areas

Forces Influencing Urban and Peri-urban Landscapes

Planning and Management of Land in Urbanizing Regions

Planning Themes of Relevance for Peri-urban and Urban Areas

General Ecological Conditions of Modern Cities and Strategies for Sustainable Development

CASE STUDIES IN LAND USE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

DEFORESTATION IN THE AMAZON: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

Deforestation in the Amer-Indian Period (Before 1500 AD)

Deforestation in the Period of European Expansion (1500-1960)

Deforestation in Recent Years (1960-2000)

Deforestation and Reforestation in the Future (2000-2010+)

Recommendations

DYNAMICS OF LAND USE IN RELATION TO THE GREEN REVOLUTION IN INDIA

Pre-Green Revolution Scenario and Background to the Green Revolution

Changes in Growth Rate at National Level in the Pre-GR and Green Revolution (GR) Periods

Green Revolution and Changes under Main Land Use Categories

Land Use Changes under Irrigated and Rain-fed Conditions during the Green Revolution

Land Use Changes within Cultivated Areas

Green Revolution Induced Shifts in Cropping Pattern

Environmental Effects of the Green Revolution

Green Revolution and Input Use Scenarios

Green Revolution and Infrastructure Development

Socio-Economic Dynamics of the Green Revolution

THE IMPACT OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON LAND USE IN EUROPE

Brief History of the Common Agricultural Policy

Major Drivers of Agricultural Land Use Change in Europe (1965-2000)

Major Trends in Agricultural Land Use in Europe (1965 to 2000)

Discussion

LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES IN RUSSIA

Land Use and Land Cover Status in Russia

Landscape Approach to the Study of Land Use and Land Cover Changes

Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics

DESERTIFICATION AND ANCIENT DESERT FARMING SYSTEMS

History of Research

The Agricultural Systems

DESERTIFICATION AND PASTORALISM: A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF PASTORAL NOMADISM IN THE NEGEV REGION

Pastoral Nomadism

Land Use Change and Desertification in the Negev

History and Development of Pastoral Nomadic Societies in the Negev

Desertification and Pastoral Nomadism

THE USE OF SHRUBS IN LIVESTOCK FEEDING IN LOW RAINFALL AREAS

Establishment Method and Planting Density

Productivity of Browse Foliage

Integration of Shrubs into Production Systems

Browse as Supplement to Low Quality Roughages

Nutritive Value of Tree and Shrub Foliage

Anti-Nutritional Substances in Browse

Responses Observed to Supplementation with Browse

THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION: POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR IMPLEMENTATION

The United Nations Convention on Combating Desertification: An International Policy Framework for Sustainable Land Management

The Present Status of the Implementation of the UNCCD

A New Impulse for the UNCCD Process - The GEF as a Financial Mechanism for the UNCCD

Case Studies: Country Programs and Policies Supporting the Implementation of the UNCCD

Mainstreaming of the UNCCD into Sustainable Development Efforts: An Outlook Attempt

DESERT RECLAMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF DRY LANDS: FERTILITY ASPECTS

Fertilization of Dry Lands

DESERT RECLAMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF DRY LANDS: WATER ASPECTS

Water Resources

Irrigation of Dry Lands

Drainage of Irrigated Land

Drain Water Disposal and Water Re-use

THE SALINITY AND ALKALINITY STATUS OF ARID AND SEMI-ARID LANDS

Soil Salinity and Sodicity

Quality of Irrigation Water

Salt Leaching

DESERTIFICATION IN CHINA

Severity of Desertification

Distribution of Desert-Affected Land

Causes of Desertification

Impacts of Desertification

Countermeasures of Desertification Control

DESERTIFICATION AND DEFORESTATION IN AFRICA

Global Context

Land Degradation in Africa Today

Causes and Consequences

Combating Desertification

Future Perspectives: The Way Forward

WATER HARVESTING AND WATER-SAVING TECHNIQUES

Review of Some Widely-adopted Water-harvesting and Water-saving Techniques

Case Study: The Jessour System in Tunisia

Case Study: Conservation Tillage on the Loess Plateau of Northern China

COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

What is Desertification and Drought?

