Ships and Offshore Structures

Edited by : Jeom Kee Paik,

Director of Ship and Offshore Structural Mechanics Laboratory Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Pusan National University 30 Jangjeon-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan, Korea.

International Editorial Advisory Board (IEAB):

Weicheng Cui,


Paul A. Frieze,

PAFA Consulting, UK

Yoshiaki Kodama,

National Maritime Research Institute, Japan

David Molyneux,

Memorical University of Newfoundland, Canada and Prof. P. Wilson, University of Southampton, UK

Anil K. Thayamballi,

Chevron Shipping Company,  USA

P.A. Wilson,


Seung K. Park,

Samsung Heavy Industries, Korea

Ge (George) Wang,

American Bureau of Shipping, USA

Ships and Offshore Structures

1. The Ocean Environment and Phenomena ,

Prof. P. Wilson, University of Southampton, UK

1.1. Importance of the ocean to human economic life: trade routes; fish; mineral resources protection
1.2. The world's waterways
1.3. Properties: fresh water; salt water; air
1.4. Ports, harbors and inland waterways
1.5. Winds, tides and currents
1.6. Wind driven waves: capillary; gravity; sea states; spectra
1.7. Snow and icing
1.8. Air and sea temperatures
1.9. Marine growth
1.10. Tank sloshing
1.11. Bow slamming
1.12. Green water
1.13. Tsunamis and shallow water waves
1.14. Design basis environmental conditions

2. Design Principles, Criteria, and Regulations,

Anil K. Thayamballi, Chevron Shipping Company, USA

2.1. Structural design principles: fundamental
2.2. Criteria for structural design and strength assessment
2.3. Design format: deterministic; partial safety factor; probabilistic
2.4. Design principles for propulsion
2.5. Design principles for resistance
2.6. Design principles for stability
2.7. Design principles for station-keeping
2.8. Design principles for motions and maneuverability
2.9. Design principles for health, safety, and the environment
2.10. Regulations, international standards, and recommended practices: ships; offshore structures

3. Ship Hydrodynamics - Physical Phenomena and Theories,

Yoshiaki Kodama, National Maritime Research Institute, Japan

3.1. Resistance and Propulsion
3.1.1. Introduction
3.1.2. Conservation Laws Mass Conservation Momentum Conservations
3.1.3. Potential Flow Velocity Potential Bernoulli's Theorem Source and Doublet Vorticity and Circulation Vortex Filament Circulation and Lift Kutta Condition
3.1.4. Boundary Layer Boundary Layer Equations Boundary Layer Thicknesses 1/7 Power Law
3.1.5. Propeller Flow Actuator Disk Induced Drag Propeller Theories Propeller Open-Water Test (POT) Hull-Propeller-Rudder Interactions Cavitation
3.1.6. Free-Surface Waves Linearized Free Surface Condition 2D Progressive Waves Group Velocity Wave Energy Wave-Making Drag Kelvin Waves
3.1.7. Estimation of Full-Scale Drag Method 1: Froude's Hypothesis Method 2: Form Factor Method
3.1.8. CFD Incompressible Flow Solvers Grids and Boundary Conditions Finite Volume Discretization Upwinding Turbulence Modeling Free Surface Treatment User's Guide to CFD
3.2. Maneuverability
3.2.1. Preface
3.2.2. Principle of Steering
3.2.3. Basic equation of ship steering motion Virtual Masses and Virtual Moment of Inertial The characteristics of X,Y,N Forces and moment due to the hull Forces and moment due to the propeller Rudder force and Moment The estimation and utilization of the equations
3.2.4. Response to Rudder Steering Equation of response to rudder steering Indices of Ship Maneuverability Index of turning ability Index of course keeping stability Simplified equation of response; 1st order equation of response Zig-zag test and application of the 1st order equation of response Unstable ships in course stability
3.2.5. Navigation and Maneuverability Auto pilot system Application of control theory to auto-pilot system
3.2.6. Safety and Maneuverability Human factor and ship handling simulator Maneuverability of VLCC Automatic Navigation System and Traffic Control
3.2.7. Maneuverability in Ship Design Design routine and Application of Numerical Simulation Flow field and hydrodynamic aspect of maneuverability
3.2.8. Closing Remarks

