ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM

Edited by : George Vadimovich Gruza,

Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

1. The Global Climate

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Components and Interactions in the Global Climate System

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Land Surface Hydrology, Convection, Atmospheric Water Vapor and Cloud Formation

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Oceans and Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Upper Atmosphere Chemistry and Circulation

Aleksey A. Krivolutski, Central Aerological Observatory, Russia

Nina Alexandrovna Zaitseva, Division of the Earth Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Biogeochemistry of Greenhouse Gases and Reflective Aerosols

Igor L. Karol, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Andrey A. Kiselev, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Development of Global Climate Models

George Vadimovich Gruza, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

World Climate Program

George Vadimovich Gruza, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

2. Climate and Weather Variability

Chester F. Ropelewski, Climate Monitoring and Dissemintation, USA

Air Temperature

Chester F. Ropelewski, Climate Monitoring and Dissemintation, USA

Atmospheric Humidity and Precipitation

Chester F. Ropelewski, Climate Monitoring and Dissemintation, USA

Atmospheric Pressure and Wind

Chester F. Ropelewski, Climate Monitoring and Dissemintation, USA

Major Forms of Weather Disturbances

Chester F. Ropelewski, Climate Monitoring and Dissemintation, USA

Climatic Variations and Change

Chester F. Ropelewski, Climate Monitoring and Dissemintation, USA

Causes of Climatic Variation

Chester F. Ropelewski, Climate Monitoring and Dissemintation, USA

Climatic Instability and Predictability

Chester F. Ropelewski, Climate Monitoring and Dissemintation, USA

3. Climate System and Climate Factors

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Climate System Components and Interactions

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Solar Radiation

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Role of General Circulation in Climate Formation

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Influence of Ocean and Continent Distribution on Climate

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Effects of Topography on Climate

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

Influence of Cryosphere on Climate

John M. Wallace, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, USA

4. Weather System and Weather Forecasting

George Vadimovich Gruza, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Air Mass and Fronts

Nataliya P. Shakina, Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, Russia

Cyclones and Anticyclones in Middle and High Latitudes

Nataliya P. Shakina, Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, Russia

Principal Weather Systems in Subtropical and Tropical Zones

Igor Georgievich Sitnikov, Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, Russia

Principal Weather Systems in Temperate and Continental Zones

Evgenil P. Veselov, Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, Russia

Principal Weather Systems in Polar Zones

Evgenil P. Veselov, Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, Russia

Short-term Weather Forecasting

Leopold Vladimirovich Berkovich, Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, Russia

Mikhail Yu. Bardin, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Long-term Weather Forecasting

Roman M. Vilfand, Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, Russia

Anatoly V. Muravev, Hydrometeorological Center of Russia, Russia

Scientific Weather Modification

Albert A. Chernikov, Central Aerological Observatory, Russia

Yuriy V. Melnichuk, Central Aerological Observatory, Russia

Nina Alexandrovna Zaitseva, Division of the Earth Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

5. Classification of the Climate of the Earth

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Methods of Climate Classification

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Landscape Classifications of Earth's Climate

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Genetic Classifications of Earth's Climate

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Applied Classifications of Earth's Climate

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

6. Climate Zones and Types

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Low-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Middle-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

High-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

High-Altitude Climate Zones and Climate Types

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

7. Local Climate

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Factors Controlling Local Climate

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Urban Climate: The Most Important Modified Climate

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Forest Climates

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Island Climates

Nina V. Kobysheva, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Elena I. Khlebnikova, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

8. History of the Earth Climate Changes

Irena I. Borzenkova, Center for International Environmental Cooperation (INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

History of Planetary and Geological Factors

Vsevolod A. Zubakov, The Center International Environmental Cooperation (INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

History of Atmospheric Composition

Irena I. Borzenkova, Center for International Environmental Cooperation (INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Global Climatic Catastrophe (Volcanism and Impact Events)

Irena I. Borzenkova, Center for International Environmental Cooperation (INENCO), Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Changes in Biogeochemical Cycles

Irina Ye. Turchinovich, State Hydrological Institute, Russia

9. Observed Climate Change

Esther Ya. Rankova, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Mikhail Yu. Bardin, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Changes in Surface Temperature and Precipitation Patterns

Esther Ya. Rankova, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Mikhail Yu. Bardin, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Changes in Atmospheric Circulation Patterns

Esther Ya. Rankova, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Mikhail Yu. Bardin, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Climate Change and Oceans

Esther Ya. Rankova, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Mikhail Yu. Bardin, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Climate Change, Glaciers, and Ice Sheets

Esther Ya. Rankova, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Mikhail Yu. Bardin, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Climate Change and Permafrost

Esther Ya. Rankova, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Mikhail Yu. Bardin, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Climatological Extremes

Esther Ya. Rankova, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

Mikhail Yu. Bardin, Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Russia

10. Greenhouse Gases, Aerosols and Ozone Layer

Igor L. Karol, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Carbon Dioxide

Igor L. Karol, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Methane

Igor L. Karol, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Andrey A. Kiselev, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Halocarbons

Igor L. Karol, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Andrey A. Kiselev, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Nitrous Oxide

Igor L. Karol, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Andrey A. Kiselev, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Tropospheric Ozone and Related Trace Gases

Igor L. Karol, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Andrey A. Kiselev, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Physics of Aerosols and Their Effect on Climate

Igor L. Karol, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Andrey A. Kiselev, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Reduction of the Ozone Layer

Igor L. Karol, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

Andrey A. Kiselev, Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia

11. Response of Climate System to Changes in Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

Henry G. Hengeveld, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, Canada

Radiative Forcing of Climate System

Henry G. Hengeveld, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, Canada

Processes and Modeling

Henry G. Hengeveld, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, Canada

Validation of Climate Models

Henry G. Hengeveld, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, Canada

Equilibrium Climate Change

Henry G. Hengeveld, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, Canada

Time-Dependent Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

Henry G. Hengeveld, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, Canada

Detection of Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

Henry G. Hengeveld, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, Canada

Climate Projections (Future Climate)

Henry G. Hengeveld, Atmospheric Environment Service, Environment Canada, Canada