ENCYCLOPEDIA OF TROPICAL BIOLOGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES - Table of Contents


CASE STUDIES

MANGROVES OF THE REEF DOMAIN: A CASE STUDY IN BELIZE

Introduction

A Case Study in Belize

Conclusion

TROPICAL INSECT DIVERSITY - HOW TO SAMPLE IT

Introduction

The Species x Sample Matrix

Sampling Methods

Measuring Diversity

THE IMPACT OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON POPULATIONS OF NEW WORLD PRIMATES

Introduction

New World Monkeys

Effects of Habitat Fragmentation

A Short History of Human Impact in the Neotropics

Diversity Patterns

Fragmentation and Conservation

The effects of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation

Conservation strategies

The Future

LIFE IN THE TREETOPS – A CONCISE SUMMARY OF FOREST CANOPY ECOLOGY

History of Canopy Biology

Canopy Access Techniques

Case Studies of Critical Canopy Questions

Future Directions

Conclusions

NATURAL HISTORY OF AMAZON FISHES

Introduction

Main aquatic environments of the Amazon

Fish diversity and community structure

Time and space: activity periods, territoriality, and resource partitioning among fishes

Reproduction: different responses to environmental factors

Feeding tactics, trophic specializations, and ecological interactions

Predator-prey interactions: taking the chances

Defense by disguise: dealing with risks posed by visually guided predators

Conclusions and perspectives

THE DANGER OF INTRODUCING BEE SPECIES, A CASE STUDY ON BRAZILIAN TROPICAL SAVANNA

Introduction

Material and Methods

Results

Discussion and Conclusions

DIVERSITY OF TROPICAL SPIDERS - GROUND-DWELLING SPECIES OF BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS

Introduction

The Araneae order

The diversity of spiders

Ground-dwelling spiders of Brazilian savannas

NATURAL HISTORY AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN NEOTROPICAL PSEUDOSCORPIONS

Introduction

The Social Pseudoscorpions

New Directions

NATURAL HISTORY OF TROPICAL PARASITOID WASPS

What is a parasitoid?

Life histories

Host location

Host selection and acceptance

Variation in natural history and study cases

Host behavior manipulation

TERMITES AND ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION

Introduction

Overview of Termite Biology

Termites as Elements of the Soil Food Web

Ecosystem Impacts from Soil Engineering by Termites

Concluding Remarks

GEOMORPHOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF TROPICAL DESERTS

Introduction

Tropical Deserts

Processes, Landforms and Tropical Deserts Tipology

Biogeography of Tropical Deserts

DESERTIFICATION IN THE TROPICS

The Desertification Process and Its Area of Occurrence

The Origin (1940) and the Renewal (1970) of the Concept of Desertification

Diversity in the Comprehension of the Desertification Process

Policies and Experiences of Control: Practices, Success and Failure

Sandization as a Process of Special Attention

DESERT ECOSYSTEMS IN INDIA

Introduction

Physiography of Indian Desert Regions

Wastelands in Desert Regions of India

Climate

Agro-ecological Zones in Desert Region

Geology and hydrology of Desert Regions

Land Use Pattern

Ecosystem in Indian Desert

Conclusions and Suggestions

DESERT ECOSYSTEMS AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

Introduction

Living in the Desert Ecosystems

Responses of Desert Ecosystems to Global Climate Changes

ECOLOGY OF TROPICAL DESERTS IN SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BIOGEOGRAPHY & EVOLUTION OF DESERT ANIMALS

Introduction

Animal Species

Co-Existence of Animals

Biogeography Of Tropical Desert Regions

Morphological Adaptations

Behavioural Adaptations

Reproduction In Desert Environment

Human Interface

Conclusions

ARCHAEO-HISTORICAL ENVIRONMENT AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ANCIENT AGRICULTURE IN TROPICAL DESERTS

Introduction

Significance of agriculture

The beginning of agriculture

ECOLOGY OF TROPICAL DESERTS IN SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ARID PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Introduction