4. Ship Design and Building,

Seung K. Park, Samsung Heavy Industries, Korea

4.1. Types of Ships
4.1.1. Types of Ships and Their Trends
4.1.2. Bulk Carrier Hold Shape
4.1.3. Cargo Oil Tank Fill / Discharge, Inerting, Breathing
4.1.4. Principle of Pressure/Vacuum Breather Valve
4.1.5. Container Design
4.1.6. Specialty of Car Carriers
4.1.7. Car Deck-Stowing and Ramp Slope Study
4.1.8. LNG Tank Types
4.2. Requirements
4.2.1. Owner Requirements
4.3. Ship Design Process
4.3.1. Preface
4.3.2. Basic Naval Architectural Knowledge
4.3.3. Stability
4.3.4. Design Process Basic
4.3.5. Main Dimensions
4.3.6. Tonnage and Loading Capacity
4.3.7. Block Coefficient
4.3.8. Simpson's Rule
4.3.9. Lines
4.4. Structure and Layout
4.4.1. Structural Characteristics
4.4.2. Applied Typical Section
4.4.3. Longitudinal Strength Requirement
4.4.4. Midship Section Design Example
4.4.5. Frame Work of General Arrangement
4.4.6. Vibration
4.4.7. Equipment
4.4.8. Model Test
4.4.9. Propeller
4.4.10. Electrical Power Generators
4.4.11. Electrical Load Sheet
4.4.12. Engine Auxiliaries
4.4.13. Engine Room Layout
4.4.14. Accommodation Requirements and Arrangement Model
4.4.15. Cargo Stowage
4.4.16. Cargo-Handling Equipment
4.4.17. Hatch Opening
4.4.18. Container Loading
4.4.19. Cargo Pumping Systems
4.4.20. Mooring and Equipment Number
4.4.21. Shore Mooring
4.4.22. Life Boat and Ship-Side Accommodation Ladder
4.4.23. Rudder
4.4.24. Maneuvering
4.4.25. Masts and Deck Lights
4.4.26. Electrical Power and Instrumentation
4.4.27. Automation and Communication
4.4.28. Shipbuilding Materials
4.5. Shipbuilding Process
4.5.1. Preface
4.5.2. Conventional Shipbuilding Method
4.5.3. Block Division Philosophy
4.5.4. Completeness of Block Fabrication
4.5.5. Panel Block and Curved Block
4.5.6. Transporter
4.5.7. Dock Erection and Launching
4.5.8. Novel Methods
4.6. Shipbuilding Methods/Techniques
4.6.1. General
4.6.2. Major Welding Applications
4.6.3. Welding Positions
4.6.4. Heat Treatment
4.6.5. Defects
4.6.6. Welding Inspection and Tests
4.6.7. Methods of Reducing Welding Work
4.6.8. Special Welds and Difficult Welds
4.6.9. Block Assembly
4.6.10. Curved Block Assembly
4.6.11. Economy of Block Assembly
4.7. Production and Manufacturing
4.7.1. Computer Aided Design (CAD)
4.7.2. Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAM)
4.7.3. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)
4.8. Cost Estimation
4.8.1. Cost Estimation
4.8.2. Other Important Consideration
4.8.3. Demonstration
4.9. Shipbuilding Yards
4.9.1. Geographical Conditions and Shipyard Layout
4.9.2. Principles of Layout
4.9.3. Dock Gate and Launching Procedure
4.9.4. Movable Shelter Combination with Dock Crane
4.9.5. Ship-Yard Operation and Schedule Management