Regional Outlook

Efforts to Combat Desertification and Drought

Towards the Twenty-first Century

CLIMATE IMPACTS OF LAND DEGRADATION IN THE WORLD'S DRYLANDS

Local and Regional Climate Changes Caused by Desertification

Hemispheric and Global Climate Changes Caused by Desertification

MONITORING THE DESERT ENVIRONMENT FROM SPACE:EXAMPLES FROM THE ARAB REGION

Images from Space

Geographic Information Systems

Monitoring Desert Environments

A BRIEF HISTORY OF SOIL SCIENCE

Soil Science/Agriculture in Ancient Times and Early History (up to 4th Century AD)

Soil Science in The Middle Ages (5th to 14th Centuries AD)

Soil Science in the Renaissance Period (15th to 17th Centuries)

Soil Science in The Age of Enlightenment (18th Century)

Soil Science Becomes a True Science (19th Century)

Modern Soil Science (20th Century)

PEDOGENESIS AND SOIL FORMING FACTORS

Pedogenesis and Soil Forming Factors

Soil Properties affecting Land Use Potential

Soil Variability

How do Soil Processes affect Land Use and Land Cover

How Land Use affects Soil Properties

SOIL PROPERTIES AND PEDOMETRICS

Origins of Pedometrics

Mathematical and Statistical Techniques used by Pedometricians

Some Applications and Preoccupations

SOIL GEOGRAPHY AND CLASSIFICATION

The Zonal Concept in Soil Classification – A Historical Overview

Modern Soil Classifications

Role of Soil Geography and Soil Classification in Land Use Planning and Land Cover Studies

SOIL PHYSICS

Soil Texture

Soil Structure

Soil Physical Properties

Soil Hydraulic Properties

Agricultural Significance

SOIL CHEMISTRY AND SOIL FERTILITY

Soil Forming Factors and Processes

Soil Chemical Reactions

Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrient Uptake

Impact of Soil Chemical Conditions on Land Use and Land Cover

SOIL BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY

Soil Biota

Species Diversity and Interaction with Soil Properties

Biological Processes in Soils

Soil Functionality and its Change under Stress

Indicators of Soil Quality

Soil Biota and Land Use

SOIL BIOCHEMISTRY

Chemistry of Soil Organic Matter

Soil Enzymes

DNA in Soil

Carbon Cycling in Soil

Biochemistry of Soil Nitrogen

Biochemistry of Phosphorus and Sulfur in Soil

Biochemical Interactions with Metals

Biochemistry of Xenobiotics in Soil

Biochemistry of the Rhizosphere

Future Developments in Soil Biochemistry

SOIL MINERALOGY

Classification and Distribution of Minerals

Surface Properties of Minerals

Mineral Characterization Methods

Mineral Weathering

Land Use and Environmental Implications

SOIL MICROSCOPY AND MICROMORPHOLOGY

Techniques

Definitions, Concepts and Features

Mineral Soil Material

Organic Soil Material

Soil Micromorphological Mineral Features

Applications

FOREST, RANGE AND WILDLAND SOILS

Ecosystems and Soil Orders

Natural Disturbances and Soils

Soil Organic Matter

Management Risk Factors

URBAN SOILS

Suitability of Soils for Urban Development

Effects of Urban Land Use on Soils

Consequences of Adverse Urban Land Use

Classification and Mapping of Urban Soils

VOLCANIC SOILS

Parent Materials

Distribution

Classification

Distinctive Clay Mineralogical Properties

Distinctive Soil Physical Properties

Distinctive Soil Chemical Properties

Land Use and Use Limitations

Environmental Considerations

Envoi

SOILS OF COLD AND TEMPERATE REGIONS

Climatic Regions

Soil Forming Environments

Soils of Temperate and Cold Regions

SOILS OF ARID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS

Factors of Soil Formation

Soil Genesis and Soil Forming Processes

Classification

Land Use

MEDITERRANEAN SOILS

Soil Forming Factors

Pedogenesis and Profile Development

Classification

Land Use and Production Potential

SOILS OF THE HUMID AND SUB-HUMID TROPICS

Soil Forming Factors

Soils and Soil Formation

Classification

Land Use

STRESSES CAUSED BY EDAPHIC FACTORS

Kind of Constraints

Geographical Extent of the Constraints

Causes and Consequences of the Constraints

Confronting the Constraints

SOIL ORGANIC MATTER DECLINE AND MANAGEMENT

Nature of Soil Organic Matter

Stocks and Fluxes of Soil Organic Matter

Managing Soils to Enhance Organic Matter and Carbon Sequestration

SOIL ACIDIFICATION

Sources of Acidity

Acid Neutralizing Reactions in Soils

Consequences of Acidification

Strategies for Managing Acidity