Tropical Desert Ecosystem

Physiography of Tropical Deserts

Physiology of Arid Plants

Problems of Tropical Desert Regions

Conclusions and Suggestions

HUMAN IMPACT ON TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS

IMPACT OF HUMANITY ON TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW

Introduction

Ecosystems

Relationships between Humans and Natural Ecosystems

Consequences of the human population growth

Environmental Impact

Evaluation of environmental impacts

Perspectives of the tropical ecosystems conservation

Scope and organization of the session

DEFORESTATION AND FOREST FRAGMENTATION IN THE AMAZON

Introduction

Causes of deforestation

Forest fragmentation

Ecological impacts of forest fragmentation

Characteristics of fragmented communities

Conclusions and conservation implications

HUMAN IMPACT ON TROPICAL FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENTS

Introduction

Water Usage Policy: From medieval civilizations to the present

Water resources degradation and loss of benefits

Schistosomiasis – Efforts to control this tropical disease

What to do to minimize water crisis?

Environmental Biomonitoring Programs

Freshwater Biodiversity in Tropical Areas

Watersheds as the main focus for integrated intervention acts

Reference Sites for Biomonitoring Efforts in Tropical Watersheds

Maintenance of riparian vegetation as an intervention action

Litter Breakdown as a tool to assess Human Impacts

EFFECTS OF POLLUTION AND WILDLIFE TOXICOLOGY IN TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS

Introduction

Soil and Biodiversity of the Terrestrial Ecosystems

Tropical Forests and Ecological Services

Deforestation and Climatic Changes

Pollution and Living Beings

Closer Look on some Atmospheric Pollutants

Closer Look on some Soil Pollutants

Effects of Pollutants on Biodiversity and Decline of Forests

Concluding Remarks

CONTRIBUTIONS OF HUMAN ECOLOGY TO CONCILIATE PEOPLE AND BIODIVERSITY WITH A FOCUS ON FISHING COMMUNITIES

Introduction

Local people and biodiversity

Fishing communities and biodiversity

Co-management of natural resources

Conclusions

THE IMPORTANCE OF NATURAL HISTORY STUDIES TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF TROPICAL PLANTS

Introduction

This Session

SEASONALLY DRY DECIDUOUS FORESTS: DIVERSITY AND SOILS IN ARBOREAL COMMUNITIES

Introduction

Ecology and community structure

Arboreal vegetation in seasonally dry tropical forests in Central Brazil

Soils and Vegetation relationships

Final Remarks

MORPHOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF TROPICAL FLOWERS

Introduction

Flower morphology and anatomy

Nectary

Flower diagram and formula

Prefloration or Aestivation

Inflorescences

Anthesis

Pollination

Fecundation

TROPICAL AQUATIC PLANTS: MORPHOANAYOMICAL ADAPTATIONS

Introduction and Definition

Origin, Distribution and Diversity of Aquatic Plants

Life Forms of Aquatic Plants

Morphological and Anatomical Adaptations

Organs Structure – Morphology and Anatomy

Economic Importance

Importance to Preserve Wetland and Wetland Plants

NATURAL HISTORY AND ECOLOGY OF NEOTROPICAL MISTLETOES

Introduction

Taxonomical relationships, geographical distribution and mistletoe diversity in Brazil

Effects of mistletoe infestations on plant communities

Reproductive biology

Mistletoe-host interactions

Metapopulation dynamics of mistletoes in Brazilian savannas

Economical relevance: are mistletoes pests on agricultural systems or natural plant populations?