5. Offshore Design and Building,

Paul A. Frieze, PAFA Consulting, UK

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Types of Offshore Structures
5.2.1. Overview
5.2.2. Jacket
5.2.3. Tower
5.2.4. Jack-Up
5.2.5. Compliant Tower
5.2.6. Gravity Structure
5.2.7. Monotower
5.2.8. Monohull
5.2.9. Semi-Submersible
5.2.10. Tension Leg Platform (TLP)
5.2.11. Spar
5.3. Functional Requirements
5.3.1. Introduction
5.3.2. Jacket
5.3.3. Tower
5.3.4. Jack-Up
5.3.5. Compliant Tower
5.3.6. Gravity Structure
5.3.7. Monotower
5.3.8. Monohull
5.3.9. Semi-Submersible
5.3.10. Tension Leg Platform (TLP)
5.3.11. Spar
5.4. Fundamental Design Requirements
5.4.1. General
5.4.2. Durability, Maintenance and Inspection
5.4.3. Service Requirements
5.4.4. Operating Requirements
5.4.5. Special Requirements
5.4.6. Location and Orientation
5.4.7. Structural Configuration
5.5. Meteorological and Oceanographical Information
5.5.1. General
5.5.2. Water depth, tides and storm surges
5.5.3. Wind
5.5.4. Waves
5.5.5. Current
5.5.6. Marine Growth
5.5.7. Tsunamis
5.5.8. Sea Ice and Icebergs
5.5.9. Ice and Snow Accretion
5.6. Geotechnical Information
5.6.1. General
5.6.2. Seabed Surveys or Shallow Geophysical Investigation
5.6.3. Geological Modeling and Identification of Hazards
5.6.4. Geological Investigation
5.6.5. Identification and Classification of Soils and Rocks
5.6.6. Geotechnical Reporting
5.7. In-Service and Temporary Design Situations
5.7.1. General
5.7.2. Fabrication
5.7.3. Weight
5.7.4. Load-out
5.7.5. Sea Transport
5.7.6. Offshore Installation
5.7.7. Topsides Installation
5.7.8. Hook-Up
5.7.9. Commissioning
5.7.10. In-Service
5.7.11. Decommissioning and Removal
5.8. Loading Categories
5.8.1. Introduction
5.8.2. Normal Operational Loadings
5.8.3. Accidental and Abnormal Loadings
5.9. Loading Combinations
5.9.1. Introduction
5.9.2. Load Combinations per Phase
5.9.3. In-Service Load Combinations
5.9.4. Working Stress Design v Limit State Design
5.10. Structural Analysis
5.10.1. FEA Analysis
5.10.2. Modeling for FEA
5.10.3. FEA Output
5.11. Materials and Welding
5.11.1. Material Properties
5.11.2. Effects of Welding
5.11.3. Reducing the Effects of Welding
5.11.4. Weld Design
5.12. Topsides Design
5.12.1. Main Structure
5.12.2. Topsides Substructure and Main Structural Components
5.12.3. Design Standards
5.12.4. Special Design Issues
5.13. Jacket Design
5.13.1. Primary Structure
5.13.2. Secondary Structure
5.13.3. Special Design Issues
5.14. Piling and Foundation Design
5.14.1. Pile and Piling Basics
5.14.2. Detailed Pile Behavior and Design
5.14.3. Pile Driving Design
5.14.4. Mudmats and Shallow Foundations
5.15. Introduction to Corrosion Protection
5.15.1. Methods of Corrosion Protection
5.15.2. Levels of Corrosion Protection

6. Operation and Decommissioning,

G Wang, American Bureau of Shipping, USA

6.1. Navigation and logistics: ships; offshore structures
6.2. Inspection and maintenance: ships; offshore structures
6.3. Condition assessment (health monitoring): age-related deterioration (corrosion, fatigue cracking); residual strength of damaged structures ...
6.4. Decommissioning for ships
6.5. Decommissioning for offshore structures