Conclusions and perspectives

PLANT STRATEGIES FOR SEED DISPERSAL IN TROPICAL HABITATS: PATTERNS AND IMPLICATIONS

Introduction

Plant strategies to Attract Frugivores

Fruit Choice by Animals

Deposition Patterns and Frugivore Efficiency as a Seed Disperser

Seed Dispersal and Restoration Ecology

SAVANNA ECOSYSTEMS

NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS IN TRACHYPOGON SAVANNAS AS RELATED TO NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS CYCLING

Introduction

Soils of Trachypogon Savannas

Vegetation of Trachypogon Savannas

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Inputs

Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Plant-Soil System

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Outputs

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Budgets

The Agricultural Activities and the Fate of Trachypogon Savannas

Conclusions

PLANT ADAPTATIONS TO RAINFALL SEASONALITY IN THE SAVANNAS OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

Introduction

Root Patterns and Hydraulic Redistribution of Soil Water

Rainfall Seasonality and Tree Water Balance

Water Storage, Structure and Efficiency of the Transport System

Rainfall Seasonality and Leaf Phenology

Implications of Stomatal Regulation of Transpiration on Photosynthesis

CO2 Assimilation, Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Phenology

Conclusion

FIRE IN NEOTROPICAL SAVANNAS

Introduction

Fire Behavior in Neotropical Savannas

The Effects of Fire on the Herbaceous Layer

The Effects of Fire on the Woody Layer

Fire and Savanna Physiognomy

Fire and the Management of Neotropical Savannas

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF TROPICAL PLANTS

Introduction

Reproductive Biology of Tropical Plants

POLLINATION ECOLOGY OF NEOTROPICAL SAVANNAS VEGETATION

Introduction

Savanna types

Pollinator species and pollination agent classes

Pollination agent classes

Classification of the components of the Venezuelan Central Plain

Temporal variation in pollination classes

Pollination agent classes overlap

Pollination system specificity

Time of pollination activity

Richness and diversity of pollination agent classes

Concluding Remarks

ARE THERE GERMINATION PATTERNS FOR CERRADOSPECIES?

Introduction

Climatic Seasonality Determining the Rhythm of Reproduction Events

Within and Between-Species Variation

Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence Patterns for Cerrado Species

BIRDS IN THE TROPICAL SAVANNAS

Introduction

Global Ecoregions and the Savanna Biome

Tropical Savannas

Birds in the Tropical Savannas

Cerrado: An Unique Tropical Savanna Hotspot

THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE NEOTROPICAL SAVANNAS

Introduction

Amphibians

Testudines

Squamata

Crocodilians

DIPTERA OF TROPICAL SAVANNAS

Introduction

General Characteristics

Classification.

Suborder Nematocera

Suborder Brachycera

Impact of Human Activities upon Dipterans Communities in Tropical Savannas

BEES OF THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNA

Introduction

Diversity of the Brazilian Cerrado Bees

Nest habitats of the Cerrado Bees

Final Remarks

THE CAPYBARA, ITS BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Origin and Classification

General characters

Distribution

Biological aspects

Population Dynamics

Capybara in the savanna ecosystems

Management for Sustainable Use

TROPICAL SAVANNAS - INTRODUCTION

Introductory Remarks

Definition of Savanna

Location and Extension of Tropical Savannas

Cerrado and Neotropical Savannas

Paleoclimate, Paleoecological Changes and Origin of Cerrado and South American Savannas

Climate

Soil Properties and Relationships among Soil, Vegetation and Plants

Cerrado Vegetation Physiognomy

The Origin of the Cerrado Flora

Floristic Diversity and Community Structure

Physiognomic Characters, Life Forms, Growth Forms and Underground Organs

Water Balance, Nutrient Availability, and Xeromorphic and Scleromorphic Features of Cerrado Plants

Fire and its Influence on Plants and Vegetation

Seasonality and Rhythm of Vegetation

Events and Processes Leading to Reproduction and Seed Formation

Sex Expression and Breeding Systems

Animals and their Role as Seed Dispersal Agents

The Study of Dispersal in Cerrado Vegetation

TROPICAL AGRICULTURE

INTRODUCTION TO TROPICAL AGRICULTURE AND OUTLOOK FOR TROPICAL CROPS IN A GLOBALIZED ECONOMY

Introduction

The Origin of Tropical Crops

Dissemination of Tropical Crops outside Their Centres of Origin

Tropical Agriculture in Colonial Times

Independence and Tropical Agriculture

Tropical Food Crops

Outlook on Tropical Agriculture

Tropical Food Crops in a Globalized Economy

Historical Background

Globalization

Free Trade

The Starting Point

The Future of Tropical Crops

Market Inequalities

Crop diversification

Agricultural Research and Development

Free Trade and Politics

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS IN THE TROPICS

Introduction

Natural Enemies of Insects and Mites

Categories of Biological Control

Conclusions

TROPICAL FRUIT CROPS AND THE DISEASES THAT AFFECT THEIR PRODUCTION

Introduction

Significance of Diseases

General Categories of Plant Pathogens

Tropical Fruit Pathogens and the Diseases that they Cause

Interactions

Disease Epidemiology and Management

Conclusions

TROPICAL LIVESTOCK: PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT

General Introduction

Tropical Livestock Production and Management: Generalities

Latin America Livestock Production and Management

African Tropical Livestock Production and Management

Asian Tropical Livestock: Production and Management

Livestock Production and Management in Northern Australia

THE CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION OF CROP GENETIC RESOURCES IN THE TROPICS

The Origin, Diversity and Flow of Tropical Crop Genetic Resources

Conservation of Crop Genetic Resources

In Vitro Culture Conservation Methods of Crop Genetic Resources

In Situ and Ex Situ Conservation Relationships

Global Initiatives on Ex Situ Conservation of Crop Genetic Resources

Improving the Quality of Ex Situ Conservation and Utilization of Crop Genetic Resources

Adding Value to Crop Genetic Resources

The Changing Scenario for Plant Genetic Resources: Challenges and Opportunities for Genebanks

TROPICAL BOTANY

TROPICAL BOTANY: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION

Introduction

Choosing chapters

How did tropical botany get here?

Postmodern botany

FLOODED FORESTS

Introduction

Plant Survival under Oxygen Stress

Tropical Flooded Forests

Conservation and Restoration of Tropical Flooded Forests

Conclusion

AQUATIC MACROPHYTES IN THE TROPICS: ECOLOGY OF POPULATIONS AND COMMUNITIES, IMPACTS OF INVASIONS AND USE BY MAN

Introduction

General Features of Macrophytes

Importance of Macrophytes for Ecosystem Structure and Functioning

Macrophytes in Populations

Macrophyte Communities

Macrophytes as Weeds

Potential Use of Water Macrophytes

INSELBERGS: VEGETATION, DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGY

Introduction

Geomorphologic Genesis and Physiognomy

Inselberg Habitats

Physiognomy of the Vegetation

Environmental Factors as Ecophysiological Stressors

Inselbergs and Man

MOIST TROPICAL FORESTS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Types of Tropical Forests

The Structure of Moist Tropical Forests

Sun- and Shade-Plant Physiotypes

Light Stress

Chlorophyll Fluorescence

Light-Fleck Dynamics on the Forest Floor

Drought in Moist Tropical Forests

The Pressure on Tropical Forests

Conclusion and Outlook

NEOTROPICAL MANGROVES

Mangroves extension and distribution in the world

Mangrove flora and the origin of the Neotropical mangroves

Mangrove associated fauna

Ecology

Mangrove products and services

Environmental impacts on mangroves

Conclusions

TROPICAL ARTIFICIAL FORESTS

Introduction

Concepts, Definitions and Purposes

Historical Aspects

Quantitative Data

Criticisms and Ways to Increase Sustainability of Planted Forests

Case Studies in the Tropics

Conclusion

SANDY COASTAL VEGETATION

Introduction

Landforms in Coastal Areas

Vegetation Types and Community Structure

Life forms

Species Diversity and Geography

Conservation

MARINE ALGAE AND PLANTS

Introduction

Macroalgae and Seagrass Diversity

Species and their Environment

Marine Plant Communities

RAIN FORESTS:FLORISTICS

Introduction

Global Distribution and Main Features of Tropical Rain Forests

Floristic Patterns

Biodiversity

Tropical Rain Forests are Dynamic

Nutrient Cycling

Conclusion and Outlook

EPIPHYTES

Introduction

Geographic, regional, and point scales

Photosynthesis

Water relations

Mineral nutrition

Lichens

Ferns

Orchids

Bromeliads

Habitat modification: the forest loss

Conclusion

CERRADO

Introduction

Vegetation

Climate and Soil as Determinants of Cerrado Vegetation

Ecosystem Functioning

Seedling Establishment, Growth and Productivity of Native Plants

Fire as A Determinant of Ecosystem Functioning

Anthropogenic Impacts, Biodiversity Threats and Global Change

Conclusion

SYMBIOTIC BACTERIA AND FUNGI

Introduction

Nitrogen-fixing Legumes and their Symbionts

Infection of legumes by rhizobia

Other Nitrogen-Fixing Organisms

The Role of Nitrogen Fixation in the Nitrogen Cycle

Mycorrhizal Fungi and the Phosphorus Cycle

Use of Symbiotic Fungi and Bacteria in Bioremediation

Conclusion

TROPICAL ECOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO TROPICAL ECOLOGY

Introduction

Contents of Current Section on Tropical Ecology Chapters

DIVERSITY OF PROKARYOTES,FUNGI, PROTOZOA, BRYOPHYTES AND PTERIDOPHYTES IN TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS

Introduction

Microbial diversity

Diversity of Protozoa

Diversity of Bryophytes

Diversity of Pteridophytes

Concluding Remarks

RAINFOREST STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS

Rainforest Structure and Dynamics

TROPICAL COMMUNITIES

Introduction

Tropical ecoregions

Main features of tropical communities

Spatial and temporal patterns

Threats

Conclusions

TROPICAL DRY FOREST STRUCTURE, DISTRIBUTION AND DYNAMICS

Introduction

Phenology

Sexual Reproduction

Subsequent Life History Stages

Growth Rings

Disturbance and Succession

Forest Structure and Diversity

Conservation

HABITAT FRAGMENTATION, EDGE EFFECTS AND BIOLOGICAL CORRIDORS IN TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS

Introduction

Habitat Fragmentation

Edge Effects

Biological Corridors

Conclusions

MACROECOLOGY

Introduction

Patterns and Processes

Geographical and Historical Structures

Patterns in Species Richness

Challenges in Tropical Macroecology

Concluding remarks

EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF POLLINATION AND REPRODUCTION OF TROPICAL PLANTS

Introduction

Degree of Specificity of Pollination System

Diversity of Pollination Systems

Reproductive Systems of Angiosperms

Phenological Patterns in Tropical Ecosystems

Biological Conservation, Pollination and Reproduction of Tropical Trees

Conclusion

SEED DISPERSAL AND FRUGIVORY IN TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS

Introduction

The Seed Dispersal Cycle

Why Seed Dispersal Matters?

Fruit Syndromes and Fruit Attributes Attracting Disperses

Field Methods for Studying Seed Dispersal

Concepts and Statistical Approaches

Seed Dispersal and Human Development

IMPORTANCE OF TROPICS TO GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE

General Overview

The Biosphere and Tropical Regions

Carbon Linking Ecosystems

Atmospheric Green House Effect

Carbon and Ecosystems Functioning

Land use Change and Tropical Deforestation

Ecological Processes and Hydrological Reservoirs: Implication to Carbon Playing

An Integrative View

Towards Perspectives

ORIGINS AND MAINTENANCE OF TROPICAL BIODIVERSITY

Introduction

Tropics: Description, Climate and Ecosystems

Earth’s Biodiversity

Why are there So Many Different Kinds of Organisms in the Tropics?

Latitudinal Gradients in Species Richness and Their Hypotheses

Conclusion

ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS: THE CONCEPT AND IMPORTANCE TO BIODIVERSITY

Introduction

Allogenic Engineers

Autogenic Engineers

The Effect of the Ecosystem Engineers on Biodiversity

Conclusion

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND HABITAT FRAGMENTATION ON TROPIC INTERACTIONS

Introduction

Direct effects of habitat fragmentation and climate change

Effects on trophic interactions

Conclusions

CHAFERS,RHINOCEROS AND FRUIT BEETLES OF THE CANOPY IN TROPICAL FORESTS

Introduction

Diversity of Forms, Habits and Life Cycles

Main Groups of Species Of Melolonthidae (Scarabaeidae-Pleurosticti) In The Canopy

Past and Present Studies

Conclusions

TROPICAL PLANT AND SOIL NEMATODES:DIVERSITY AND INTERACTIONS

Introduction

What are the Characteristics of the Phylum Nematoda?

Biodiversity and Nematode Diversity

The Tropics and Diversity

Nematode Diversity

Taxonomically Based Diversity

Ecologically Based Assessment of Diversity

Nematode Interactions in Communities

Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

Feeding Types and Parasitic Behavior

Plant Nematodes and Interactions with Other Plant Parasites and Microorganisms

Plant-Nematode Interaction (Above- And Below-Ground Symptoms)

Genetic Diversity

Molecular Diversity

Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

Soil And Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities In The Tropics: A Diversity Dilemma

Future Research

BEETLES AS INDICATORS FOR FOREST CONSERVATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA

Introduction

Forest Conservation in Central America

The Knowledge of Entomological Diversity in Central America

Insects as Bioindicators

The Experiences in Central American Countries

Conclusions... What Lacks To Do?

SEXUAL SELECTION IN TROPICAL INSECTS

Introduction

Intra and inter sexual selection

Sexual selection and speciation

Sensory bias and Sexual Conflict

Sperm competition and Cryptic female choice

Sexual selection in tropical insects

DIVERSITY,ECOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS OF SMUT FUNGI

Introduction

Important genera and species of smut fungi

Systematics of smut fungi and related groups

Conclusions

INSECT VECTORS OF TROPICAL DISEASES

Introduction

Insects as Parasites

Insect Parasite Classifications

Insect Taxa Parasites of Vertebrates

Other Symbiotic Relationships

Health Effects of Insects.

Vector-Borne Diseases and How They Are Transmitted

Parasites of Vertebrates Transmitted by Insects

Principal Insect Taxa as Vectors Of Disease.

Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases.

INSECT VIRUSES:DIVERSITY,BIOLOGY AND USE AS BIOINSECTICIDES

Introduction

Entomopathogenic Viruses

Taxonomic Classification

Life Cycle

Genetics of Insect Viruses

Use of Insect Viruses as Biological Control Agents

PHYLOGENY,BIOLOGY,BEHAVIOR AND MANAGEMENT OF TEPHRITID FRUIT FLIES:AN OVERVIEW

Phylogeny

Biology

Behavior

Management

INSECT VECTORS OF PHYTOPLASMAS

Introduction

Factors Involved in the Transmission of Phytoplasmas by the Insect Vector

Acquisition and Transmission of Phytoplasmas

Families Reported to Contain Species That Act As Vectors of Phytoplasmas

Bactericera Cockerelli

Conclusions

EFFECTS OF AFLATOXINS CONTAMINATING FOOD ON HUMAN HEALTH

Aflatoxins, Production, Occurrence, Chemical Structure

Biosynthetic Pathway

Analytical Methods for Aflatoxin Study

Aflatoxin Metabolism

Toxic Effects of Aflatoxins in Health

Economic Losses Due To Aflatoxin Contamination

Control.

Legislation

Conclusions

TROPICAL INSECT CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

Introduction

Semiochemicals

Pheromones

Kairomones

Synthesis

Concluding Remarks

PASSALIDAE, INSECTS WHICH LIVE IN DECAYING LOGS

Introduction

Natural History

Behavior

Ecology, General Features

Conclusions

INSECTS AS PLANT VIRUS VECTORS

Introduction

Vector Concept

Plant Viruses: Transmission by Insects

Aphids: Virus Vectors

Leafhoppers, Planthoppers and Treehoppers: Virus Vectors

Whiteflies: Virus Vectors

Thrips: Virus Vectors

Beetles: Virus Vectors

INSECT CONSERVATION

Introduction

Insects and Ecosystem Processes

Threats to Insects

Threats from Invasive Aliens

Risks of Biological Control

Risks of Genetic Engineering

Response of Insects to Global Climate Change

Prioritizing for Insect Conservation

Recording Insect Diversity

Managing for Insect Diversity

Restoration of Insect Populations

Conventions and Social Issues

PARASITOIDS WASPS, NATURAL ENEMIES OF INSECTS

Introduction

Parasitoidism (= parasitism), important mode of life in Hymenoptera

Evolution of Hymenoptera parasitoids

Parasitoid biology

Parasitoid Behavioral Ecology

Multitrophic interactions between parasitoids and other organisms in natural and modified environments

Augmentative biological control with parasitoids in the Neotropics

Digital information resources about parasitic wasps

Conclusion

INTRODUCTION TO TROPICAL ZOOLOGY

Introduction

Contents of Current Volume

CLASSIFICATION AND ECOLOGY OF MAJOR TROPICAL INSECT GROUPS

Introduction

Characteristics and Success

Hypotheses on the Origin of the Latitudinal Species Richness Gradient

Evolution

Geographic Distribution

Classification

TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE DIVERSITY AND DEMOGRAPHY IN TROPICAL ECOSYSTEMS

Introduction

General Characteristics of the Tropical Region

Factors that Cause Diversity

Demography and Tropical Ecosystems

Conservation of Tropical Biodiversity

THREATS TO AMPHIBIANS IN TROPICAL REGIONS

Introduction

Causes of Amphibian Declines

Solutions to Global Declines

REPTILE DIVERSITY IN AN AMAZING TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT:THE WEST INDIES

Introduction

Reptile Diversity

West Indian Reptiles

Conclusions

TROPICAL BIRD COMMUNITIES

Introduction

Factors Shaping Tropical Bird Communities

Tropical Bird Communities: How are they unique?

Birds of a Feather? Different Ecosystems, Different Communities

Extinction and Conservation: Issues and Considerations

Concluding Remarks

ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF TROPICAL PRIMATES

Introduction

Primate Behavioral Ecology

Neotropical Primates: Overview of Platyrrhine Diversity

Case Studies in Neotropical Primate Behavioral Ecology

THE FORAGING STRATEGIES OF PRIMATES

Introduction

The Senses of Primates

Vision in Primates

Smell

Touch and Texture

Taste

Conclusion

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS IN TROPICAL TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES: AN OVERVIEW

General Features about Communication Systems

Main Constraints to Communication in Tropical Habitats

What Kinds of Communication Systems Can We Expect for Terrestrial Vertebrates?

Communicating in the "Real World": Some Examples of the Systems at Work

EVOLUTION OF SOCIALITY AND COOPERATION IN TROPICAL ANIMALS

Introduction

Costs and Benefits of Sociality

How Can Cooperation Evolve?

Cooperation and Social Behavior of Tropical Animals

Cooperative Breeding in Birds

Cooperative Breeding in Mammals

MATING STRATEGIES OF TROPICAL INSECTS

Introduction

The Mating System

Some Mechanisms behind Mating Strategies

Alternative Mating Strategies

Constraints on Mating Systems of Tropical Insects

Evolution of Mating Systems of Tropical Insects

Health and Economic Issues of Mating Strategies in Tropical Insects

MATING SYSTEMS AND STRATEGIES OF TROPICAL FISHES

Introduction

Polygyny

Polyandry

Monogamy

Promiscuity

Alternative Reproductive Strategies and Tactics

Sex Change

Hermaphroditism

Asexual Reproduction

BREEDING STRATEGIES OF TROPICAL BIRDS

Introduction

Tropical Birds: Life History and Ecology

Monogamy And Extra-Pair Paternity

Polygamous and Promiscuous Mating Systems

Cooperative Breeding

Final Considerations

EXTINCTION OF SPECIES IN THE TROPICS

Introduction.

Patterns of Extinction: Biological and Biogeographical

Process of Extinction

Consequences of Extinction: For Natural Systems and for Humanity